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t' Hi'i'r JDi^tlis hjl.lil^ItcJ the Moh, I -!;-., 

■*• '; 




Jesuits in North America 

in the 

Seventeenth Century 

[France and England in North America 
Part Second ^ 




Volume Two 





Entered aorording to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, 

By Francis Parkman, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District 
of Massachusetts. 

By Grace P. Coikin and Katherine i^^^. Coolioge. 

Copyright, iSgy, 
By LiTTLi:, Brown, and Company. 

Alt rights reserve J. 




•,'- 'V, 

John Wilson and Son, Camuriuge. U.S. A. 


ear 1867, 
le District 




1 030- 1642. 


S. A. 

D.inversK're ami tlio Voice from Heaven. — AUM Olior. — 
Their Schemes. — The Society of Notre-Dame de Mont- 
real. — Mai.soniicMive. — Devout Ladies. — Mademoiselle 
.Mance. — Marnucrito Bom-guoys. — The Moutrealist.-* at 
Quebop. — Joalousv. — Quarrels. — Roiuanco aud Devotion. 

— Eniharkatiou. — Foundation of Montreal 3 



The Iroiiuuis War. — Joguea : Ids Capture; his Journey to the 
Midiawks— Lake (ieorge. — Tiie Mohawk Towns. — The 
Missionary tortured, — Death of Goupil. — Mi.sery of Jogues. 

— The Mohawk " Babylon." — Fort Orange. — Escape of 
Joguos. — Manhattan. — The Voyage to France. — Jogues 
among his Brethren ; he returns to Canada 27 



War. — Distress and Terror. — Richelieu. — Battle. — Ruin of 
Indian Tribes. — Mutual Destruction. — Iroquois and Algon- 
quin. — Atrocities. — Friglitful i'osition of the French. — 
Joseph Bressani : his Capture ; his Treatment ; his Escape. 

— Anne de NouG : his Nocturnal Journey ; his Death ... 57 




Iiifiincy of Moiitroal — Tlic Flood. — Vow of Miiisoniicuve. 
l'il;;iiiMii<,'o. — D'AillohouHt. — Tho IIotol-Dicii. — I'ioty. 
l'n)])iii;iimlism. — War. — Iliirnns and InKnioi.s. ~ Doj^s. 
Sally u£ tho Froucli. — Hattlo. — Ivxpluit uf MaiHoi.ueuvo 



1644, 1045. 


Iro(nioi.s rrisoner."*. — I'isknrct; liis Exploits. — ^foro Prls- 
oner.s. — Inxpiois ICiuhassy. — Tho Orator. — The Great 
rouncil. — Sj)oeche.s of Kiotsaton. — Muster of Savages. — 
I'eaco couflrineil 95 

1645, 1646. 


riH'i'rtiiiiitics. — The Mission of Jogue.s : he reaches tho Mo- 
hawtis; liis H(H'oi)tion ; his Return; his Second Mission. — 
Warniiiffs of Danircr. — IJago of tho Mohawks. — Murder 
of .fo;:;ues .... 



1646, 1647. 


Mohawk Inroads. — The Hunters of Men. — The Captive Con- 
verts, — Tiie Escape of Marie: iier Story. — Tlio Algon- 
quin Prisoner's liovenge: lior Flight. — Terror of the Colon- 
ists. — .Jesuit Intrciudity 126 






MiH,.„i,. — Tndoussac. — J.Miiii.-ys of I)., (iiicii — Drnillntos: his 
Winter witli th.. Monta^'iiui.s. — lulliuucr ,,1 il„! Missions. 

— Tho AlKMiiikis.— Drnilletcs on tiio KonnrlM-c: his I'm- 
I)!i.ssy t(. Boston, — (iiM„,ns. - Dn.licy. — Uriidfonl. — Kllot. 

— ICnilicott. — Fronch and I'lirilan ('MinMizMlioii. — Faihir.' of 
DruillotosH Knil>asHy. — New J:(-(ilatinns. — New- Year s 1 ):iy 

at t^ueboc I'i7 



Indian Infatuation. — Tro-inolH and Huron. — Huron TriuMipIi.^. 
— Tho Captive Iruipiois : his Ferocity and Fortitude.— 
Partisan Exploits. — Diplomacy. — '11,',, And.istes. _ ri,o 
Huron— \ew .Xe^rotiati ms. — Tlio lro(piois Am- 
ba.s,sador: lug Suicide. — Iro(piois Honor 15; 



THK niJHON cinncii, 
Hopes of the Mi.ssion. — ri,ristian and Heailien. -Pody and 
Soul. — Position of I'roselyto.s. — The Hnro.. Girl's Vi.sit t,. 
Heaven.- A Oisis.- Huron Justice. - Murder and Atone- 
ment, — Hopes .iiid I'cars ^~. 

lfi4S, 1G40. 


The Centre of the Mis.sion.s. —Fort. — Convent. — Hosi.itnl. — 
Caravansary. -Church. — The Inmates of Sainte :\rarie! — 
Domestic Economy. — Missions. — A Meetinrj of Jesuits.— 
The Dead Missionarv ... 





antoink kanikl. 


Hiinin TradtTM. — Haftlo at 'I'lnci' UivcrH. — St. .TdHopli. — (^n- 

Hulol' llio Iruijuoirt. — I)(ai li <>i Daiiirl. — 'I'lio Town dt'StrDvt'il l'.»7 



St. TiOuis on Firi). — Iiivasioii. — St. Ij^iiai-i' caiitiiriMl. — Bn'hfiif 
and F,al('maiit. — Hiittli; at St. Lmii.H. — Sainlc Mari(! Ilircal- 
ened. — Uciioweil Kij^lilinj;. — Dcsiioratc ('oiitlict. — A Nij;lit 
of SuHpeiisn. — I'aiiic ainoiij^ tliu N'ictors. — Biiriiiiif; of St. 
Igiiaco. — H(!troat of tho Iro(|U()U 202 



rm; maiitviis. 

The Huins of St. I^iiaco. — Tlio Holies found. — Hrc'lionf at tlio 
Stake: \m Unfoinincraldt! rortitude. — Lalcniaiit. — licnc- 
pado Ilurons. — Inwinoi.s Atrocities. — Dealii of Hri'lx'uf : 
his Character. — Deatli of I.alcMnant 211 

1649, 1650. 


Dispersion f>f the TTuroiis — Sainte Mario ahandonod. — Isle St. 
.losepli. — Hemovnl of the Ali.ssion. — The Xew Tort. — 
Misery of the Ilurons. — Famine. — Epidemic — Eniploy- 
nieuts of tho Jesuits 218 



Tho Tohacpo Missions. — St. .Tenn .attaoked. — Death of Oarnier. 
— Tlie .Tourney of Ciialianel : liis ]')e;ith. — flurreau and 
Crelou 22'^ 

CON rKNT.s. i,^ 

cnAi'Ti;i{ wxi. 

TlIK lllltnv MH>.|(.N ,Vll\>r)OM.l). 

Runino an.I tl.o Tn„,,h,iwk, - A NV.v AmI,,.... - V..v„ f ,|.,''^''" 

IJHii...... to (,H...|,or. _ MrotiMK with lin...;,„i._:i"..,„.,.,„. 

rmr.xnrui tl.u Irn,,„ol.i. -Inrua.irt ai.,| |{;iitk..s. - l),,ui, „f 

riiAP'ri:i{ \x.\ir. 


Tin: i.AXT Di' tin: in imnh. 

r.itoof the Vai.,|uishod.-Tho l{(.fu^.,,os „f St, Joat, na,„Mo 
an, St.,ar..o Natim. an,! its WaixlJin^rH 
— ni(i Modern WyaiidutH.-'rho IJiior Hit. — 'll,,. ii„r,,„.^ 
atQuehec. — Xotre-Djiiiiu .h- Lurctto " ,^^,J 

CIIAI'IKIJ xxxiir. 


Tin: i'i:sri;(ivi;i{>*. 

Iro,,noi. AmhitioM.-[„ Vi.,i„H. - Th. F:, f „,. y.^trnU 

- Iho I.atr, of tho Krirs. -Th.. War with ll„. A-nlastoH _ 
Nuproinacy of l\u> Iroijuois ' ,r 

Tin: i;\i), 

t.ip .(osmts. — Whal thoir Siuvo^s would havo in- 
>oIvc(l.- Future of the Mission .... 272 

I>^I)EX .... 




Father Jocues iiARAxorKS riii; JMouawks .... Fruiifispicce 
Photof/raniird hi/ Gniipil and Co., Paris, from a draw 
iiuj 1)1/ Thule de Thulstrup 

Jean Jacqlm-s Oi.iEit p„„^ . 

Front tlia oriijimd painting in the Seminary St. Sii/pirc, 

I'lusT Mass at Montr i; at o, 

)i •■■■ 

From the Ims-re/ief on the Maisc.imurr M<,inim(nt in (hr 
Place d'Armcs, Montreal, hij Philippe Ilchrrt. 

Battle of Fort St. Louis 205 

From a drawing hy Thule de Thulstrup. 

The Jksiit Martyrs 212 

From an en;/ravin>i by (.Wfjoire Pluret in " Ifistoria 
Canadensis sev Xohb Francioi Libri iJecem." 








TiiEiK SciiKMEs. — Tin; Sociirrv of Notke-Dame de Mont- 
heal. — MAisoxxEirvE. — Devoit Ladies. — Mademoiselle 
Mance. — Makgieuite Bourgeoys. — Thk Montreai.ists at 
Quebec. — Jealousy. — Quahuels. — Homa.nce and Dkvotion. 
— Emuarkation. — Foundation of Montreal. 

We coine now to an enterprise as singular in its 
character as it proved important in its results. 

At La Fleche, in Anjou, dwelt one Jdrome le 
Royer de la Dauversiere, receiver of taxes. His por- 
trait shows us a round, hourgeois face, somewhat 
heavy perhaps, decorated with a slight moustache, 
and redeemed hj bright and earnest eyes. On liis 
head he wears a black skull-cap; and over his ample 
shoulders spreads a stiff wliite collar, of wide expanse 
and studious plainness. Tliougli lie ])elonged to the 
noUcssc, his look is that of a grave burgher, of good 
renown and sage deportment. Dauversiere was, how- 



ever, an entliusiastic devotee, of mystical tendencies, 
wlio whipped iiiiuself with a scourge of sinall chains 
till his shouklers were one wound, wore a belt with 
more tlian twelve hundred sliarp points, and invented 
for liimself other torments, whieli lilk'd his confessor 
with admiration.^ One day, while at his devotions, 
he heard an inward voice connnandint^^ him to become 
the founder of a new Order of hospital nuns; and 
he was further ordered to establish, on the island 
called iNIontreal, in Canada, a hospital, or Ilotel- 
Dieu, to l)e conducted by these nuns. But ^Nlont- 
real was a wilderness, and the hospital would 
have no patients. Therefore, in order to supply 
them, the island must first be colonized. Dau- 
versiere was prroatly i)eri)lexed. On the one hand, 
the voice of Heaven nmst be obeyed; on the other, he 
had a wife, six children, and a very moderate fortune. ^ 
Again: there was at Paris a young priest, about 
twenty-eight years of age, — Jean Jacques Olier, 
afterwards widely known as founder of the Seminary 
of St. Sulpice. Judged by his eiigravxMl portrait, his 
countenance, though marked both with energy and 
intellect, was anything but prepossessing. Every 
lineament proclaims the priest. Yet the Al)bd Olier 
has high titles to esteem. He signalized his piety, 
it is true, by the most disgusting exploits of self- 
mortification; but, at the same time, he Avas strenu- 

1 r.ancamp in Faillon, Vie de J/"« Mmice, Intn>thictinn. 

"^ Faillon, Vic de J/"*-' Mance Iiitrodnrtidn ; Dollier de Casson, 
J fist, de Mmitreal, MS.; Lcs VeritaUes Motifs dcs Mtssiturs tt Dames 
de M(jHtrea!,'lo; JuclK-rcau, oo. 



Jt'dH fiirqift's (h'irr 




OUH in Ills cfTorts to rt'fonti tlw [t('(tj)l(> mid the cU'r^^y. 
So zealous was liu for good morals, tliat lie drew 14)011 
hiinst'lf tliu imputation ol" a leaning to the licivsy of 
tin; Jansi'uists, — a suspicion strcngtluMU'd 1)}' liis 
opjjosition to ctTtaiii [iriests, who, to secure' the faith- 
ful in their allegianee, justilied them in lives of 
licentiousness.^ Vet Olier's catholicity was past 
attaintment, and in his horror of .lansenists he 
yielded to the .Jesuits alone. 

He was [)raying in the ancient church of St. Oer- 
main des l*res, when, like Dauversiore, he thought 
he heard a voice from Heaven, saying that he was 
destined to he a light to the (Jentiles. U is recorded 
as a mystic coincidence attending this miracle, that 
the choir was at that very time chanting the words, 
Lumen ad rcvdntioncm Gcntiujn;'^ and it seems to 
have occurred neithei' to Olier nor to his hiogi-apher, 
that, falling on the ear of the iai)t worshipper, they 
might have unconsciously suggested the supposed 
revelati(m. But there was a fm-ther miracle. An 
inward voice told Olier that he was to form a society 
of priests, and estahlish them on the island calle(l 
jNIontreal, in Canada, for the propagation of the True 
Faith; and writers old and rccen*- assert, that, while 
hoth he and Dauvei-siere were totally ignorant of 
("Canadian geography, they suddenly found themselves 
in possession, they knew not how, of the most exact 

1 Faillon, Vie de M. Olier, ii. 188. 

2 Mi'iiioircs Autdf/nijihcs dc M. Olier, cited by Faillon, in Ilistoire 
de la Cnlmtie FrcuK^aise, i. o^l. 


VIMJlMAUIi: 1)K MOXTHKAL. [1030-10. 

(let4iilM coiu't'iiiinj? Montreal, its si/.c, sliaitc, Hitiiu- 
tioii, soil, climate, and piodnctions. 

Tlio annual volumes of (lie Jesuit Ilelntuins^ issu- 
ing from tlu! renowned |)ress of Cianioisy, were at 
this time spread broadcast throughout !•' ranee; and, 
in the circles of luditc dirution^ Canada and its mis- 
sions were cvtM'ywherc the thenu's of enthusiastic; dis- 
cussion; while Chamitlain, in his pidilished works, had 
lon^' before [jointed out Montreal as the propersito for 
ii sc^ttlement. liut we are entering' a region of miracle, 
and it is superlbious to look far for explanations. The 
illusion, ill thests cases, is a part of the history. 

Dauversiere pondered the; revelation \n\ had re- 
ceived; and the more he pondered, the more was he 
convinced that it came from (Jod. lie therefore set 
out for Paris, to find some nieans of accomplishing 
the tiisk assigned him. Ilei-e, as he ])rayed befoi-e an 
image of the Virgin in the church of Notre-Dame, ho 
fell into ail ecstasy, ami beheld a vision. "I should 
be false to the integrity of history," writes his biog- 
rai)her, "if I did not relate it here." And he adds 
that the reality of this celestial favor is ])ast doubt- 
ing, inasmuch as Dauversiere himself told it to his 
daughters. Christ, the Virgin, and St. Joseph a[)- 
peared before him. lie saw them distinctly. Then 
ho heard Christ ask three times of his Vircfin Mother, 
""Where can I find a faithful servant?" On which, 
the Virgin, taking him (Dauversiere) by the hand, 
replied, "See, I^ord, here is that faithful servant!" 
— and Christ, with a benignant smile, received him 



iiit(» Ins Hcivico, proinisinj; to lu'stow on him wisdom 
and strcn^'tli to do liis woik.' From Piiiis lio went 
to tlic nciglihorin^ cli'itcini of M»'ndoii, whirli ovcr- 
lr)oks the Vidlcy of the Seine, not fur from St. (Mond. 
Entering the gaUerv <>f the old eiisth*, he saw ii juiest 
approaeliing him. it was Olier. Now, wo are tnhl 
that neitliei' of these men had ever seen or lieard «if 
tiie other; and 3'et, Ha^'s tht! jtioiis liistoiiaii, "im- 
]M'Ued l)y a kind of inspiration, they knew eaeii otlier 
at onoo, even to the; depths of tiieir hearts; sainted 
each other liy nanu', as we read of St. I'iiui, the Her- 
mit, and St. Antliony, and of St. Dominic; and St. 
Francis; and lan to end)raee each olhei', like two 
friends who had met aft<'r a long sej>aration." - 

" Moiisienr," exclaimed ( )lier," I know yonr design, 
and 1 go tt) eonnneiid it to (lod, at the holy altar." 

And he went at once to say mass in tiie chapel. 
Danversicre received the connnnnioii jit his hands; 
and then they walked for Ihrei; hours in the park. 

(liscnssnifr tiieir 





H'v were 01 one nuiid, m 

r''S[)ect both to objects and means; and when they 
]);irte(l, Olier gave; Danversiei'c a hundred louis, say- 
ing. "This is to begin the work of (Jod." 

They proposed to found at Montreal three religious 
connnnnities, — three ])eing the mystic number, — ono 
of secular priests to direct the colonists and convert 
till' Indians, one of nuns to nnrse the sick, and one 

1 Faillmi, Vi, ,Ir .]/"• M 



xxviii. Tlif Ahl.e 

FiTlaiiil, ill Ids I/istiiirc ihi Caua</,i, passt'S uvtT thu miracles in 

- Iliiil., f.ii L'lilitnlo. Fr(Vir:(iis( , i. .'!!H). 


ville:\iarte de Montreal. 


of nuns to teach the Faith to the chiklren, white and 
red. To ])orrow tlieir own phrases, they would plant 
the banner of Christ in an abode of desolation and a 
haunt of demons ; and to this end a band of priests 
and women were to invade the wilderness, and take 
post between the fangs of the Iroquois. But first 
they must make a colony, and to do so must raise 
money. Olier had pious and wealthy penitents; 
Dauversiere had a friend, the Baron de Fancamp, 
devout as himself and far richer. Anxious for his 
soul, and satisfied that the enterprise was an inspira- 
tion of God, iie was eager to bear part in it. Olier 
soon found three others ; and the six together formed 
the germ of the Society of Notre-Dame de Montreal. 
Among them they raised the sum of seventy-five 
thousand livres, equivalent to about as many dollars 
at the present day.^ 

1 Dollicr de Casson, Histuire de Montreal, MS.; also Belmont, 
Histoire <lu Canada, 2. Juchereau doubles the sum. Faillon agrees 
with DoUier. 

(^n all that relates to the early annals of Montreal a flood of new 
lifflit has been thrown by tlie Abbe Faillon. As a priest of 8t. 
Sulpice, lie had ready aceess to the archives of the Seminaries of 
Montreal and Paris, and to numerous other ecclesiastical deposito- 
ries, wiiicli would have bem closed hopelessly against a layman 
and a heretic. It is impossible to commend too highly the zeal, 
diligence, exactness, and extent of his conscientious researches. 
His credulity is enormous, aiul he is completely in s.ynipathy with 
tlie supernaturalists of whom he writes : in other words, lie i<lenti- 
fies himself with his theme, and is indeed a fragment of the seven- 
teenth century, still extant in the nineteenth, lie is minute to 
prolixity, and abounds in extracts and citations from the ancient 
manuscripts which his labors liave uneartlied. In short, the Abbe 
is a prodigy f;f patience and industry; and if he taxes the patience 






Now to look for a moment at tlieir plan. Their 
eulogists say, and with perfect truth, that from a 
worldly point of view it was mere folly. The part- 
ners mutually l)Ound themselves to seek no return for 
the money exjjended. Their i)rofit was to be reaped 
in the skies; and, indeed, there was none to be 
reaped on earth. Tlie feeble settlement at Quebec 
was at this time in dang-er of utter ruin; for the Iro- 
quois, enraged at the attacks made on them by 
Champlain, had begun a fearful course of retaliation, 
and the very existence of the colony ti'eml)led in tlie 
balance. But if Quebec was exposed to their fero- 
cious inroads, Montreal was incomparal)ly more so. 
A settlement here would be a perilous outpost, — ji 
hand thrust into the jaws of the tiger. It would 
"provoke attack, and lie almost in the path of the 
war-parties. The associates could gain nothing by the 
fur-trade; for they would not be allowed to share in 
it. On the other hand, danger apart, the place was 
an excellent one for a mission; for here met two 
great rivers: the St. Lawrence, with its countless 
tributaries, flowed in from the west, while the Ot- 
tawa descended from the north; and Montreal, em- 
braced by their uniting waters, was the key to a vast 
inland navigation. Thither the Indians would nat- 

of liis rcadors, ho also nnvards it abundantly. Such of his ori^qnal 
authorities as iiave proved accessible are before ine, includiiif,' n. 
considerable number of niainiscripts. Among these, that of Dollier 
de Casson, Ilisluirr dc Mnnlrinl, as cited above, is the nuist impor- 
tant. The copy in my possession was made from the original in 
the Mazarin Library. 






urally resort ; and tlience the missionaries could make 
their way into tlie heart of a boundless heathendom. 
None of the ordinary motives of colonization had part 
in this design. It owed its conception and its birth 
to religious zeal alone. 

The island of Montreal belonged to Lauson, former 
president of the great company of the Hundred Asso- 
ciates ; and, as we have seen, his son had a monopoly 
of fishing in the St. Lawrence. Dauversicre and 
Fancamp, after much diplomacy, succeeded in per- 
suading the elder Lauson to transfer his title to 
them ; and as there was a defect in it, they also ob- 
tained a grant of the island from the Hundred Asso- 
ciates, its original owners, who, however, reserved to 
themselves its western extremity as a site for a fort 
and storehouses.^ At the same time, the younger 
Lauson granted them a right of fishery within two 
leagues of the shores of the island, for which they 
were to make a yearly acknowledgment of ten pounds 
of fish. A confirmation of these grants was obtained 
from the King. Dauversicre and his companions 

1 Donation et Transport de In Concession de I'Isle de ^fontreal /xir 
M. Jean de Lauzon nnx Slnirs Clurrlir de Foiiancanf (Fancamp) et 
le Roijer de la Dorcrsiere, MS. 

Concession d'line Pnrtie de I'Isle de Montreal arrordei par la Com- 
pvgnie de la Nonvelle France au.r Sieurs Cheerier et le Ro;/rr, MS. 

Lettres de Ratification, MS. 

Acte qui prouve (pie les Sieurs Cheerier de Fawanips et Ritjicr dr la 
Dauversiere n'ont stipule qu'an noni de la Conipafpiie de Montreal, MS. 

From copies of other documents before me, it a])pears that in 
1650 tlie reserved portion of the ishind was also ceded to tlie Cinn- 
pany of Montreal. 

See also Edits, Ordonnances Royaux, etc., i. 20-20 ((Juebec, 1H51). 







were now scijncurs of INIontreal. They were empow- 
ered to appoint a governor and to establisli courts, 
from which there was to he an appeal to the Supreme 
Court of Quehec, su})posiiig such to exist. They 
were excluded from the fur-trade, and forhidden to 
huikl castk's or forts other than such as were neces- 
sary for defence against tlie Indians. 

Their title assured, they matured their \)\'Ci\\. First 
they would send out forty men to tidce possession of 
]\h)ntreal, intrencli themselves, and raise crops. Then 
they would huild a house for the priests, and two con- 
vents for the nuns. INleanwhile, Olier was toiling at 
Vaugirard, on the outskirts of Paris, to inaugurate 
the seminary of priests; and Dauversiere at La 
Fleche, to form the conununity of hospital nuns. 
How the school nuns were provided for we shall see 
hereafter. The colony, it ^vill he ohserved, was for 
the convents, not the convents for the colony. 

The Associates needed a soldier-governor to take 
charge of their forty men; and, directed as they sup- 
posed hy Providence, they found one wholly to their 
mind. This was Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Mai- 
sonneuve, a devout and valiant gentleman, who in 
long service among tlie heretics of Holland had kept 
his faith intact, and had held himself resolutely aloof 
from the license that surrounded him. He loved his 
profession of arms, and wished to consecrate his 
sword to the Church. Past all comparison, he is the 
manliest figure that ap})ears in this group of zealots. 
The piety of the design, the miracles that inspired it, 






tlie adventure and tlie peril, all coiiiLined to eliarni 
liim; and he eagerly embi'aced tlie enterprise. His 
father opposed his purpose; Tmt he met him witli a 
text of St. Mark, ''Then; is no man that hath left 
house or brethren or sisters or father for my sake, hut 
he shall receive an hundred-fold." On this the elder 
j\Iaisonneuve, deceived by his own worldliness, ima- 
gined that the plan covered some hidden speculation, 
from which enormous profits were exi)ccted, and 
therefore withdrew his opposition. ^ 

Their scheme was ripening fast, when both Olier 
and Dauversiere were assailed by one of those revul- 
sions of spirit to which saints of the ecstatic school 
are naturally liable. D.uiversiere, in particular, was 
a prey to the extremity of dejection, uncertainty, and 
misgiving. What had he, a family man, to do with 
ventures beyond sea? Was it not his tirst duty to 
support his wife and children? Could he not fulfil 
all his obligations as a Christian by reclaiming the 
wicked and relieving the poor at La Fleche ? Plainly, 
he had doubts that his vocation was genuine. If we 
could raise the curtain of his domestic life, perhaps 
we should find him beset by wife and daughters, tear- 
ful and wrathful, inveighing against his folly, and 
imploring him to provide a support for them before 
squandering his money to plant a convent of nuns in 
a wilderness. How long his fit of dejection lasted 
does not appear; but at length^ he set himself again 

^ Faillou, Tm Colonic Fnmraisc, i. 400. 

2 Ibid., Vic. dc .!/"*' Main-c, fntnxhirtion, xxxv. 


e. His 

1 witli a 
ath loft 
Eike, but 
lie older 
ss, iiiiii- 
d, and 

1 Olior 
: revul- 
11", was 
J, and 
o with 
uty to 
: fulfil 
ig the 
If we 
, toar- 
, and 
ms in 





to his appointed work. Olier, too, emerging from 
the clouds and darkness, found faith once more, and 
again placed himself at tlie head of the great 

There was imperative need of more money; and 
Dauversiere, under jiulicious guidance, was active in 
ohtaininsr it. This miserable victim of illusions had 
a squat, uncourtly figure, and was no proficient in 
the graces eitlior of manners or of speech; hence his 
success in commending his objects to persons of rank 
and wealth is set down as one of the many miracles 
which attended the birth of jMontroal. But zeal an-: 
oarnestness are in themselves a power; and the 
ground had been well marked out and ploughed for 
him in advance. That attractive though intricate 
subject of study, the female mind, has always en- 
gaged the attention of priests, more especially in 
countries whore, as in France, women exert a strong 
social and political influence. The art of kindling 
the flames of zeal, and the more difficult art of direct- 
ing and controlling them, have been themes of reflec- 
tion the most diligent and profound. Accordingly, 
we find that a large proportion of the money raised 
for this enterprise was contributed by devout ladies. 
j\Iany of them became members of the Association of 
]Montreal, which was eventually increased to about 
forty-live persons, chosen for their devotion and their 

1 Faillon ( Vie do. ^f. Olier) devotes twenty-one pages to the his- 
tory of liis tit of nervous depression. 




Olier and liis associates had resolved, though not 
from any collapse of zeal, to postpone the establish- 
ment of the seminary and the college until after a 
settlement should be formed. The hospital, how- 
ever, miglit, they thought, be begun at once; for 
blood and blows would be the assured portion of the 
first settlers. At least, a discreet woman ought to 
embark with the first colonists as their nurse and 
housekeeper. Scarcely was the need recognized 
when it was supplied. 

Mademoiselle Jeanne IMance was born of an honor- 
able family of Nogent-le-Roi, and in 1640 was thirty- 
four years of age. These Canadian heroines began 
their religious experiences early. Of Marie de 1' In- 
carnation we read, that at the age of seven Christ 
appeared to her in a vision ;i and the biographer of 
Mademoiselle Mance assures us, with admiring grav- 
ity, that, at the same tender age, she bound herself 
to God by a vow of perpetual chastity. ^ This singu- 
lar infant in due time became a woman, of a delicate 
constitution, and manners graceful yet dignified. 
Though an earnest devotee, she felt no vocation for 
the cloister; yet, while still "in the world," she led 
the life of a nun. The Jesuit Eelations, and the 
example of Madame de la Peltrie, of whom she had 
heard, inoculated her with the Canadian enthusiasm, 
then so prevalent; and, under the pretence of visit- 
ing relatives, she made a journey to Paris, to take 

1 Casprain, Vie de ^Farie de VTncarnation, 78. 

2 Faillon, Vie dc. J/"« Mance, i. 3. 


lugli not 
[ after a 
il, liow- 
ice ; for 
11 of the 

)Ugllt to 

irse and 

1 lionor- 
3 thirty- 
s began 
de rin- 
I Christ 
ipher of 
ig grav- 
3 singii- 
tion for 
she led 
md the 
she had 
>f visit- 
to take 





counsel of certain priests. Of one thing she was 
assured: the Divine will called her to Canada, but 
to what end she neither knew nor asked to know; for 
she abandoned herself as an atom to be borne to 
unknown destinies on the breath of God. At Paris, 
Father St. Jure, a Jesuit, assured her that her voca- 
tion to Canada was, past doubt, a call from Heaven ; 
while Father Kapin, a Hdcollet, spread abroad the 
fame of her virtues, and introduced her to many 
ladies of rank, wealth, and zeal. Then, well sup- 
plied with money for any pious work to which she 
might be summoned, she journeyed to Rochelle, 
whence ships were to sail for New France. Thus 
far she had been kept in ignorance of the plan with 
regard to Montreal; but now Father La Place, a Jes- 
uit, revealed it to her. On the day after her arrival 
at Rochelle, as she entered the Church of the Jesuits, 
she met Dauversiere coming out. "Then," says her 
biographer, " these two persons, who had never seen 
nor heard of each other, were enlightened supemat- 
urally, whereby their most hidden thoughts were 
mutually made known, as had happened already 
with M. Olier and this same M. de la Dauversiere." ^ 
A long conversation ensued between them; and the 
delio'hts of this hiterview were never effaced from 
the mind of jNIademoiselle Mance. "She used to 
speak of it like a seraph," writes one of her nuns, 

1 Faillon, Vie de M^^*" Marice, i. 18. Here apain the Al)be Fer- 
land, with his usual good sense, tacitly rejects the supornat- 




"and far better than many a learned doctor could 
have done."^ 

She had found lier d(>stiny. The ocean, the wil- 
derness, the solitude, the Iroquois, — nothing daunted 
her. She would go to Montreal with Maisonneuve 
and liis forty men. Yet when the vessel was about 
to sail, a new and sharp misgiving seized her. How 
could she, a woman, not yet bereft of youth or 
charms, live alone in the forest, amor<T a troop of 
soldiers? Her scruples were relieved . two of the 
men, who at the last moment refused to embark 
without their wives, — and by a young woman, who, 
impelled by enthusiasm, escaped from her friends, 
and took passage, in spite of them, in one of the 

All was ready; the ships set sail; but Olier, Dau- 
versiere, and Fancamp remained at home, as did also 
the other Associates, with the exception of Maison- 
neuve and Mademoiselle Mance. In the following 
February, an impressive scene took place in the 
Church of Notre Dame, at Paris. The Associates, 
at this time numbering about forty-five, ^ with Olier 
at their head, assem])led beiore the altar of the Vir- 
gin, and, by a solemn ceremonial, consecrated Mont- 
real to the Holy Family. Henceforth it was to be 
called Villemarie de Montreal,^ — a sacred town, 

1 La Soeur Morin, Annales des Ilospitaliercs de Villemarie, MS. 
cited by Faillon. 

2 Dollior (le Casson, a.t). 1041-42, MS. Vimont says thirty-five. 
8 Vimont, Relation, 1042, 37. Compare Le Clerc, J^tablissement 

de la Foil, ii. 49. 


ir could 

the \vil- 
,s about 
. How 
outh or 
:roop of 
) of the 
n, who, 
of the 

!r, Dau- 
did also 
in the 
le Vir- 
s to be 

arte, MS. 






reared to th(! lionor and under tlie [)atronage of 
Christ, St. Josepli, and the Virgin, to be typilied by 
tliree persons on earth, founders respectively of the 
three destined communities, — Olier, Dauvcrsicre, 
and a maiden of Troyes, Marguerite IJourgeoys: the 
seminary to be consecrated to Christ, the Hotel-Dieu 
to St. Joseph, and the college to the Virgin. 

IJut we are anticipating a little ; for it was several 
years as yet before Marguerite Bourgeoys took an 
active part in the work of Montreal. She was the 
daughter of a respectable tradesman, and was now 
twenty-two years of age. Her portrait has come 
down to us; and her face is a mirror of frankness, 
loyalty, and womanly tenderness. Her qualities 
were those of good sense, conscientiousness, and a 
warm heart. She had known no miracles, ecstasies, 
or trances; and though afterwards, when her religious 
susceptibilities had reached a fuller development, 
a few such are recorded of her, yet even the Abl)d 
Faillon, with the best intentions, can credit her with 
but a meacrre allowance of these celestial favors. 
Though in the midst of visionaries, she distrusted 
the supernatural, and avowed her belief that in His 
government of the world God does not often set aside 
its ordinary laws. Her religion was of the affec- 
tions, and was manifested in an absorbing devotion 
to duty. She had felt no vocation to the cloister, 
but had taken the vow of chastity, and was attached, 
as an exicrne, to the Sisters of the Congregation of 
Troyes, who were fevered with eagerness to go to 

VOL. II. — 2 

M I 




Caniidii. Mai'j^ucrilc, however, was coiitciit to wait 
until thcii' was ii |)ios[)t'i;t tliat she L'ould do l,^oo(1 l)y 
f^oiiit;'; ami it was not till the year Itl.Vi, that, re- 
ii()UiH.'iii<^ an iiiheritanee, and ^ivin,!^' all she had to 
tho poor,' slu! end)arked for the sava,L;'(! scene of her 
lahors. 'J'o this day, in erowded sehool-rooiiis ot 
Montreal and (^Juehec, lit nionunionts of her nnohtru- 
sive virtue, her successors instruct the children of the 
poor, and I'lnhalm the pleasant memory of .Ahirfjucrito 
Boiir^'eoys. In the martial ligure of Ahusonneuvo, 
and thc! fair form of this gentle nun, we tind the true 
heroes of INIontre..'.' 

MaisoniK'Uve, with his forty men and f(mr women, 
reached (^uchec! too latt; to ascend to Montreal that 
season. They encountered distrust, jealousy, and 
opposition. Tlu! a^fents of the Comi)any of the Hun- 
dred Associates h)oked on them askance; and the 
Governor of Quel)ee, Montmagny, saw a 7'ival s'*)"^'" 
ernor in Mais(nuieuve. Every means was used to 
persuade the adventurers to ahandon their project, 
and settle at (^uehec. Montmagny called a council 
of the principal persons of his colony, who gave it as 
their opinion that the new-comers had better exchange 
Montreal for the Island of Orleans, Avhere they would 
he in a position to give and receive succor; while, 
by persisting in their iirst design, they would expose 
themselves to destruction, and be of use to nobody.- 
Maisonneuve, who was present, expressed his surprise 

1 For MarjriU'i'ite llourfrcoj's, see her Life by Fnillon. 
'^ Juchereau, 0:^ ; Faillon, Culonii'. Frangaisc, i. 42o. 


t tit ^vait 
t t^ood liy 

tliat, rc- 
ic had to 
lie (tt" her 
rodiiis oL' 

vvu of tlie 
I the true 

r women, 

treal that 

)iisy, and 

the llun- 

and the 
'ival gov- 

used to 
r project, 
a council 
o'ave it as 
ic}' wouki 
ir; Avliih^ 
id expose 




M. rrisKAi'x. 


tliat thoy slioidd assume to direct his affairs. "I 
liave not come liere," he said, "to delilterate, but to 
act. It is my duty and my lionor to found a colony 
at Montreal ; and 1 would go, if every tree were an 
Ii'ocpiois! " ^ 

At (^ucltee there was littk> al)ility and no inclina- 
tion to shelter the new colonists for the winter; and 
tiiey wouhl have fared ill, but for the generosity of 
M. Puiseaux, who lived not far distant, at a jtlaco 
called St. Cliche). This devout and most liosj)ital)le 
pei-son made room for them all in liis rough but capa- 
cious dwelling. Tlieir neighlxirs were the liospital 
nuns, then living at the mission of Sillery, in a 
substantial but comfortless house of stone; where, 
amidst destitution, sickness, and irrepressible dis- 
gust at the fdth of the savages whom they luid in 
charge, they were laboring day and night with de- 
voted iiosiduity. Among the minor ills which beset 
tlieni were the eccentricities of one of their lay sisters, 
cra/A'd with ndigious enthusiasm, who had the care of 
their poultry and domestic animals, of which she was 
accustomed to inquire, one by one, if they loved 
Go(1: when, not receiving an immediate answer in 
tlic affirmative, she would instantly put them to 
death, telling them that their impiety deserved no 
better fate.^ 

^ La Tour, Memoire de Laval, liv. viii ; Belmont, Ilistoire du 
Canada, 3. 

'•^ Juohcrpau, 4'). A prcat mortification to these excellent nuns 
was the impossihility of keci)iii!;r their wliite dresses cle'in anuinfj 
their Iiulian patients, so that thi'V were forced to dye llieni with 





At St. MiclicI, Miiisoiiiu'uvc cmployi'i-l liis nu'ii in 
building' Ixnits to asct'iid to Montreal, and iii various 
other lal)or.s lor the In-hoot' of tlit^ I'ntiire e()h)ny. 
Thus th(} winter wore away; l)Ut, as celestial minds 
aro not exempt from ire, Montma<^^ny and Maisou- 
neuve fell into a ([uarrel. The twenty-lifth of Janu- 
ary was AFaisonneiive's fi'h' day; and, as ho was 
^nvatly beloved by his followers, they resolved to 
eelebrati! the occasion. Accordin<;ly, an hour and a 
half before daylight, they made a general dischargo 
of their musktfts and cannon. The sound reached 
(^Uifbcc, two or three miles distant, startling tho 
(iovernor from his morning shunbers; and his indig- 
nation was redoubled when he heard it again at 
night, — for Maisonneuve, pleased at the attachment 
of his men, had feasted them and warmed their hearts 
with a distrilmtion of wine. Montmagny, ji'alons of 
his authoi'ity, resented tluise demonstrations as an 
infra(!tion of it, atlirming that they had no right to 
fire their pieces without his consent; and, arresting 
the principal offender, one Jean (lory, he pnt him in 
irons. On being released, a few days after, his com- 
panions welcomed him with great rejoicing, and 
Maisonneuve gave them all a feast. He himself 
came in during the festivity, drank the health of 
the company, shook hands with the late prisoner, 
placed him at the head of the table, and addressed 
him as follow^s: — 

biittorinit juice. They were the Jlospitalieres who had come over 
in im\). 



is iiK'ii ill 
ill various 
v colony. 
Lial iiiinds 
I Miiisoii- 
i of Jiiriu- 
s ho was 
■solved to 
our and a 
I reached 
['tling the 
his indig- 
agaiu at 
leir hearts 
jealous of 
IIS as an 
) right to 
lUt him in 
, his com- 
ing, and 
3 himself 
health of 

come over 




"Jean (Jory, you have been put in irons for me: 
you Inul the pain, and I the alTront. For that, I add 
ten crowns to your wages." Then, tiirning to the 
others: "My l)o>s," he said, "though Jean (Joiy has 
heen misused, yon must not losi; heart for that, hut 
drink, all of you, to the health of the man in 
irons. When we are once at Montreal, we shall he 
our own masters, and can lire onr camion when we 
please. '■ 

Montmagny was wroth when this was repoi'ted to 
liim; and, on the gronnd that what had passed was 
"contrary to the service of the King and the author- 
ity of tla; (Jovernor," he sunnnoned (Jory and six 
others hefore him, and }>ut them separately nnder 
oath. Their evidence failed to establish a case 
against their connnander; but thenceforth there was 
great coldness between the powers of Quebec and 

Karly in May, Maisonnenve and his followers em- 
barked. They had gained an luiexpected recruit 
during the winter, in the pei'son of Madame de la 
Peltrie. The i)iety, the novelty, luid the romance of 
their enterprise, all had their charms for the fair 
enthusiast; and an irresistible impulse — imp ited by 
a slandering historian to the levity of her sex '^ — 
nrged her to share their fortunes. Jler zeal was 
more admired by the Montrealists whom she joined 

1 Duciiincnts Jj/'rcrs, MSS., now or lati-ly in possession of (J. H. 
Faribault, Ksci. ; Fcrlantl, Xvtes trnr Ii'H llnjistrts de N. D. de Quebec. 
2o; Failliin, /.(/ Colonic Fran(;aisp, i. A'A'.). 

'^ La Tour, Memoire de Laval, liv. viii. 




than by the Ursulinos whom she ahandoned. She 
carried off all the furniture she had lent them, and 
left them in the utmost destitution.^ Nor did she 
remain quiet after reaching Montreal, hut was pres- 
ently seized with a longing to visit the Hurons, and 
preach the Faith in person to those benighted 
heathen. It needed all the eloquence of a Jesuit, 
lately returned from that most arduous mission, to 
convince her that the attempt would be as useless as 
rash. 2 

It was the eighth of May when ]Maisonneuve and 
his followers embarked at St. Michel; and as the 
boats, deep-laden with men, arms, and stores, moved 
slowly on their way, the forest, with leaves just open- 
ing in the warmth of spring, lay on their right hand 
and on their left, in a flattering semblance of tran- 
quillity and peace. But behind woody islets, in 
tangled thickets and damp ravines, and in the shade 
and stillness of the columned woods, lurked every- 
where a danger and a terror. 

What shall we say of these adventurers of jNIont- 
real, — of these who bestowed their wealth, and, far 
more, of these who sacrificed their peace and risked 
their lives, on an enterprise at once so romantic and 
so devout? Surrounded as they were with illusions, 
false lights, and false shadows ; breathing an atmos- 
phere of miracle; compassed about with angels and 

^ Charlevoix, Vie de Marie del' Incarnation, 27Q; Casgrain, Vie de 
Marie de I'Tncarnatiun, 838. 

2 St. Thomas, Life of M^adame de la Peltrie, 98. 


(1. She 
em, and 
did she 
'as pres- 
ons, and 
L Jesuit, 
5sion, to 
seless as 

live and 
:l as the 
!, moved 
ist open- 
;]it liand 
of tran- 
slets, in 
he shade 
i every- 




devils; urged with stimulants most powerful, though 
unreal; their minds drugged, .'is it were, to 2)re- 
ternatural excitement, — it is very difllcult to judge 
of them. High merit, without douht, there was in 
some of their numher; hut one may heg to he s[)ared 
the attempt to measure or deline it. To estimate a 
virtue involved in conditions so anomalous demands, 
perhaps, a judgment more than human. 

The Roman Church, sunk in disease and corrup- 
tion when the Reformation began, Avas roused hy 
that fierce trumpet-hlast to jmrge and brace l^.-rself 
anew. Unable to advance, she drew bade to the 
fresher and comparatively purer life of the past; and 
the fervors of medircval Christianity were I'cnewed 
ill the sixteenth century. Tn many of its aspects, 
this enterprise of ^Montreal belonged to the time of 
the lirst Crusades. The spirit of Godfrey de IJouil- 
lon lived again in Chomedey de ]\Iaisonneuve ; and in 
^Marguerite Bourgeoys was realized that fair ideal of 
Christian womanhood, a flower of Eartli expanding 
in the rays of Heaven, which soor'; d with gentle 
influence the wildness of a barbarous acje. 

On the seventeenth of May, 16-42, Maisonneuve's 
little flotilla — a pinnace, aflat-bottomed craft moved 
l)y sails, and two row-boats^ — approached Montreal; 
and all on board raised in unison a hymn of jnaise. 
Montmagny was with them, to deliver tlie island, in 
behalf of the Company of the Hundred Associates, 
to Maisonneuve, represeiitati\'e of the Associates of 

1 DoUicr de Casi^on, \.v. 1041-42, MS. 





Montreal.^ And here, too, was Father Viiiiont, 
Superior of th(^ missions; for the Jesuits had been 
prudently invited to aeeept the spiritual cliaige of 
the young eolony. On the following day, they 
glided along the greeji and solitary shores now 
thronged with the life of a busy city, and landed 
on the spot which Chaniplain, thirty-one years be- 
fore, had chosen as the fit site of a settlement.''^ It 
was a tongue or triangle of land, formed by the junc- 
tion of a rivulet with the St. Lawrence, and known 
afterwards as Point Calliere. The rivulet was bor- 
dered by a meadow, and beyond rose the forest with 
its vanguard of scattered trees. Early spring flowei*s 
were blooming in the young grass, and birds of 
vp.ried plumage fli^ted among the boughs.^ 

Maisonneuve sprang ashore, and fell on his knees. 
His followers imitated his example; and all joined 
their voices in enthusiastic songs of thanksgiving. 
Tents, baggage, arms, and stores were landed. An 
altar was ndsed on a pleasant spot near at hand ; and 
Mademoiselle Mance, with ]\Iadame de la Peltrie, 
aided l)y her servant, Charlotte Barrd, decorated it 
with a taste which was the admiration of the be- 
holders.* Now all the company gathered before the 
shrine. Here stood Vimont, in the rich vestments of 

1 Le Clorc, ii. 50, 51. 

2 " I'ioiK'tTs uf '^'rance," ii. 188. It was the Place Royale of 

3 Dollier de Casson, a.d. 1041-42, MS. 

* Morin, Annahs, MS., {'itod by Faillon, La Colonic Fran^aisc, 
i. 440; also Dollier cle Cas^son, a.d. 1041-42, MS. 


er Vimont, 
ts had been 
I chaige of 
day, they 
■iliores now 
and handed 
i years be- 
3inent.2 It 
y the jimc- 
ind known 
it was bor- 
forest with 
ing flowei-s 
I birds of 


his knees, 
all joined 
^ded. An 
land; and 
a Peltrie, 
corated it 
f the be- 
)efore the 
tnients of 

e Royale of 

■ Fran^aisc, 

The First Mass at Montreal. 



ii I 






his office. Here were the two Indies, with tlieir ser- 
vant; Montmiigiiy, no very willing spectator; and 
Maisonneuve, a warlike iigiire, erect and tall, his 
men clustering around him, —soldiers, sailoi-s, arti- 
sans, and laborers, — all alike soldiers at need. They 
kneeled in reverent silence as the Host was raised 
aloft; and when the rite was over, the priest turned 
and addressed them : — 

" You are a grain of nuistard-seed, tluit shall rise 
and grow till it« branches overshadow the earth. 
You are few, but your work is the work of (Jod. 
His smile is on you, and your children shall lill tlie 

The afternoon waned; the sun sank beliind the 
western forest, and twilight came on. Fircilies were 
twinkling over the darkened meadow. They caught 
them, tied them with threads into shining festoons, 
and hung them before the altar, where the Host re- 
mained exposed. Then they pitched their tents, 
lighted their bivouac fires, stationed their guards, 
and lay down to rest. Such was the birth-night of 

Is this true history, or a romance of Christian chiv- 
alry ? It is both. 

\ I 

^ Dollier de Casson, MS., as above. Vimont, in the JRelation of 
1042, p. 37, briofly nu'iitions the coroniony. 

2 The Associates of Montreal publislied, in 1<!4;>, a tliick pani- 
l)hk't in quarto, entitled Lrs ]'n-itiih/i'S Mutlfs dc Mf ssinirs ct Dames 
tfe Id Soriete de Not re- Dame de Montreal, jioitr la Conn rsian dis 
Saurai/es de la Xouvelle France. It uas written as an answer to as- 
persions cast upon them, apparently by persons attached to the great 




Company of New France known as tlie " Hundred Associates," and 
affords a curious exposition of the spirit of tliiir enterprise. It is 
excessively rare ; but eojiii'S of the essential i)ortioiis are licfori' nie. 
The foUowin}; is a characteristic extract : — 

"Vou8 (lites que I'l'ntreprise di' Montreal est d'line depcnse 
inflnie, plus convenable ii un roi (ju'ii (juelques particuliers, trop 
faihles pour la souteiiir; .(l vons ailcffuez encore li's iK-'rils de la 
navit,'ation & les naufraj^es ([ui peuvent la miner. \'ous avcz niieux 
rencontre quo vous ne pensiez, en disant (jue c'est une o'tivri' de roi, 
puisque le Roi des rois s'en niele, lui U (|ni ohc'issent la nier >.<: les 
vents. Nous ne craij^nons done ])as les naufra,i,fes ; il n'en snscitera 
que lorsque nous en aurons l)esoin, & (|u'il sera jjIus ex])c'dicnt jjoiir 
Ba gloire, que nous cherchons uniqucnunt. ("oumuiit avez-voiis jm 
mettre dans votre esprit (iu'a])])uycs de nos jirojires forces, nous 
oussions prcsunic de penser a un si ^lorieux dcssein / Si Dicu n'l'st 
point dans I'affaire de Montrt'al, si c'est une invention iiumaint', ne 
vous en mettez point en ])eine, elle nt' (hirera {^ui-re. Ci' (|ne vous 
l)re(lisez arrivera, Oi cjuehiuc ciiose de ])ire encore; niais si Dieu I'a 
ainsi voulu, qui eti's-vous ])our lui coiitreilire ? Cetait la reliexion 
que le docteur Gamaliel faisait aux Juifs, en faveur des Ajwtres; 
pour vous, qui ne pouvez ni croi. 2, ni faire, laissez les autres en 
liberie de faire cc qu'ils croient (jue Dieu deniande d'eiix. \'(ius 
assurez qu'il ne se fait ])lus de miracles; mais (jui vous I'a dit '. on 
ccla est-il c'crit ? Jesus-Christ assure, au contraire, (/ne rinr i/ni 
auront <int(tnt de Foi fju'it)} rjrnin de scncrvjfcvdnt, (ii son unm, di s niira- 
c/rs plus fjrands (pif. cfiiir (jn'il fi fiilii ini-meme. Depuis (piand etes- 
vous les directeurs des operations divines, pour les nMuire a cer- 
tains temps & dans la conduite ordinaire ? Taut de saints niouve- 
ments, d'inspirations & de vues intc'rieures, qu'il lui jdait di' donner 
b. quelques anies dont "1 se sert pour ravancenii'iit de celte o uvre, 
sont des marques de son bon plaisir. Jusqu'-ici, il a j)()urvu au 
necessaire; nous ne voulons point d'abondancc, & noi _ esperona 
que sa Providence continuera." 





itis," ainl 
isc. It is 
x't'ori' nic. 

• (l('|icns(' 
Hits, Iri)]) 
''rils di.' Ill 

VCZ lu'H'UX 

vn- ill' roi, 
iiicr t<: Ifs 
n susciti'i'ii 
dii'iit ))()iir 
I'Z-voiis ]m 
»r('t's, ntius 
Dicii n'c'st 

\11111UIH.', IK' 
\' {|IU' VOIIS 

si Dii'ii I'ii 
lii nllrxinii 
•s Ajiotri's; 
s autros I'li 
eux. Vdiis 
I'm (lit '. <>u 
/((' nilX ((III 
III, (I I s nil I'll- 
i|uaiiil C'tc'S- 
'iliiirt.' ii cor- 
iiits iiiouvL'- 
!(.■ (IdiintT 
clti' duvrt', 
])()iirvu ail 
_ fsporons 




'I'm: Ii!<ii,ii<)is W.vH. — JociKs: iiis Caitiui:; in< .ToinvKv to 
Till. .MiiiiAWKs. — LvKK Gkokcii:. — I'm: Muuauk I'owns. — 
TiiK MissioNAHV ToitrrKKn. — Dkath of Goi rii,. — Misr.uY 
OF JouiKs. — Tm; Mohawk "Haisvi.on." — Fort ()uan(;k. — 
EscAi'E OF Jo<;ri:s. — Manhattan. — The VovAiii-; to Fkanci;. 


The waters of the St. Lawrence rolled tliroiicfh a 
virefin wilderness, where, in the vastness of the lonely 
woodlands, civilized man found a precarious harbor- 
age at three points only, — at Quebec, at Montreal, 
and at Three Rivers. Here and in the scattered mis- 
sions was the whole of New France, — a population 
of some three hundred souls in all. And now, over 
these miserable settlements, rose a war-cloud of 
fricjhtful portend 

Itwuo thirty- two years since Champlain had first 
attacked the Iroquois. ^ They had nursed tlieir wrath 
for more than a generation, and at length tlieir hour 
was come. The Dutch traders at Fort Orange, now 

1 See " Pioneers of France," ii. 175. 





Albany, had siipplu'd tlicm wicli firearms. The Mo- 
liawks, tlie most easterly of the Irocjiiois nations, had, 
among their seven or eight hnndred warriors, no less 
than three hundred armed with the arquehuse, a 
weapon somewhat like the niodei'n earbine.^ '^'hey 
were masters of the thunderjjolts which, in tlu; 
hands of Champlain, had struck terror into tlieir 

We have surveyed in the introductory chapter the 
character and organization of this ferocious peo})le, 
— their confederacy of five nations, bound together 
by a peculiar tie of clanship; their chiefs, half hered- 
itary, half elective; tlieir government, an oligarchy 
in form and a democracy in spirit; their minds, thor- 
oughly savage, yet marked here and thei'e with traits 
of a vigorous development. The war which they had 
long waged witli the Ilurons was carried on by the 
Senecas and the other Western nations of their 
league; while the conduct of hostilities against the 
French and tlieir Indian allies in Lower Canada was 
left to the Mohawks. In parties of from ten to a 
hundred or more, they would leave their towns on 
the river Mohawk, descend Lake Champlain and the 
riv^v Richelieu, lie in ambush on the banks of the 

^ Vimont, Relation, 1()4:1, 02. Tlie Mohawks were the Ar/nies, or 
A(jnernno)is, of the old Frencli writers. 

Aecor(lin<>' to the Juunial of Xew Xetherlttnd, a contemporary 
Dutcli (l()C'\iiiient (see Colonial JJonuiKnts of Xew York, i. 171)), the 
Duteli at Fort Oraiifje had sup])lied tlie Mohawks with four hundred 
guns, — the profits of the trade, which was free to the settlers, 
blinding them to tlie danger. 



Kill -12. 

'he Mo- 
lls, luid, 

no less 

Imse, ii 


in tlie 
to their 

pter the 
f hered- 
Is, thor- 
th ti'iiits 
:hey had 
1 hy the 
)f their 
inst the 
ada was 
en to a 
Dwns on 
and the 
s of the 

Arjnies, or 

. 170), the 
ir hundred 
le settlers, 




St. Lawrence, and attack tlie passing hoats or caiioes. 
Sometimes they hovered ahont the fortilicatioiis of 
Quebec and Three Rivers, killing stragglers, or lur- 
ing armed parties into ambuscades. They ft)llowed 
like hounds on the trail of travellei's and huntei-s; 
broke in upon nnguarded camps at midnight; and 
lav in wait, for days and weeks, to intercept llie 
Huron traders on tlieir yearly descent to Quebec 
Had they joined to their ferocious conrage the disci- 
pline and the military knowledge that belong to civ- 
ilization, they could easily have blotted out New 
France from the ma}), and made the banks of the 
St. Lawrence once more a solitnde; bnt thongh the 
most formidable of savages, they were savages 

In the early morning of the second of Augnst, 
l»il'2,^ twelve Hnron canoes were moving slowly 
along the northern shore of the expansion of the St. 
Lawrence known as the Lake of St. Peter. There 
were on board about forty persons, including four 
Frenchmen, one of them being the Jesuit, Isaac 
flogues, whom we have already followed on his mis- 
sionary journey to the towns of the Tobacco Nation. 
In the interval he had not been idle. During the last 
autumn (ItUl) he, with Father Charles Raymbault, 
had passed along the shore of Lake Huron north- 
ward, entered the strait through which Lake Superior 
discharges itself, pushed on as far as the Sault Sainte 
Marie, and preached the F'aith to two thousand Ojib- 

1 For the date, see LakMiiant, Relation clex Tfiimnx, ]f\\7, 18. 

80 ISAAC .I()(;L'KS. [10 ij. 

was and otlicr Alj^oiuiuins tliuro as.soiubk'd.^ Ho 
was nf)W on his return from ii fur iiiorc perilous 
nrriind. 'VUv IIiii-oii mission was in a state of 
destitution. Then; was need of elotliin^^ for the 
l)riests, of vc^ssels for th(^ altars, of l>read and 
wine i'or the eiieharist, of writiii;^ materials, — in 
short, of everythini;'; and early in tlui summer of 
the i)resont year .loonies had deseended to Three 
lUvei's and (^uehec, witli the Huron traders, to 
proeiire the necessary supplies. He had aecom- 
plished his task, and was on his way hack to the 
mission. With him were a few Huron ccmverts, 
and amon<^ them a noted Christian chief, Eustache 
Aliatsistari. Others of the party were in course 
of instruction for baptism ; but the greater part 
were heatlien, whose canoes were deeply h\den with 
the proceeds of their bargains with the French fur- 

Jogues sat in one of the leading canoes. He was 
born at Orleans in 1(507, and was thirty-five years of 
acre. His oval face and the (h^licate mouhl of his 
features indicated a modest, thoughtful, and refined 
nature. He was constitutional!}' timid, with a sensi- 
tive conscience and great religious susceptibilities. 
He was a linished sclK)lar, and might have gained a 
literary re})utation; but he had chosen another career, 
and one for which he seemed but ill fitted. Physi- 
cally, however, he was well matched with his work; 
for, thouF^i his frame was slight, he was so active 

* Lalt'unint, /ul<ttio))s clcs Iluruns, 1042, 97. 


"(l.l \U^ 

) perilous 
state of 
J lor tlio 
rcMicl ami 
•ials, — in 
imnu'r of 
to 'I'll ret! 
uders, to 
(I aecoin- 
:k to tlio 
in course 
'ater part 
idcn \vitli 
encli fnr- 

IIo was 

years of 
lid of his 
d refined 
li a sensi- 
gained a 
er career, 
lis work; 
so active 

in I-.'.] 



that none of the Indians coulil surpass him in run- 


With him wcii' two young mm, Uem^ (iou[)il and 
(iuillaiiiiu' ('((Uturc, iIdhhi'h of the mission, — that is 
to s;i\. hiMiHii who, fidui a religious motive and 
without p:iy, iiad attached themselves to the service 
of liie .h'suits. (loupil liad formerly entered upon 
tlic Jesuit novitiate at I'aris, i)Ut hiiling health had 
oi)liged him to leave it. As soon as lie was ahle, he 
came to Canada, offered his services to the Superior 
of the mission, was em[»loyed for a time in the huni- 
hlest ofliees, and afterwards hecame an attendant at 
the hos])ilal. At length, to his delight, he received per- 
missioii lo go np to the Ilurons, where tiie surgical 
skill which he liad ac(|uire(l was greatly needed; and 
he Wiis now on his way thither.''^ His companion. Cou- 
ture, was a man of inti'lligence and vigor, and of a char- 
acter c([ually disinterested.'' lioth were, like Jogues, 
in the fm-emost canoes; while the fourth Frenchman 
was with the unconverted ilui'ons, in the rear. 

'J'iie twelve canoes had reached the western end of 
the Lake of St. Peter, where it is tilled with innii- 
mcrahle islands."* The forest was close on their 

^ Hiitcux, Xiirn' ih- la Prise dii J'erc Ji)fjHes,Mii,; Memoiretouchant 
li /'('!'( ,/iiiii((s, MS. 

'I'lu'iv is ii ])()rtrait of liim proflxod to Mr. SIr.ji's adminible odi- 
lioii ill (|iiart() of .Tojiiu-'s Xonun Ih liihuii. 

- .Jo;; lies, Sot ire siir J true d'oiijiil. 

•^ Fur ill! accDunt of him, see Ferland, A W.s' siir les Rt(/istres dt 
y. I), de (i>if'h,r,K] (18(1;?). 

* Buteiix, Xarre ,lr la /'rise da Pere J(>;/ues, MS. Tills docu- 
ment leaves no doubt as to the locality. 




ri<rlit; tlioy kept noiir the shore to avoid the current, 
and the shaHow water ])efore them was covered with 
a dense growth of tall bulrushes. Suddenly the 
silence was friglitfully broken. The war-whoop rose 
from among the rushes, mingled with the reports of 
guns and the whistling of bullets; and several Iro- 
quois canoes, filled with warriors, pushed out from 
tlieir concealment, and bore down upon Jogues and 
his companions. The Ilurons in the rear were seized 
with a shameful panic. Tliey leaped ashore ; left 
canoes, baggage, and w( pons, and fled into the 
woods. The French and the Christian Hurons made 
fight for a time; but when tht-y saw another fleet 
of canoes approaching from the opposite shores or 
islands, they lost heart, and those escaped who could. 
(Tc>iipil was seized amid triumphant yells, as were 
also several of the Huron converts. Jogues sprang 
into the bulrushes, aiul might have escaped; but 
when he saw Gouijil and the neophytes in the 
clutches of the Iroquois, he had no heart to abandon 
them, but came out from his hiding-place, and gave 
himself up to the astonished victors. A few of them 
had remained to guard the prisoners; the rest were 
chasing the fugitives. Jogues mastered his agony, 
and began to baptize those of the captive converts 
who needed baptism. 

Couture had eluded pursuit; but when he thought 
of Jogues and of what perhaps awaited him, he re- 
solved to share his fate, and, turning, retraced his 
steps. As he approached, five Iroquois ran forward 


red with 
enly the 
loop rose 
e ports of 
eral Iro- 
out from 
^ues and 
ire seized 
ore ; left 
into the 
ons made 
ther fleet 
shores or 
ho could. 

as were 
es sprang 
ped ; but 
in the 
) abandon 
and gave 
V of them 
rest were 
is agony, 


e thought 
m, he re- 
traced his 
m forward 





to meet him; and one of them snapped his gun at his 
breast, but it missed lii'c. In his confusion and ex- 
citement. Couture fired his own piece, and laid the 
s'lvage dead. The remaining four sprang upon him, 
stripped off all his clothing, tore away his finger-nails 
with their teeth, gnawed his lingers with the fury of 
famished dogs, and thrust a sword through one of 
his hands. Jogues broke fiom liis guards, and, rusli- 
intr to his friend, threw his arms about his neck. The 
Iroquois dragged him away, beat him with their fists 
and war-clubs till he was senseless, and, when he 
revived, lacerated his fmgers with their teeth, as they 
had done those of Couture. Then they turned upon 
(loupi], and treated him with the same ferocity. The 
Huron prisoners were left for the present unharmed. 
]\Iore of them were brought in every moment, till at 
length the number of captives amounted in all to 
twenty-two, while three ITurons had been killed in 
the light and pursuit. The Iroquois, about seventy 
in ninnl)er, now eml)arked with their prey; but not 
until they had knocked on the head an old Huron, 
whom Jogues, wit> his mangled hands, had just bap- 
tized, and who refused to leave the place. Then, 
under a l)urning sun, they crossed to the spot on 
which the town of Sorel now stands, at the mouth of 
the rive.- Richelieu, where they encamped.^ 

^ The above, with mucli of wliat follows!, rosts on tliroo ilocu- 
inents. The first is a lonjr letter, written in Latin, by Jozies, to 
the rather Provineial at Paris. It is date 1 at Kensselaerswyek 
(Albany), Aug. 5, 1G4;), and is preserved in the .SocicUia Jpsu Mill- 
tans of Tanner, and in the Mortes IHustres et Gesta eorum de Socie- 

VOL. II. — 3 




Their course was southward, up the river Riche- 
lieu and Lake Cliauiplaiu; thence, hy way of Lake 
George, to the Mohawk towns. The pain and fever 
of their Avountis, and the ck)uds of moH(][uitoes, which 
they could not drive off, left the prisoners no peace 
by day nor sleCj^^ hy night. On the eighth day, they 
learned that a large Iroquois war-party, on their way 
to Canada, were near at hand; and they soon ap- 
proached tlieir camp, on a small island near the 
southern end of Lake Champlain. The warriors, 
two hundred in number, saluted their victorious 
countrymen with volleys from their guns; then, 
armed with clubs and thorny sticks, ranged them- 
selves in two lines, between which the captives were 
compelled to pass up the side of a rocky hill. On 
tlie way, they were beaten with such fur^ that 
Jogues, who was last in the line, fell powerless, 
drenched in blood and half dead. As the chief man 
among the French captives, he fared the worst. His 
hands were again mangled, and fire applied to his 
body; while the Huron chief, Eustache, was sub- 

tiife Jean, etc., of AU'uanihe. Tliero is a Fronch translation in 
Martin's Brossaiii, and an English translation, by Mr. Sliua, in the 
Neni York III fit. Coll. of 1857. The second document is an old man- 
uscript, entitled Norre de. la Prise chi Pere Jorjues. It was written 
by tlie Jesuit Buteux, from the lips of Jogues. Father Martin, 
S. J., in wiiose eustoily it was, kindly permitted me to have a copy 
made from it. Besides these, here is a long account in the liela- 
tion dvs Ilurons of 1()47, and a briefer one in that of 1(144. All these 
narratives show the strongest internal evidence of truth, and are 
perfectly concurrent. They are also supported by statements of 
escaped Huron prisoners, and by several letters and memoirs of 
the Dutch at Ilensselaerswyck. 


■ Kiche- 
)f l^iike 
1(1 fever 
s, wliicli 
10 peace 
Lay, tliey 
heir way 
,0011 ap- 
pear the 
s ; then, 
ed thcm- 
ives were 
tiilL On 
hw} that 
hief man 
rst. His 
ed to his 
was sub- 

[inslution in 
Ishca, in tlie 
an olil man- 
was written 
hier Martin, 
have a copy 
lin the RcUi- 
AU these 

th, and are 
;atenients of 

memoirs of 





jected to tortnros even more atrocious. When, at 
nii^ht, tlie exhausted sufferers tried to rest, the 
youiii,^ warriors came to lacerate their wounds and 
])iill out their liair and beards. 

In the morning they resumed their journey. And 
now the lake narj'owed to the semblance of a tranquil 
river. liefore them was a woody mountain, close on 
tlu'ir right a I'ocky promontory, and between these 
flowed a stream, the outlet of l^ake (icorge. On 
those rocks, more tlian a hundred years after, rose 
the ramparts of Ticonderoga. Tliey landed, shoul- 
dered theii- canoes and baggage, took their way through 
the woods, [)assed the spot where the iierce High- 
landers and the dauntless regiments (jf England 
breasted in vain the storm of lead and lire, and soon 
readied the shore where Abercroinbie landed and 
Lord Howe fell. First of white men, Jogues and 
his companions gazed on the romantic lake that bears 
the name, not of its gentle discoverer, but of the dull 
Ilanoveiian king. Like a fair Naiad of the wdlder- 
lu'ss, it slumbered between the guardian mountains 
tluit breatlu! from crag and forest the stern poetry of 
war. But all then was solitude; and the claiisr of 
. the roar of cannon, and tlie ( 



of the rille had never as yet awakened their angry 

1 Laki' Georjje, accordinti to Jogues, was called by the Mohawks 
Ai(iliiiliirii(ir, or " IMace wluTe the Lake closes." Andiafnrdt/Hc 
is t'oimil on a map of Sanson. Sijoll'ord, d'axptteer of Xiir >''(//•, 
artii'K- " Lake George," says tliat it was called Canidm'-oli, or 
"Tail ut' the Luke." Father Martin, in his notes on Bressau^ 

• 1 

I i 





Again the canoes were launched, and the wikl 
flotilla glided on its way, — now in the shadow of the 
heights, now on the broad expanse, now among the 
devious channels of the narrows, beset with woody 
islets, where the hot air was redolent of the pine, the 
spruce, and the cedar, — ■ till they neared that tragic 
shore, where, in the following centur}-, New-England 
rustics bafiled the soldiers of Dieskau, where Mont- 
calm planted his batteries, ^\•here the red cross waved 
so long amid the smoke, and where at length the 
summer night was hideous with carnage, and an hon- 
ored name was stained with a memory of blood. ^ 

The Iroquois landed at ov near the future site of 
Fort William Henry, left tlieir canoes, and, with 
their prisoners, began their march for the nearest 
Mohawk town. Each bore his share of the plunder. 
Even Jogues, though his lacerated hands were in a 

prefixes' to this name that of " Ilorieon," but gives no original 

1 have seen an old Latin map on wiiich tlie name " Ilorieoni " is 
set down as belonging to a neigliboring tri])e. Tliis seems to be 
only a misprint for " llorieoui," tliat is, "Iroeoni," or " Inxinois," 
In an old English map, i)retixed to the rare traet, ^1 Treatise of Xeiv 
Jiiii/hind, the " J^ake of Ilieroeoyes " is laid down. The name 
" Horieon," as used by Cooper in his J.ast oj'tlie Muhii-ana, seems to 
have no sutlieient historieal foundation. In 104(5, the lake, as we 
shall see, was named " Lac St. Saerenient." 

^ The allusion is, of course, to the siege of Fort "William Henry 
in 1757, and the ensuing massacre by ^Montcalm's Indians. Cliarle- 
voix, with his usual carelessness, s'lys that Jogues's captors took a 
circuitous route to avoid enemies. In truth, however, they were 
not in the slightest danger of meeting an}-; and they followed the 
route which before the i)resent century was the great higliway 
between Canada and New Holland, or New York. 





[le wild 
^v of the 
oiig the 
I Avoody 
)ine, the 
it tragic 
•e ]\I()nt- 
3s waved 
iigth the 
I an hon- 
od.i . 
•e site of 
nd, with 
e nearest 
were in a 


no origin 

loriconi' is 

si'ems to 1)0 

" Irociuois." 

■atlsf ofXew 

Tho name 

us, socms to 

lake, as we 

lUiam llonry 
ns. ("harle- 
ptors took a 
r, tliey were 
followed the 
at highway 

frightful condition and liis hody covered witli l)ruisos, 
was forced to stagger on with the rt^st under a lieavy 
load. He with his fellow-prisoiuTs, and indeed the 
whole party, were half starved, sn])sisting cliielly on 
wild herries. They cri)ssed tin' upper Hudson, and 
in tliirteen days after leaving the St. Lawrence neared 
the wretched goal of their pilgrimage, — a palisade(l 
town, standing on a hill l)y the baidcs of the river 

The whoops of the victors announced their ap- 
proach, and the savage hive sent forth its swarms. 
They thronged tiie side of the hill, the old and the 
j-oung, each Avitli a stick, or a slender iron rod, 
])0ught from the Dutchmen on the Hudson. Tliey 
ranged themselves in a doul)le line, reaching upward 
to the entrance of the town; and through this "nar- 
row road of Paradise," as Jogues calls it, the cap- 
tives were led in single file, — Couture in front, 
after him a half-score of Hurons, then (TOUj)ii, tlien 
the remaining Hurons, and at last Joguc'.. As they 
passed, they were saluted witli yells, screeches, and 
a tempest of blows. One, lieavier than the others, 
knocked Jogucs's hreath from his body, and stretched 
him on the ground; but it Avas death to lie there, 
and, regaining his feet, he staggered on with the 
rest.^ When they reached the town, the blows 
ceased, and they were all placed on a scaffold, or 

^ This practice of forcinjf prisoners to "run tlic trantlct" was 
by no means peculiar to the Iroquois, but was coinnion to many 




high phitfonii, in the middle of tlie place. The 
three Frenchmeii had fared the worst, and were 
frightfully dishgiire(h Cioupil, espeoially, was stream- 
ing with hlood, and livid with bruises fi'om head to 

They were allowed a few minutes to recover their 
breath, undisturbed, exce2)t by the hootings and gibes 
of the mob below. Then a chief called out, ""t'ome, 
let us caress these Frenchmen!" — and the crowd, 
knife in hand, began to mount the scaffold. They 
ordered a Christian Algonquin woman, a prisoner 
among them, to cut off .logues's left thumb, which 
she did; and a thumb of (ioupil was also severed, a 
clam-shell being used as the instrument, in order to 
increase the pain. It is needless to specify further 
the tortures to which they were subjecied, all de- 
signed to cause the greatest possible suffering Mith- 
out endangering life. At night, they were removed, 
from the scaffold and jjlaced in one of the houses, 
each stretched on his back, with his limbs extended, 
and his ankles and wrists ])ound fast to stakes driven 
into the earthen floor. The children now })rotited by 
the examples of their parents, and amused themselves 
by placing live coals and red-hot ashes on the naked 
bodies of the prisoners, who, bound fast, and covered 
with wounds and bruises which made every move- 
ment a torture, were sometimes unable to shake them 

In the morning, they were again placed on the 
scaffold, where, during this and the two following 




ead to 

r llieir 
I giln's 

iris oner 
ered, a 
)r(ler to 
all (le- 
(V with- 
; driven 
fited by 


vc them 

on the 




days, tliey remained exposed to the i;mnts of tho 
crowd. Then they were led in triumph to the sec- 
ond Mohawk town, and afterwards to the third,^ suf- 
fering at each a repetition of cruelties, the detail of 
which would be as monotonous as revolting. 

In a house in the town of Teonont( )gen, Jogues 
was hung by the wrists between two of the upright 
poles which supported the structure, in such a man- 
ner that his feet could not touch the ground; and 
thus he remained for some fifteen minutes, in extreme 
torture, until, as lie ^vas on the point of swooning, 
an Indian, with an impulse of pity, cut the cords and 
released him. While they were in this town, four 
fresh Huron prisoners, just taken, were brought in, 
and placed on the scaffold with the rest. Jogues, in 
the midst of his pain and exhaustion, tf)ok the oppor- 
tunity to convert them. An ear of green corn was 
thrown to him for food, and he discovered a few rain- 
drops clinging to the husks. With these he l)aptized 
two of the Ilurons. The remaining two received 
bu|)tism soon after from a brook which the prisoner 
crossed on the way to another town. 

Couture, though he had incensed the Indians by 

^ Tlie Mohawks had Init throe towns. The first, rnd tlie lowest 
on the river, was Ossenieiion ; the secoinl, two inil.s above, was 
Anda^aron; and tlie thinl, Teonontoj^en : or, as Mt'^apoiensis, in 
his Sketch of the .]fijh(>irk!i, writes the names, Asscrne, Haiiajjiro, and 
Thenondiogo. They all seem to have heen fortified in the Iroquois 
manner, and their united population was tliirty-five hundred, or 
soHiewliat more. At a later ])eriod, 17'Jt), there were still tliree 
towns, named respectively Teahtontaio^a,. Ganowauga, and Gane 
ganaga. See the map in Morgan, Leatjue of the Iroquois. 





killing one of their warriors, liad trained their iulnii- 
ratiou by his bravery; and, after torturing liini most 
savagely, they adopted him into one of their families, 
in place of a dead relative. Thenceforth he was com- 
paratively safe. -logues and Gonpil were less for- 
tunate. Three of the Ilurons had been burned to 
death, and they expected to share tlieir fate. A 
conncil was held to pronounce their doom; but dis- 
sensions ai'ose, and no result was reached. They 
were led back to the first village, where they re- 
mained, racked with suspense and half dead A\ith 
exh.iustion. .fogues, however, lost no opportunity 
to baptize dying iiifantvS, while Goupil taught chil- 
d^*^ 1 to mak^' the sign of the cross. On one occa- 
sion, he made the sign on the forehead of a child, 
grandson of an Indian in whose h^dge they lived. 
The superstition of the old suvage was aroused. 
Some Dutchmen had told him '. '.at the sign of the crf)ss 
came from the Devil, and would cause misciiief. Jle 
thought that Goupil was bewitching the child; and, 
resolving to rid himself cf so dangerous a guest, ap- 
plied for aid to two young braves. Jogues and Gou- 
pil, clad in their squalid garb of tattered skins, were 
soon afler walking together in fi^e forest that ad- 
joined the town, consoling themselves with prayer, 
and mutually exhortmg each other to suffer patiently 
for the sake of Christ and the Virgin, when, as they 
were returning', reciting tlitir rosaries, they met the 
two young Indians, and read in their sullen visages 
an augury of ill. The Indians joined them, and 














accompanied them to the ciitriincc of the town, wlicre 
one of the two, suddenly di'uwing ;i lialclict from 
beneath liis l)laidvet, struck it into the liead of (ion- 
|)il, wlio fell, munnui'ing the name of Clnist. Jognes 
dropped on Ins knees, and, howing his licad in ju'ayer, 
awaited the hlow, when tlie mnrdei'cr ordered him to 
get up and go liome. He obeyed, Init not nntil ho 
liad given absolution to his still breathing friend, and 
presently jaw the lifeless body dragged thi'ough tho 
town amid hootings and rejoicings. 

Jogucs passed a night of anguish and desolation, 
and in the morning, reckless of life, set forth in 
search of Goupil's remains. ''' Where are you g(nng 
»( "".ist?" demanded the old Indian, his master. "Do 
you not see those fierce young braves, who are watch- 
ing to kill you?" Jognes pei-sisted, and the old man 
asked another Indian to go with him as a protector. 
The corpse had been flung into a neighboi-ing ravine, 
at the bottom of which ran a torrent; and heiv, with 
the Indian's help, Jogues found it, stripped naked, 
and gnawed by dogs, lie dragged it into the water, 
and covered it with stones to save it from further 
mutilation, resolving to return alone on the following 
day and secretly bnry it. But with the night there 
came a storm; and when, in the gray of the morning, 
Jogues descended to the briidv of the stream, he 
found it a rolling, turbid tlood, and the body was 
nowhere to be seen. Had the Indians or the torrent 
borne it away? Jogues waded into the cold current: 
it was the fii'st of October; he sounded it with his 





feet and with his stick; ho soiirchcd tlie rocks, tho 
tliicket, tho forest; but all in vain. Tlicn, cronclied 
hy tlio }>itik'ss stivaiii, ho niiii<^led his tears with its 
waters, and, in a voice broken witli groans, chanted 
tlie service of the dead.^ 

Tiie Indians, it proved, and not tlie flood, had 
rob])e(l hiui of the remains of his friend. Early in 
the spring, when the snows Avere melting- in the 
woods, he was told l)y Mohawk chihbvn that the 
body was lying, where it had been flung, in a lonely 
si)ot lower down tlu^ strcim. He went to seek it; 
found the scattered bones, strijjped ])y the foxes and 
the birds; and, tenderly gathering them up, hid them 
in a hollow tree, hoping that a day might come when 
he could give them a Christian burial in consecrated 

After the murder of Goupil, Jogues's life hung Iry 
a hair. He lived in hourly expectation of the toma- 
hawk, and would have welcomed it as a l)oon. By- 
signs and words, he was warned that his hour was 
near; but, as he never shunned his fate, it AcmI from 
him, and each day, with renewed astonishment, he 
found himself still among the living. 

Late in the autumn, a party of the Indians set 
forth on their yearly deer-hunt, and Jogues was 
ordered to go with them. Shivering and half-fam- 
ished, he followed them through the chill November 

1 JojTXies in Tanner, Societas MiUtans, 519; Bressani, 216; Lalo- 
mant, lielatiun, 1047, 25, 20; Buteux, iVarre, MS.; Jogues, Notice sui 
llene Goupil. 







forest, iuid sliiiivd tlieir wild liivoiiiic in tlie depths 
of the wintry desohitioii. Tliu <,miiic tliey took was 
devoted (o Areskoni, their t,'od, and eaten in liis 
honor. JoL^nes would not taste the meat offered to 
a (lenion; and thus lie starvt d i'l ihc midst of plenty. 
At ni,i,dit, wlien the kettle was slun<^^ and the savaj^e 
crew made merry around tht;ir lire, he crouehed in a 
corner of the hut, <^nawed hy hum^tr, and piereed to 
tlie hone with eold. They thought his [)resenee 
unpropitious to their huntiuL;', and the women esj)e- 
cially hated him. His demeanor at once astonished 
and incensed his masters. He brou<^'ht thi'm lire- 
wood, like a squaw; he did their hiddin<^ without a 
murmur, and patiently bore their abuse; but when 
thoy mocked at his God, and hiughed at his devo- 
tions, their slave assumed rn air and tone of autlior- 
it}, and .stei'n'y rebuked them.* 

He would sometimes escape from " this liabylon," 
as he calls the hut, and wander in the forest, tellin[^ 
his beads and repeating })assages of Scripture. In a 
remote and lonely spot, he cut the bark in the form 
of a cross from the trunk of a groat tree; and here he 
made his prayers. This living martyr, h.ilf clad in 
shaggy furs, kneeling on the snow among the icicled 
rocks and beneath the gloomy pines, l)owing in adora- 
tion before the emblem of tlie faith in which was his 
only consolation and his oidy liope, is alike a theme 
fur the pen and a subject for the pencil. 

The Indians at last grew tired of him, and sent 

1 Lalemant, Rclatiim, ltil7, 11. 


. i 




him 1 Kick to tlic villa^'c. Ilcn; lie rcinaiiuMl till tli;' 
middle of MiU'cIi, hapti/.in^'' iiifimts and Irviiij,^ to coii- 
vi'it adults. He Inid tlicm of tiic sun, moon, j)lan- 
ets, and stars. 'I'Ik'V listened with inteivst ; but 
whon fT'';m astronomy lie j>assed to tiieolo^ry, he spent 
Id'; lu'eath in vain. In Maicii, the old man with 
whom he lived set forth for his spiin^'' lishinj^', takin;^ 
with him ids scpiaw and several (ddldren. .looues 
also was of the l»arty. 'I'hey repaired to a laki', per- 
liaps Lake Saratot,^a, four days distant. Here they 
Huhsisted for some timc^ on froL,^s, the entrails of lish, 
and other {^arl)a<^(!. Joi^ues passed his days in the 
forest, repeatiu}^ his prayers, and carving the name 
of .lesus on trees, as a terror to the demons of the 
wilderness. A messenger lit length arrived from the 
toAvn; and on the following day, undei- the pretence 
that signs of an enemy had been seen, the party broke 
up their camp, and niturned home in hot haste. The 
messenger had brought tidings that a war-party, 
which had gone out against the French, had been 
defeated and destroyed, and that the whole j)opula- 
tion were clamoring to appease their gi'ief by tortur- 
ing Jogues to death. This was the true cause of the 
sudden and mysterious return ; but when they reached 
the town, other tidings had arrived. The missing 
warriors were safe, and on their way home in triumph 
with a large number of prisoners. Again Jogues's 
life was spared; but he was forced to witness the 
torture and butchery of the converts and allies 
of the French. Existence became unendurable to 






Ill III, ;iti(l li(i loii^t'd to (lie. War-parties wvw (miii- 
Limuilly K"^"K ""^* SIkhiM they !»• (Ict'cattMl and 
out oft", ho would i)ay lli<' loi'lVit at tlic stake; and 
it" tliry ciuno back, as they usually did, uitii booty 
and in'isonei's, he was doomed to see his eoiiiitry- 
iiieii and their huUaii I'rieiids niaii;^i«'d, laiiiied, ai:d 

Jo^ues liad shown no disposition to esea[)e, and 
(fi'cat lilu'ity was tliereloiu aUowed liiin. He went 
t'l'oiii town to town, _L,nvinjL( absohitioii to the Cliiis- 
tiaii ca[)tives, and couveilin<jf and bapti/iiiL,^ the 
iiealhen. On one oecasion, lie ba|)tizi'd a woman 
ill the midst oi' tiie lire, under [ireteiiee of lit'tiiiL;' a 
(lip of water to her parehed li[)S. 'J'heri' was no lack 
of objects for his zeal. A single wur-party returned 
from the Huron country with nearly a hundred j)ris- 
ouers, who were distributed anioiii; the Iroipiois 
towns, and the greater part burned.' Of the el'il 
dreii of the Mohawks and their uein'hbors, Ik; \uh'l 
hapti/ed, before August, about seventy; insomuch 
that he began to regard his captivity as a Providen- 
tial interposition for the saving of souls. 

At the end of July, he -went with a party of In- 
dians to a tisbing-])lace on tlit; Hudson, about twenty 

1 The Duit'li clcTtivniiiii, Mc^apolciisis, at this tiiui' living' at 
Fort ( iranpo, hears the stron^icst ti'stiiiiimy to tlie ferocity with 
wliicli his frieiiils, tlie Mohawks, tri'atii! tluir ])risoiiers. He men- 
tions thi' same modes of torture which .Indues descrihes, and is very 
explicit as to eannihalism. "Tlie common ])eople," he says, " eat 
tile arms, laittocks, and trunk ; hut the chiefs eat the head and the 
heart." {Short Sketch of the Mohitwk Indians.) This feast was of a 
reliijious character. 

\ rl 




miles Ih'Iow Fort Orange. While here, he learned 
that another war-party luul lately I'eturned -svith pris- 
oners, two of whom had been Imrned to death at 
Osseruenon. On this, his conscience smote liim that he 
had not remained in the town to give the sufferers ab- 
solution or baptism; and Ik^ begged leave of the old 
woman who had him in charge to return at the 
first opportunity. A canoe soon after went up the 
river with some of the Iroquois, and he was allowed 
to go in it. Wlien they reached Kensselaerswyck, 
the Indians landed to trade with the Dutch, and took 
Jogues with them. 

The centre of this ruda little settlement was Fort 
Orange, a miserable structure of logs, standing on a 
spot now within tlie limits of the city of Al])any.i It 
contained several houses and other buiklings; and 
behind it was a small charch, recently erected, and 
serving as the abode of the pastor. Dominie Megaijo- 
lensis, known in cmr day as the writer of an interest- 
ing though short account of the Mohawks. Some 
twenty-five or thirty houses, roughly built of boards 
and roofed with thcitch, were scattered at intervals 
on or near the l)orders of the Hudson, above and be- 
low the fort. Their inhabitants, about a hundred in 
nund)er, were for the most part rude Dutch farmers, 
tenants of Van Rensselaer, the patroon, or lord of the 
manor. They raised wheat, of which they made 
beer, and oats, with which they fed their numerous 

1 Tlu> cito of tlie riia-iiix llotol. Xute by Mr. .S/ua tu Jogues's 
Novum Dthjium. 




horses. They traded, too, with the Indiang, who 
profited greatly by the competition among them, re- 
ceiving gnns, knives, axes, kettles, cloth, and beads, 
at moderate rates, in exchange for their furs.^ The 
Dutch were on excellent terms with their red neigh- 
bors, met them in the forest without the least fear, 
and sometimes intermarried with them. They had 
known of Jogues's captivity, and, to their great 
honor, had made efforts for his release, offering for 
that purpose goods to a considerable value, but with- 
out effect. 2 

At Fort Orange, Jognes heard startling news. 
The Indians of the village where he lived were, he 
was told, enraged against him, and determined to 
burn him. About the first of July, a war-party had 
set out for Canada, and one of the warriors had 
offered to Jogues to be the bearer of a letter from 
him to the French coi mander at Three Rivers, 
t) linking probably to gain some advantage under 
cover of a parley. Jogues knew that the French 
would be on their guard; and he felt it his duty to 

^ Joffiios, Xocnin Brh/iiiin ; Barnes, Settlement of Alban;/, 50-55; 
O'Ciilhi^'han, Xeir Xetherliunl , chap. vi. 

( )ii tlio relations of tht- Mohawks and Dutch, soe Mcj^apolensis, 
Short Sketch of the Mohitwk ludidns, and portions of the h'tter of 
Joguos to liis Snpcrior, dated Kenssclacrswyck, Au^. ."il), 1(»48. 

2 Soe ah)ii,ir h'tter of Arciidt Van CiirUT (Corhier) to Van Hens- 
si'laer, June U>, 1(!4.'], in O'C'alhighan's X(ii- Xetherhi ml, A'[)\)^'ni.iix L. 
" We persiindcd them so far," ^.•rites \''an Curler, "that they prom- 
ised not to kill them. . . . Tlie Frencli captives ran screaming after 
us, and hesought us to do all in our power to release them out of 
the hands of the barbarians." 






lose no opportunity of informing thero as to the state 
of affairs among the Iroquois. A Datclnnan gave 
liim a piece of papt-r; and ho wrote a letter, in a jar- 
gon of Latin, French, and Huron, warning his coun- 
trymen to be on their guard, as war-parties were 
constantly going out, and they could hope for no 
respite from attack until late in the autunni.^ When 
the Iroquois reached tlie mouth of the river Riche- 
lieu, where a small fort had been built by the French 
the preceding summer, the messenger asked for a 
parley, and gave Jogues's letter to the commander 
of the post, who, after reading it, turned his cannon 
on the savages. They fled in dismay, leaving behind 
them their baggage and some of their guns; and 
returning home in a fury, charged Jogues with having 
caused their discomfiture. Jogues had expected this 
result, and was prepared to meet it; but several of 
the princi2)al Dutch settlers, and among them Van 
Curler, who had made the previous attempt to rescue 
him, urged that his death was certain if he returned 
to the Indian town, and advised him to make his 
escape. In the Hudson, opposite the settlement, lay 
a small Dutch vessel nearly ready to sail. Van Cur- 
ler offei'ed him a passage in her to Bordeaux or 
Rochelle, — representing that the opportunity was 
too good to be lost, and making light of the pris- 
oner's objection that a connivance in his escape on 
the part of the Dutch would excite the resentment of 

1 Sec a Fronch rendering of the letter in Viraont, Relation, 
1043, 75. 







the Tndians against tliem. Jogues tliankcd him 
warmly; but, to his amazement, asked for a night 
to consider the matter, and take counsel of God in 

He spent the niglit in great agitation, tossed l)y 
doubt, and full of anxiety lest his self-love should 
beguile him from his duty.^ Was it not possible that 
the Indians might spare his life, and that, by a 
timely drop of water, he might still rescue soids 
from torturing devils and eternal fires of perdition? 
On the other hand, would he not, by remaining to 
iiieet a fate almost inevitable, incur the guilt of sui- 
cide ? And even should he escape torture and death, 
could he hope that the Indians would again permit 
him to instruct and baptize their prisoners? Of his 
French companions, one, Gou})il, was dead; while 
Couture had urged Jogues to ilight, saying that he 
would then follow his example, but that, so long as 
the Father remained a prisoner, he, Oouture, would 
share his fate. Before morning, Jogues had made 
his decision. God, he thought, would l)e better 
pleased should he embrace the opportunity given 
him. He went to find his Dutch friends, and, with 
a profusion of thanks, accepted their offer. They 
told him that a boat should be left for him on the 
shore, and that he must watch his time, and escape 
in it to the vessel, where he would be safe. 

He and his Indian masters were lodged together in 
a large building, like a barn, belonging to a Dutch 

1 Buk'ux, Xarre, M8. 
VOL, II. — 4 

! ?. ' ' it 

'\ ) 

\> I' 




farmer. It was a hundred feet long, and liad no par- 
tition of any kind. At one end the farmer kept liis 
cattU^; at tlic other he slept with his wife, a Moliawk 
squaw, and his children, while his Indian guests lay 
on the floor in the middle.^ As he is descrihed as 
one of the principal persons of the colony, it is clear 
+^nit the civilization of Rensselaerswyck was not 

In the evening, Jogues, in such a manner as not to 
excite the suspicion of the Indians, went out to re- 
connoitre. There was a fence around the house, 
and, as he was passing it, a large dog belonging to 
the farmer flew at him, and hit him very severely in 
the leg. The Dutchman, hearing the noise, came 
out with a light, led Jogues hack into the building, 
and l)andaged his wound. He seemed to have some 
suspicion of the prisoner's design; for, fearful per- 
haps that his escape miglit exasperate the Indians, 
he made fast the door in such a maimer that it could 
not readily l)e opened. Jogues now lay down among 
the Indians, Avho, rolled in their blankets, were 
stretched around him. He was fevered with excite- 
ment; and the agitation of his mind, joined to the 
pain of his wound, kept him awake all night. About 
dawn, while the Indians were still asleep, a laborer 
in the employ of the farmer came in with a lantern, 
and Jogues, who spoke no Dutch, gave him to under- 
stand by signs that he needed his help and guidance. 
The man was disposed to aid him, silently led the 

1 Buteux. Xarr^, MS. 






1 par- 
)t liis 
its lay 
)ecl as 
< clear 
s not 

not to 
to re- 
ing to 
rely in 
e some 
Lil per- 
to the 
led the 



way out, quieted tlie dogs, and showed him the path 
to the river. It was more than half a mile distant, 
and tlie way Mas rougli and l)roken. Jogues was 
greatly exhausted, and his wounded lindj gave him 
such })ain tliat he walked with the utmost dilhculty. 
Wlien he reached the shore, the day was breaking, 
and he found, to his disnia}-, that the ebb of the tide 
had left the boat high and dry. He shouted to the 
vessel, but no one heard him. His desperation gave 
him strength; and, by working the boat to and fro, 
lie [)nslic(l it at length, little l)y little, hito the water, 
entered it, and rowed to the vessel. The Dutch sail- 
(»rs received him kindly, and hid him in the bottom 
of the hold, placing a larg(; box over the hatchway. 

He remahied two days, half stilled, in this foul 
huking-place, while the Indians, furious at his 
esca]»(', ransacked the settlement in vahi to find him. 
'I'liey came off to the vessel, and so terrified the ofli- 
eers that Jogiies was sent on shore at night, and led 
to the fort. Here he was hidden in the garret of a 
house occupied by a miserly old man, to whose 
charge he was consigned. Food was sent to him; 
but, as his host ap])ro[)riated the larger part to him- 
self, Jogues was nearly starved. There was a com- 
partment of his garret, se[)arated from the rest by a 
jiui'tition of boards. Hen; the old Dutchman, who, 
like many others of the settlei's, carried on a trade 
with the ]\I()hawks, kept a quantity of goods for that 
purpose; and hither he often brought his customers. 
The boards of the partition had shrunk, leavir.g wide 


•; I 





crevices; iind Jognos could plainly see the Indians, 
as they passed between him and the light. They, on 
their part, might as easily have seen him, if he had 
not, when he heard them entering the house, hidden 
himself behind some barrels in the corner; where ho 
would sometimes remain crouched for hours, in a 
constrained Jind painful posUire, half suffocated with 
heat, and afraid to move a limb. His wounded leg 
began to show dangerous symptoms; but he was 
relieved by the care of a Dutch surgeon of the fort. 
The minister, Megaj^tolensis, also visited him, and did 
all in his power for t]ie comfort of his Catholic 
brother, with whom he seems to have been well 
pleased, and whom he calls "a very learned 
scholar."' ^ 

When Jogucs had remained for six weeks in this 
hiding-place, his Dutch friends succeeded in satisfy- 
ing his Indian masters ])y the payment of a large ran- 
som. ^ A vessel from Manhattan, now New York, 
soon after brought up an order from the Director- 
General, Kieft, that he should be sent to him. Ac- 
cordingly he was placed in a small vessel, which 
carried him down the Hudson. The Dutch on board 
treated him with great kindness; and, to do him 
honor, they named after him one of the islands in the 
river. At Manhattan he found a dilapidated fort, 
garrisoned by sixty soldiers, and containing a stone 

^ Megapolensis, ^1 JShoi-t Sketch of the Mohawk Indians. 

^ Leftre dc Jo^/uesa Laleinant, ll('nnes,Jan. 0, lOi-t. (Soo Relation, 
1043, 70.) Goods wore given tlic Indians to the value of three hun- 
dred livres. 


?li''i \\ 








church and the Director-CuMierars honso, ..^. 
with storehouses and harrarks. Near it were ransjjes 
of small houses, occupied chielly hy inechauics and 
lahorers; while the dwellinijs of tJic rcmainini^ colo- 
nists, nnmhering in all four or live hundred, were 
scattered hei'o and there on the island and the neio'h- 
horing shores. The settlers were of different sects 
and nations, hut chietly Duteli Ci'ivinisis. Kieft 
told his guest that eighteen (liftereiu languages wei'C 
spoken at ^hinhattan.^ The colonisis were in the 
midst of a bloody Indian war, brought on by their 
own besotted cruelty; and wVnle Jogues was at tlu^ 
fort, some forty of the Dutclunen were killed on 
the neighboring farms, and many barns and houses 
burned. 2 

The Director-General, with a humanity that was 
far from usual with him, exchanged Jognes's squali^l 
and savage dress for a suit of Dutch cloth, and g.ave 
him passage in a small vessel which was then about 
to sail. The vovae^e was rouuli and tedious; and the 
])assenger slept on deck or on a coil of ropes, suffer- 
ing greatly from cold, and often dnuiched by the 
waves that broke over the vessel's side. At length 
she reached Falmouth, on the southern coast of Eng- 
land, when all the crew went ashore for a carous(% 
leaving Jogues alone on board. A boat jn-esently 
came alongside with a gang of desperadoes, who 

t ) 

'If 1 

liree liun- 

^ .Ti)jfues, Novum ndr/iuiii. 

2 This war was with Aljj;onquin trihos of tlio ncipliborhond. Peff 
O'CaUairhan, Xfir Xcthprhtnd, i., ciiap. iii. 




hnurded her, aiul rifled licr of evcrytliinjr valu. le, 
tlirojitencHl Jo^nies \vitli a pistol, uiid i'oWIkmI 'li.i, oi 
liis hat and coat. Ih; ol)tainc'd .some assistance r om 
the crew of a French sliip in the liarlK,"-, and, oi' ilie 
day before Cliristnias, took passa;::^^ in u small coal 
V! ;jel for th" nei(.d I boring coast of Brittany. In the 
fu'^iwing afternoon he was set on shoi-e a little to the 
iiortfi if Brest, and, seeing a jx'iisant's cottage not 
far oft, ue approached il, and asked the way to tiie 
nearest cliurch. The peasant and his wife, as the 
narrative gravely tells ns, mislodk him, l)y reason of 
his modest de})onment, foi- some i)oor hnt ])ions 
Irishman, and asked him to share their sn]»j)er, after 
fniishing his devotions, — an invitation which .logues, 
half fa pished as he was, gladly accepted. lie 
reached the church in time foi' the earl}- mass, and 
with an lutterahle joy knelt before the altai', and 
renewed the connmniion of which he had been de- 
prived so long. When he retnnied to the cottiige, 
the attention of his hosts was at once attracted to his 
mntilated and distorted hands. 'IIm-v asked with 
amazement how he conld hav(> received snch injnries; 
and when they heard the story of his tortnres, their 
snr[)rise and veneration knew no hounds. Two young- 
girls, their daughters, hegged him to accept all they 
had to give, — a handfnl of sous; while tl peasant 
mad(! known the charactei- of his new guest to his 
neisrhhors. A trader from Kennes hron<dit a horse 
to the door, and offered the use of it to Jognes, to 
carry him to the Jesuit college in that town. He 





) liis 
's, to 

i^raLL'fully iiccepttMl it; iind, oii tin- iiioniiiig of the 
liftli of Jiimr vy, 10 U, roiuhed liLs destination. 

Ilu di.snioii'ited, and knocked .it the door of the 
rollege. The porter opened it, and saw a man we.'r- 
ing on iiis liead an ohl woollen niglitcaj), and in an 
attire little better than that of a hegsjfar. Jogues 
asked to see the Reetor; hut the portei' answered, 
coldly, that the Reetor was Jnisied in the Saei'isty. 
Jogues begged him to say that a mv \» • at the door 
with news from Canada. The n "--^sKr' of Canada 
were at this time an ol)jeet of pr'- 'lo mterest to the 
Jesuits, and above all to the Jesui. oi" France. A 
letter from Jogues, written dur' '•■ his ca[)tivity, had 
already reached France, as had ai^o the Jesuit lidd- 
tiuii of 10-1:3, which contained a long account of his 
ca[)ture; and he had no doubt been an engrossing 
theme of conversation in every house of the French 
Jesuits. The Father Rector was putting on his vest- 
ments to say mass; but when he heard that a poor 
man from Canada had asked for liini at the door, 
he postponed tlie service, and went to meet him. 
Jogues, without discovei'ing himself, gave him a let- 
ter from the Dutch Director-General attesting liis 
character. The Rector, without reading it, began to 
(piestion him as to the affairs of Canada, and at 
length asked him if he knew Father Jooucs. 

"I knew him very well," was the reply. 

"The Iroquois have taken him," i)Ui'sued the Rec- 
tor. "Is he dead? Have they nnirdered him?" 
No," answered Jogues; "he is alive and at lib' 




. I 

i ■( 


ISAAC .io(;rEs. 


erty, and T am he." And he fell on liis knees to ask 
his Superior's hlcssinj^. 

That nit^lil was a iiiicl't of jnl)ilation and thanks- 
givinj^^ in the college of Jiennes.^ 

Jogues hecanie a eentre of curiosity and reverence. 
He was sunnuoned to Paris. The Queen, Anne of 
Austria, wished to see him; and when tlie ])erse- 
cuted slave of the IVIohawks was conducted into her 
presence, she kissed his mutilated hands, while the 
ladies of tlie Court thronged around to do him hom- 
age. We are told, and no douht with truth, that 
these lumoi-s were unwelcome to the modest and 
single-hearted missionary, who tliought only of re- 
turning to his woik of converting the Indians. A 
priest with any deformity of hody is deharred from 
saying mass. The teeth and knives of the Iroquois 
had inflicted an injury worse; than the torturers ima- 
gined, for they had rohhed Jogues of the privilege 
which was the chief consolation of his life; but the 
Pope, by a special dispensation, restored it to him, 
and with the opening spiing he sailed again for 

1 For Jo<?ucs's arrival in Brittany, sot' Lrltre dr Jdi/nes rJ Lale- 

DKiiif, Roincs, Jan. (>, 1(!4I; Ldln- <1p .[(xjiics d , lirnnes, 

J<tn. 5, 1(344 (in Relation, 104;i), and tlio long account in the Relation 
of 1047. 





Wau. — DisTKKss AM) Ti:ki!(H{. — l{i( iii:i.ii;r. — Hati i.i:. — Kiiv 
or Indian Thiiiks. — Miitai, Disriii ci ion. — lito^nois and 
Ai.cioNiiiiN. — Aruocirir.s. — Einiiii nil. 1'ixiiion ok tmi; 
FuKNCii. — .Iosi;i>ii liuKssANi: Ills ('Ai'Trwi:; iiis Timcatmiint ; 
his EscArK. — Axnk i>e Noir : ins NotTiifNAi, Joiunkv; 
HIS Death. 

Two forces were l)!ittliiiLC for tlu- inaslci'v of Caii- 
iula: on tlio one side, Christ, the Viro-iii, and tlie 
Angels, with tlieir agents the ])riestv-^!; on thi' other, 
the Devil, and his tools the Iroquois. Sneh at least 
was the view of the case held in full faith, not hy 
the Jesnit Fathers alone, but by most of tlie colo- 
nists. Never before had the liiMid put forth such 
rage; and in the Iroquois he found instruments of 
a nature not uncongenial with his own. 

At Quebec, Three liivers, Montreal, and the little 
fort of Richelieu, — that is to say, in all Canada, — 
no man could hunt, fish, till the lields. or cut a ti'(M> 
in the forest, without peril to his scalp. Tlie Iro- 
quois were everywhere, and nowhere. A yell, a \'ol- 
ley of bullets, a rush of screeching savages, and all 

' « 

:l ■' i 

' I 



Tin: iiKM^rois. 


was over. Tho soldiiTs IkisUmkmI to llic spot (o liiitl 
Hilt'iioc, solitudt', and a niaii^lcd corpse. 

"I liad as lit'l',' writes I^itlier Vinioiit, "lie beset 
l)y ^(>l)liiis as hy tlu; Inxpiois. Tlie one are ahoiit as 
invisihU; as tlie otlier. Our peojile on the Kielielieu 
and at Montreal are kept in a closer eonlinenient than 
ever were monks or iiiuis in our smallest convents in 

The ('onfederates at this time were in a llusii of 
unparalleled audacity. Tliey despised wliite men as 
base poltroons, and esteemed tiiemselves waniois and 

icroes, destined to con(|Uer all mankind.' Tlic lire- 

arms Avitb wliieii the Dntcli iiad riishlv sn|iplied them, 


(1 to their united councils, their e(»ui;e't', and 

ferocity, gave them an advanta,f]fe over tlir surround- 
mi^ ti'ibes which they fully undei'stood. '{"heir j)as- 
sions rose with their sense of jjowcr. They boasted 
that they would wipe the llurons, the Alu'oncpiins, 
and the French from the face of the earth, and carry 
the "white girls," meaning" tla; mnis, to their vil- 


This last eveid. indeed, seemed more than 

probable; and the Hospital nuns left their e.\|)osed 
staticm at Sillery, and withdrew to the rani])ai'ts and 
palisades of Quebec. The St. Lawrence and the 
OttaAva were so inb'sted that communication \iith 

1 "Rrossani, wlion a jirisoiiur anionp tticni, writes to tliis flTcct in 
a letter to his Sii])erior. See lichitlun AIhvi/vi , ]'.]\. 

Tlie aiiouyiiioiis iuitlior of tlie Hi latinii of KKIO says, in tlieir 
belief, if tlieir nation were destroyed, a Lreiierai eniifiision and over- 
throw of mankind iiiiist needs be the eonse(|iienfH'. /'i/ntioTi, 
KMiO, (). 


FORT uk'iii:lii:i;. 









'ct in 




tli(' iruroii country was cut otl'; and tlirco tiinos tlio 
aiiimiil i>a('lv(!t (tf lutUirs sent tliitlirr to ilic mission- 
aries fell into tlin hands ol" tlie Iiixjnois. 

It was towards tim close of the year 1(140 that the 
scourge of Inxiuois war had h(\L,niii to fall heavily ».n 
the French. At that time, a parly of their warrioi-s 
waylaid and i-aptured Thomas (Jodefroy and Fian- 
(;ois Mari^nierie, — the latter a yonnt,^ man of L,Mvat 
enerLfy and darini^-, familiar with the woods, a master 
of the Alj^oncpiin lannna<;'e, anil a scholar of no mean 
acquirements.' To the iL,n'eat joy n\' the colonists, lie 
and his companion were hronijfht hack to Thiee Kiv- 
ers hy their captors, and j^iven up, in the vain ho|ii! 
that the French would respond with a nift of lire- 
arms. Their demand for them heiiiLf deelineil, they 
hroke off the parley in a rage, fortitied themselves, 
iired on the French, and withdiiiw under t;over of 

()[)en war now ensued, and for a time all was 
hewihlerment and terror. How to cheek the inroads 
of an enemy so stealthy and so keen for hlood was 
the problem that taxi^l the brain of Moiitiiia^-ny, the 
(jovernor. He thought he had foinid a solution, 
when he conceived the [>lan of building a tort at the 
mouth of the river Richelieu, by which tlu; Iro([Uois 
always made their descents to tlu' St. Lawrence. 
Hap[)ily for the perishing colony, tlu^ ('•irdiniil de 
Itichelieu, in 1G42, sent ont thirty oi- foi-iy soldiei's 

^ Diiriiiff his captivity, ho wroti-, on a bciivur-skin u letter to tl;,.' 
Diitcii ill Fruiicli, Latin, ami EngHsii. 

i I 


aeHBgB^gB!»!igBBBI -m i ....-L I .L 


60 THE IROQUOIS. [1612. 

for its (Icfriicr;.^ Ten times the iuiinl)er would liiive 
l)eeii scarcely sufficient; hut even this slii^^ht succor 
was hailed with deli^iit, and Montmagny was en- 
ahled to carry into eti'ect his plan of the fort, for 
which hitherto he had had neither builders nor gar- 
rison, lie took with him, l)esides tlie new-comers, a 
l)ody of soldier.s and armed lal)orers from Quehec, 
and, witli a force of about a hmidred men in all,- 
sailed for tin; Richelieu, in a brigantine and two or 
tbree o})eu boats. 

On th(! thirteenth of .August he reached his des- 
tination, and landed where the town of Soi'cl now 
stands. It was but eleven days before that Jogues 
and his companions had l)een captured, and Mont- 
magny's followers found ghastly tokens of the disas- 
ter. The heads of the slain were stuck on poles by 
the side of the river; and sevend trees, from which 
portions of the bark had been peeled, were daul)ed 
with the rude picture-writing in wliich the victors 
recorded their exploit.^ Among the rest, a represen- 
tation of .Jogues himself was clearly distinguislial)le. 
The heads were removed, the trees cut down, and a 
lai'ge cross planted on the spot. An altar was raised, 

1 Faillon, Culoiiic Fnuhyiisr, ii. 2; Vimont, Reltitlon, 1(142, 2, 44. 

« jNIiiric (h' riiu'arniition, /.(ttre, Si'pt. 2i», 1042. 

8 Viiiioiil, Htlatiou, 1(!42, 52. 

Thi>; i)riU'tic(.' was coiniuon to many tribes, ami is not j'ct extinct. 
The writer has scfn siniihir reeords, made hy recent war-parties ol' 
Crows or JJhiekt'eet, in tiie remote Wi'St. \\\ this ease, tlie liark 
was reniovcil from the trunks of hir.i,^' cotton-wood trees, and the 
pictures traced witli cliarcoal and vermilion. Tln'ri' were nitirks 
for scalps, for prisoners, and for tiie eoiujuerors themselves. 





- (ii 


and all heard mass; then a volley of nuiskelry was 
lircd; and then they fell to their work. They hewed 
an ojX'nini:,^ into the forest, dnLC np the roots, cleared 
tlie n'ronnd, and cut, shajx'd, and planted palisades. 
Thus a week passed, and their did'enecs were nearl}' 
eoni[)leted, when suddeidy the war-whoop ran^' in 
tlieir ears, and two hundred Irorpiois rushed upon 
tlicni from th(> hordei's of the clearini;".^ 

It was the }»arty of warriors that Joc^ues had met 
on an island in Lake ('ham[ihun. liut for the cour- 
a,^e of I)u Roehei', a corporal, who was on guard, 
they would have carried all Ind'ore iheni. 'I^hey 
were rushinc^ throu^'h an opening in the })alisade, 
wlien he, with a few soldiers, met them with such 
vigor and resolution that they were held in check 
loufj enough for the rest to snatcli their arms. Mont- 
magny, wlio was on the river in his hrigaiitinc, has- 
tened on shore; and the soldiers, encouraged by his 
arrival, fought with great determination. 

The Iroquois, on their part, swarmed up to the 
palisade, thrust their guns through (he loo[)-lioles, 
and fired on those withhi; nor was it till several of 
them liad been killed and others wounded that they 
learned to keep a more prudent distance. A tall 
savage, wearing a crest of the hair of some animal 
dyed scarlet and bound with a fillet of wampum, 
leaped forwai'il to the attack, and was shot dead. 
Another shared his fate, with seven l)U('k-shot in his 

^ The R''htti(>n of l(i42 says tlirce I'.umlrcil. Ji)L,nu'S, wlio had 
Lfon ainoni^f tlioni to his cost, is tlio bettor aiilluirity. 




[1611- 1 :. 

shield and as many in his hody. Tlio French, with 
sliouts, redonhled their lire, and tlie Indians at lengtli 
h)st lieart and foil ])a('k. The wonndcd dio[)[)ed gnns, 
shields, and war-eluhs, and the whole band withdrew 
to the shelter of a fort whieh they had built in the 
forest, three miles above. On the ])art of the French, 
one man was killed and four wounded. They had 
narrowly escaped a disaster which might have j)i'oved 
the ruin of the colony; and they now gained time so 
far to strengthen their defences as to make them rea- 
sonably secure against any attack of savages.^ The 
new fort, ho\vev(>r, did not effectually answer its ])ur- 
pose of stopping the inroads of the Ti'oquois. They 
would land a mile oi' more al)Ove it, carry their canoes 
through the forest across an intervening tongue of 
land, and then launch them in the St. Lawrence, 
while the Q-arrison remained in total ignorance of 
tlieir movements. 

While the French were thus l)eset, their Indian 
nlli(\s fared still worse. 'J'he effect of Iro(|uois hos- 
tilities on all the Algonquin tribes of Canada, from 
the Saguenay to the Lake of the Nipissings, had be- 
come fright fully ap}iarent. Famine and pestilence 
had aided the ravages of war, till these wretched 

1 Vimout, Jirhtl/on, 1042, T)!), ;"»!. 

Assaults by Tinlians on fortifii'd ])lac'os arc rare. Tlic Iroquois 
arc known, liowcvcr, 1o liavr niailc tlicni with success in several 
casi's. some of the most remarkable of which will appear hereafter. 
Till' couraije of Imiians is uncertain and spasmodic. Tlu'y are 
cai)able, at times, of a furious temerity, approachinjf desperation; 
but this is liable to sudden and extreme reaction. Their couraf,^', 
too, id much oftiiur displayed in covert tlian in ojien .attack?. 





bunds seemed in tlio course of rii})id extermination. 
Their spirit was broken. They became humble and 
docile in the hands of the missionaries, ceased their 
railings against the new doctrine, and leaned on the 
French as their only hope in this extremity of woe. 
Sometimes they would ap[)ear in troops at Sillery or 
Three Rivers, scared out of their forests by the sight 
of an Iroquois foot[)rint; then some new terror would 
seize them, and drive them back to seek a hiding- 
})lace in the deepest thickets of the wilderness. Their 
best liunting-grounds were beset by the enemy. They 
starved for weeks together, subsisting on the bark of 
trees or the thongs of raw hide which formed the net- 
work of their snow-slioes. The mortality among them 
was prodigious. "Where, eight years ago," writes 
Father Vimont, "one wou.ld see a hundred wigwams, 
one now sees scarcely live or six. A chief who once 
liad eight hundred warriors has now but thirty or 
forty; and in place of fleets of three or four hundred 
canoes, we see less than a tenth of that numl)er.''^ 

These Canadian tribes were undergoing that pro- 
cess of extermination, absorption, or expatriation 
whit'h, as there is reason to believe, had for many 
geiK'rations formed ihi' gloomy and meaningless his- 
tory of the gi'catei' pait of this continent. Three or 
four hundred Dutch guns, in the hands of the con- 
(juerors, gave an unwonted quickness and decision to 
the work, bnt in no way changed its essential char- 
:.ct(r. The horrible nature of this warfare can be 

1 Relation, 104}, ;;. 



I : 




known only through examples; and of these one or 
two will suf'iice. 

A hand of Algonquins, late in the autumn of 1G41, 
set forth from Three Ilivcis on their winter hunt, 
and, feaiful of the Inxjuois, made their way far 
northward, into the de[)ths of the forests that horder 
the (Ottawa. Here they thought themselves safe, 
Imilt their lodges, and began to h«unt the moose and 
])eaver. But a large party of their enemies, with a 
persistent feroeity that is truly astonishing, had pene- 
trated even here, found the traces of the snow-shoes, 
followed up their human prey, and hid at nightfall 
among the rocks and thickets around the encamp- 
ment. At midnii>ht, their veils and the Llows of 
their war-clubs awakened their slee})ing victims. In 
a few minutes all were in their power. They bound 
the prisoners hand and foot, '"ekindled the fire, slung 
the kettles, cut the bodies of the slain to pieces, and 
boiled and devoured them l)efore the eyes of the 
wretched survivoi's. "In a word," says the narrator, 
"they ate men A\ith as much aj)petite and more pleas- 
ure than hunters cat a boar or a stag." ^ 

Meanwhile they amused themselves with ])anterinQ- 
their prisoners. " L'nclc, " said one of them to an old 
AlgoiKpiin, "you ai'c a dead man. You are going to 
the lajid of souls. Tell them to take heart: they will 
have good com[)any soon, for we are going to send 
all the rest of your nation to join them. This will 
be good news for them."^ 

1 \'iiiu)iit, lUlation, l(ii2, 4(). 2 //^/^/.^ 45. 




> I, 

This olu man, who is described as no less malicious 
tlian his captors, and even more crafty, soon after 
escaped, and bronc^ht tidiness of the disaster to the 
French. In the followinLjf s])i'ing', two women of the 
party also escaped; and, after suffering almost incred- 
ible hardships, reached Three Rivers, torn witli bri- 
ers, nearly naked, and in a deplorable sbite of bodily 
and mental exhaustion. One of them told her stoiy 
to Father Buteux, who translated it into French, and 
gave it to Vimont to be printed in the Relation of 
164:2. Revolting as it is, it is necessary to recount 
it. Suffice it to say, that it is sustiuned by the whole 
Ijody of contemporary evidence in regard to the prac- 
tices of the Iroquois and some of the neighboring 

The conquerors feasted in the lodge till nearly day- 
l)reak, and then, after a short rest, began their march 
homeward with their prisoners. Among these were 
three women, of whom the narrator was one, who had 
each a child of a few weeks or months old. At the 
first halt, their captors took the infants from tliem, 
tied them to wooden spits, placed ' in to die slowly 
before a fire, and feasted on them fore the eyes of 
the agonized mothers, whose shritlcs, supplications, 
and frantic efforts to break the cords that Ijound 
them were met with mockery a ' laughter. "Tliey 
are not men, they are wolves I " .-.oiibed the wretched 
woman, as she told what had befallen her to the pity- 
ing Jesuit.^ At the Fall of the Chaudiere, anoiher 
1 Vimont, Relation, 1G42, 46. 

VOL. 11. — 5 

^^j&L.;;:*^-^:"" ..'■'»«;.,.■.{; 






of the woriCn ended her v.'oes by leaping into the 
catfiract. When they approaehed the first Iroquois 
town, they were met, at the distance of several 
leagues, by a crowd of tlie inhahitaiits, and among 
them a troop of women, bringing food to regale the 
triumphant warriors. Here they halted, and passed 
the night in songs of victory, mingled with the dis- 
mal chant of the prisoners, who W'ere forced to dance 
for their entertainment. 

On the morrow they entered the town, leading the 
captive Algonquins, fast bound, and surrounded by a 
crowd of men, women, and cliildren, all singing at 
the top of their throats. The largest lodge was ready 
to receive them; iind as they enteivd, the victims 
read their doom in the fires that blazed on the 
earthen floor, and in the aspect of the attendant sav- 
ages, whom the Jesuit l^^ither calls attendant demons, 
that waited their coining. The torture which ensued 
war-', but preliminary, designed to cause all possible 
suffering without touching life. It consisted in blows 
with sticks and cudgels, gashing their limbs with 
knives, cutting off their lingers with clam-shells, 
scorching them wiih firebrands, and other indescrib- 
able torments. 1 The women were stripped naked, 
and forced to dance to the singing of the male pris- 
onere, amid the applause and laughter of the crowd. 

1 "Cetto pauuro creature qui s'est sauuco, a les deux pouces 
cour >z, ou pluH tost luu'lu'Z. Qtiand ils me li'S eurent couppcz, 
disoit-elle, ils Die les voulurent faire nianfrer; niais ie les mis sur 
mon {liron, et leur dis qu'ils me tuasscnt s'ils vouloient, que ie ne 
leur pouuois obeir." — Buteux in Relation, 1042, 47. 


16 1 J.] 



They tlieii gave tlicm food, to strengthen them for 
further suffi-i-ing. 

On the foHovving morning, they were placed oia a 
large seaifohl, in sight of the whole population. It 
was a gala-day. Young and old were gathered from 
far and near. Some mounted the scalfold, and 
scorched them with torches and lirebrands; while 
tiie children, standing ])enL'atli tiie Itai'k platform, 
ap[)lied lire to the feet of the prisoners l)otween the 
e'-e vices. The Algominin women were told to burn 
their husbands and companions; and one of thenoi 
obeyed, vaiidy tliinking to ap[)ease her tormentoi*s» 
The stoicism of one of the warriors enraged hi^s cap- 
tors beyond measure. "S' ■c^am! why don't you 
scream?" they cried, thrusti g their burning brands 
at liis naked body. '""Look at me," lie answered; 
"you cannot make me wince. If you wei'e in my 
place, you wouhl scitH'cli like babies." At this they 
fell upon him with redoubled fury, till their knives 
and fii'ebrands left in him no send)lanee of liumaiiity. 
lie was dcliant to the last, sin'l ^\ hen death came to 
his relief, they tore out his heart and devoured it; 
then hacked him in ])ieces, and made their feast of 
triumph on his mangled limbs.' 

1 Tho diabolical practici'S doscribt'il above wore not peculiar to 
the Iroquois. The Neutrals and otlier kiiidri'd tribes were no wliit 
less cruel. It is a remark of Mr. (iallatin, and 1 think a just one, 
tliat the Indians west of tiie Miji^issippi are less leroeious than 
tliose east of it. The burninjr«»f prisoners is rare anion^^ tlie prairie 
tribi's, J)ut is not nnknown. An npllhiilah chief, in whoM' lodire 
lived for several weeks in 184(1, ilescribed to in*, with moMt txprvs 


Tin: iiioQL'ois. 


All the men and all llio old women of llu' i»arty 
were put to death in a shnilar manner, though hut 
few displayed the same amazing fortitude. The 
younger women, of whom there were ahout thirty, 
after passing their ordeal of tortui'e, were permitted 
to live; and, disfigured as tliey were, were distrih- 
utcd among tlie several villages, as concuhines or 
slaves to the Irocpiois warriors. Of this number 
were tlie narrator and her companion, wlio, heing 
ordered to accompany a war-paity and cai'iy their 
provisions, escaped at night into the forest, and 
reached Three Rivers, as we have seen. 

Wliile the Indian allies of the French were wast- 
ing away beneath tliis atrocious warfare, the French 
themselves, and especially the travelling Jesuits, had 
their full share of the inlliction. In truth, the puny 
and sickly colony seemed in the gasps of dissolution. 
The l)eginning of s})ring, particularly, was a season 
of terror and suspense; for with tlie breaking up of 
the ice, sure as a destiu}-, came the Iroquois As 
soon as a canoe could float, they were on the war- 
path; and with the cry of the returning wild-fowl 
mingled the yell of these human tigei-s. They did 
not always wait for the breaking ice, but set forth on 
foot, and when they came to open water, made ca- 
noes and embarked. 

Well might Father Vimont call the Iroquois "the 


sive pantomiiiu', how hv IkkI ciqitiireil ami buriU'd a warrior of 
the Snaki' Tribi', in a valley of lia' McdiciiU' How Mountains, near 
W'hieh we were then encamped. 


161-: ] 



sconrf^e of tliis iiifuiit eliuivh." TImw l)uni(Hl, liiioked, 
aiul (levoiiriMl tlu; iicojjhytes; I'Ktenniniitcd wholo 
villiij^cs iit once; destroyed tlie iiiitions whom the 
Fiitheis hoi)ed to eonvci't: and ruined tliat sure ally 
of the missions, the fur-trade. Not the most liich'cm.s 
nio-htmar(> uf a fevered brain could transee:.d in \\nv- 
ror the real and waking' [)erils \\ith which they beset 
the path of these intrei)id })ri('sts. 

In the spring of 1()4-1:, .)(is(>i)h Hressani, an Italian 
Jesuit, horn in Rome, and now for two years past a 
missionary in Canada, was ordered l)y liis Superior 
to go up to the Ilurons. It was so early in th(; sea- 
son that there seemed hoi)e that he min~ht pass in 
safety; and as thi^ Fathers in that wild mission had 
received no succor for three years, Hressani was 
charged with letters to them, and such necessaries 
for their use as \w was able to cai'ry. With him 
were six young Ilurons, lately converted, and a 
French boy in his service. The pai'ty were in three 
small canoes. Ihd'orc setting out they all confessed 
and prepared for death. 

They left Three Rivers on the twenty-seventh of 
April, and iound ice still floating in he river, and 
l)atches of snow lying in tlie naked forests. On the 
lirst day, one of the canoes overset, ncai'ly di-owning 
Bressani, who could not swim. On tli(> third dav, a 
snow-storm began, and givatly ivtarded their ]>rog- 
ress. The young Indians foolishly iired their guns 
at the wild-fowl o]i the rivei-, and the sound reached 
the cars of a war-part}' of Ii'oqnois, one of ten that 





bud Jilready set forth for tlio St. Liiwrcnce, tlie 
Ottawa, and the Huron towns.' Hence it befell 
that, as tiiey crossed the month of a small stream 
entering the St. Lawrence, twenty-seven Iroquois 
suddeidy issued from Iteliind a ])oint, and attacked 
them in canoes. One of the Hurons was killed, and 
all the rest of the party captured witliout resistance. 

On the fifteenth of July following, liressani wrote 
from the Iroquois country to the CJeneral of the Jes- 
uits at Rome: " I do not know if your J'aternity will 
recognize the handwriting of one whom you once 
knew very well. Tlie lettci- is soiled and ill-written; 
because tlie wi'iter has only one linger of his right 
hand left entire, and cannot prevent the blood from 
his wounds, wliich are still open, from staining the 
paper. His ink is gunpowder mixed with water, and 
his table is the earth." ^ 

Th(ni follows a modest narrative of what he en- 
dured at the hands of his ca[)tors. First they 
thaidvcd the Sun for their victory; then plundered 
the canoes; then cut u]), roasted, and devoured the 
slain Huron before the eyes of tlie prisoners. On 
the next day they crossed to the southei'ii shore, and 
ascended the river Richelieu as far r.s the rapids of 

1 Vimont, llrhttinn, 1(544, 41. 

2 Tliis ' ttcr is ])rintoil anonymouslj' in the Sl'CoikI I'nrt, ciiap. 
ii., of Bri'ssnni's Rilati<in Alirci/ee. A comparison with Vimont's 
accoinit, in tho /ic/ation of 1()44, niaki'S its anthorsiiij) a])parent. 
Vimont's narrative a<ireos in all essential points. His informant 
was " vne personne (li<jne de foy, qni a estu tesmoin ocnhiire de tout 
ce qn'il a sonlTert jumlant sa eaptinito." — Vimont, Hchitinn, l')44, 43. 



Chainbly, wliuiicu thuy pursuud thi'lr inarcli on foot 
amon^ the Imiiublt'S, rocks, aiid s\vanii)s of lliu track- 
less forest. Wlicu they readied Lake C'liam[»laiii, 
they made new canoes and re-end)arked, Uiiidcd at 
its southern extremity six d-iys afterwards, and 
tiienco made for the Upt)er Hudson. Here they 
found a fisliing-canip of f.)ur hundred In«|uois, and 
now Bressani's torments be^an in earnest. Tliey 
split his hand with a knife, between the little tiiiLjer 
and the ring finger; then beat hiiu with sticks, till 
he was covered with blood, and afterwards placed 
him on one of their torture-scaffolds of bark as a 
spectacle to the crowd. Here they stri[)])ed him, aud 
while he shivered with cold from head to toot, they 
forced him to sing. After about two hours tliey 
gave him up to the children, who ordered him to 
dance, at the same time thrusting sharpened sticiks 
into his flesh, and pulling out his hair and beard. 
"Sing I" cried one; "Plold your tongue!'' screamed 
another; and if he obeyed the first, the second burned 
him. "We will burn you to death; we will cat 
you." "I will eat one of your feet." "And I 
will eat one of your hands." ^ These scenes were re- 
newed every night for a week. Every evening a 
chief cried aloud through the camp, " Come, my chil- 
dren, come and caress our prisoners!" and the sav- 
age crew thronged jubilant to a large hut, where the 

1 " lis me rt'petaic'iit sans ci'sse : Nous te brfllcrons ; nous te 
manirerons ; je te muiigeriii un pied; et niui, uue main," etc. — 
Bressani, in RcUitii)n Abre(jee, Vol. 





Ui|2£ 125 

■^ 1^ IIIII2.2 

i ■- IIIIM 


1.4 1.6 









'^ > 


.>>./. //^l 








(716) 872-4503 









. ! 

captives lay. They stripped off tlie torn fragment of 
a cassock, wliicli was the priest's only garment; 
Imrned liim witli live coals and red-hot stones; forced 
him to walk on hot cinders; Imrned off now a finger- 
nail and now tiie joint oi a linger, — rarely ni(jre than 
one at a time, however, for tiiey economized their 
pleasures, and reserved the rest for another day. 
This torture was protracted till one or two o'clock, 
after which they left him on tlie ground, fast bound 
to four stakes, and covered only with a scanty frag- 
ment of deer-skin.^ The other prisoners had their 
share of torture ; but the worst fell upon tlie Jesuit, 
as the chief man of the party. The unhajjpy boy 
who attended him, though only twelve or tliirteen 
years old, was tormented before his eyes with a piti- 
less ferocity. 

At length they left this encampment, and, after a 

1 "Cliaque nuit apros ni'avoir fait chanter, et m'avoir tonrmoiitd 
commo if I'ai dit, ils passaieiit environ un quart d'heuro k nie bruler 
un onjjjlf on un ihA^xt. 11 ne mV-n reste maintenani qu'un seul 
entier, et encore ils en ont arrache I'on^'le avec les dents. Un soir 
ils ni'enlevaient un onjjie, le lendeniain la i)reniiere i)halange, le 
jour suivant la seconde. En six fois, ils en brulerent presque six. 
Aux mains seules, ils ni'ont applique le feu et le fer plus de 18 fois, 
et i'etais oblige de chanter pendant ce supplice. lis ne cessaient de 
me tounnenter qu'a une ou deux heures de la nuit." — Bressani, 
Relation Alire(/t:e, 122. 

Bressani speaks in another passaj^e of tortures of a nature yet 
more excruciatinff. Tiiey were similar to those alluded to by the 
anonymous autlior of tiie RtlitliiDi of KiOO: " le ferois rouffir ce 
papier, et les oreilles friiiniroieut, si ie rapportois les horribles 
traitemens que les Agmeronnous [the Mohawk nation of the Iro- 
quois] ont faits sur quelques captifs." He adds, that past ages 
have never heard of such. — Ililntlni), KiOO, 7, 8. 









lit ill' 




ir ce 




march of several clays, — duriiicf wliicli Rrossaiii, in 
wading a rocky stream, tV'U from t'xliaustion and 
was nearly drowned, — tlicy ii'aclied an Irtxpiois 
town. It is needless to follow tlie rcvoltiiiL,' details 
of the new torments that snect'eded. Tlicy Inuii; 
him hy the feet with chains; jdaccd food for their 
dogs (m his naked hody, that they might lacerate liiin 
as they ate; and at last had reduci'd his emaciated 
frame to such a condition that even they themselves 
stood in horror of him. "I conld not have helieved,"' 
he writes to his Superior, "that a man was so hard to 
kill." He found among them those who, from com- 
passion or from a refinement of cruelty, h'd hiin, for 
he could not feed himself. They told him jestingly 
that they wished to fatten him hefore [)utting him to 

The council that was to decide his fate met on the 
nineteenth of June, when, to the prisoner's amaze- 
ment, and, as it seemed, to their own suiprise, they 
resolved to spare his life. He was given, with due 
ceremony, to an old woman, to take the place of a 
deceased relative; hut since he was as repulsive in 
his mangled condition as, hy the Indian standard, he 
was useless, she sent her son with him to Fort 
Orange, to sell him to the Dutch. With the same 
humanity which they had shown in the ease of 
Jogues, they gave a generous ransom for him, suj)- 
plied him with clothing, kept him till his strength 
was in some degree recruited, and then ])laced him 
on l)oard a vessel bound for Uochelle. Here he ar- 

1 1 

« i 







rived on the fifteenth of Noveniher; and in the fol- 
lowing spring, maimed and disiignred, hnt with 
health restored, end)arked to dare again the knives 
and firebrands of the Iroquois.^ 

It should l)e noticed, in justice to the Iroquois, 
that, ferocious and cruel as past all denial they were, 
they were not so bereft of the instincts of humanity 
as at first sight might appear. An inexorable sever- 
ity towards enemies was a very essential element, in 
their savage conception, of the character of the war- 
rior. Pity was a cowardly weakness, at which their 
pride revolted. This, joined to their thirst for ap- 
plause and their dread of ridicule, made them 
smother every movement of compassion, 2 and con- 
spired with their native fierceness to form a charac- 
ter of unrelenting cruelty rarely equalled. 

The perils which beset the missionaries did not 
spring from the fury of the Iroquois alone, for Na- 

1 Immediately on his return to Canada he was ordered to set out 
again for the Ilurons. More fortunate than on his first attempt, lie 
arrived safely, early in the autumn of 1045. — liagueneau, AV/(///oh 
des Ifurons, 1()4(), 73. 

On Bressani, besides the authorities cited, see Du Creux, TTistorin 
Canndfnsis, 800-403 ; Jucl ?rcau, Flisiolre dc rilotcl-Dieii, 53 ; and 
Martin, Binrjraphle. du P. Frnttgois-Joscph Bressani, prefixed to the 
Relation Ahref/ee, 

He made no converts while a prisoner, hut he baptized a Huron 
catechumen at tlie stake, to the jrreat fury of the surrounding Iro- 
quois. He has left, besides his letters, some interesting notes on 
his captivity, preserved in the Relation Ahrei/ee. 

2 Thus, wlien Bressani, tortured by the tightness of the cords 
that ])ound him, asked an Indian to loosen them, lu' would reply by 
mockery, if others were present ; but if no one saw him, he usually 




ture herself was armed witli terror in tliia stern wil- 
derness of New France. On the thirtieth of January, 
1G46, Father Ainie de None set ont from Three 
Rivers to go to the fort built by the French at the 
mouth of the river liichelieu, where he was to say 
mass and hear confessions. De None was sixty- 
three years old, and had come to Canada in 1025.^ 
As an indifferent memoiy disabled him from master- 
ing the Indian languages, he devoted himself to the 
spiritual charge of the French, and of the Indians 
about the forts within reach of an interpreter. Fen- 
the rest, he attended the sick, and in times of scar- 
city fished in the river, or dug roots in the woods for 
the subsistence of his flock. In short, though sprung 
from a noble family of Champagne, lie shrank from 
no toil, however humble, to which his idea of duty 
or his vow of obedience called him.'^ 

The old missionary had for companions two sol- 
diers and a Huron Indian. They were all on snow- 
shoes, and the soldiers dragged their baggage on 
small sledges. Tlieir highway was the St. Lawrence, 
transformed to solid ice, and buried, like all tlu' coun- 
try, beneath two or three feet of snow, whicli, far and 
near, glared dazzling white under tiie clear winter 
sun. Before night they had walked eighteen miles, 

^ See "Pioneers of France," ii. 2-')3. 

^ He was peculiarly sensitive as rei^anled the cardinal Jesuit 
virtue of obedience; and both Laleniant and Bressani say, that, at 
tlie age of sixty and upwards, he was sometimes seen in tears, wiien 
he inia<;ined that he had not fulfilled to the utmost the coniniands 
of his Superior. 

'1^ ' I 

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i I 




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and tlic soldiers, unused to snow-shoes, were greatly 
fatigued. Tliey made tlieir camp in the forest, on 
tlu! shore of tlie great expansion of tlie St. Lawrence 
called the I^ake of St. Peter, — dug away the snow, 
heaped it around tlie spot as a barrier against the 
wind, made their lire on the frozen earth in the midst, 
and lay down to sleep. At two o'clock in the 
morning I)e None awoke. The moon shone like day- 
light over the vast white desert of the frozen lake, 
with its hordering lir-trees bowed to the ground with 
snow; and the kindly thought struck the Father that 
he might ease his companions by going in advance to 
Fort Richelieu, and sending back men to aid them in 
dragging their sledges, lie knew the way well. He 
directed them to follow the tracks of his snow-shoes 
in the morning; and, not doubting to reach the fovt 
before night, left behind his blanket and his flint and 
steel. For provisions, he put a morsel of bread and 
five or six prunes in his pocket, told his rosary, and 
set forth. 

Before dawn the weather changed. The air thick- 
ened, clouds hid the moon, and a snow-storm set in. 
The traveller was in utter darkness. lie lost the 
points of the compass, wandered far out on the lake, 
and when day appeared could see nothing but the 
snow beneath his feet, and the myriads of falling 
flakes that encompassed him like a curtain, impervi- 
ous to the sight. Still he toiled on, winding hither 
and thither, and at times unwittingly circling back 
on his own footsteps. At night he dug a hole in the 




snow under tlie shore of jin island, and lay down, 
without lire, food, or blanket. 

Meanwhile the two soldiers and the Indian, unable 
to trace his footprints, which the snow had hidden, 
pursued their way for the fort; but the Indian was 
ignorant of the country, and the F'renchmen wens 
unskilled. They wandered from their course, and 
at evening encamped on the shore of the island of St. 
Ignace, at no great distance from I)e None. Here 
the Indian, trusting to his instinct, left them and s(^t 
forth alone in search of their destination, which he 
soon succeeded in finding. The palisades of the 
feeble little fort, and the rude buildings within were 
whitened v.ith snow, and half buried in it. Here, 
amid the desolation, a handful of men kept watch and 
ward against the Iroquois. Seated by the blazing 
k)gs, the Indian asked for De None, and, to his 
astonishment, the soldiere of the garrison tokl him 
that he had not been seen. The captain of the ])ost 
was called; all was anxiety; but nothing could be 
done that night. 

At daybreak parties went out to search. The two 
soldiers were readily found, but they looked in vain 
for the mi,ssionar}\ All day they were ranging the 
ice, firing their guns and shouting; but to no avail, 
and they returned disconsolate. There was a con- 
verted Indian, whom the French called Charles, at 
the fort, one of four who were s[)ending the winter 
there. On the next morning, the second of Fel)ru- 
Rij, he and one of his companions, together with 

* 1 

-f I 

1 * 

i I 


DK NOL'i!. 


i ; 



TJaron, a French solduir, resuniod the search; and, 
gnided by the sliglit depressions in the snow wliicli 
liad falh'ii on the wanderer's footprints, the (piick- 
eyed savaj^es traced him thronj^di all his windings, 
fonnd his cani[) hy the shore of tlie island, and thence 
followed him In'yond the fort, ile had i)assed near 
withont discovering it, — perhaps weakness had 
dimmed his sight, — stop[)ed to rest at a point a 
leagne above, and thence made his way about three 
leagues farther. Jlere they found him. He had 
dug a circular excavation in the snow, and was 
kneeling in it on the earth. His head was bare, his 
eyes o}>en and turned upwards, and his hands clas])e(( 
on his breast. His hat and his snow-shoes lay at his 
side. The body was leaning slightly forward, rest- 
ing against the bank of snow before it, and frozen to 
the hardness of marble. 

Thus, in an act of kindness and charity, died the 
first martyr of the Canadian mission.^ 

* Lak'uiant, Rclntinn, ir»4n, 0; Mario do I'lncamation, Lettre, 10 
Sept., 1(540; Hri'ssani, lii'latlon Ahrajee, 175. 

One of till' Indians wlio found the body of De Nouc was killed 
by the Iroiinois at Ossossane', in the Huron country, three years 
after. Ho rocoived the death-blow in a posture like that in which 
he liad seen the dead missionary. His body was found with the 
hands still clasijod on the breast. — Lettre. tie C/iauinonot d Lalemant, 
1 Juin, 1040. 

The next death amonfj the .Tesuits was that of Masse, who died 
at Sillery, on the twelfth of May of this year, 1040, at the ape of 
seventy-two. He liad come with Biard to Acadia as early as 1011. 
(See " Pioneers of France," ii. 110.) Lalemant, in the Relation of 1040, 
gives an account of him, and speaks of penances which he imposed 
on himself, some of which are to the last degree disgusting. 




Infancy of Montukat.. — The Flood. — Vow of Maisonneuve. — 

I'lLfllUMAfiE. — D'AlI.I.EUOl ST. — TuE 1 loTEL-DlKf. — I'lETY. — 
l'm»l'A(.JANI)ISM. — WaK. — IllRONS AM) luoyllOIS. — 1)0(;S. 

Sally ok the French. — Battle. — Exi'loit of Maisonneuvk. 

Let us now ascend to the island of Montreal. 
Here, as we have seen, an association of devout and 
zealous persons had essayed to found a mission-colony 
under the protection of the Holy Virgin ; and we left 
tlie adventurers, after their landing, bivouacked on 
the shore, on an evening in May. There was an 
altar in the open air, decorated, with a taste that 
betokened no less of good nurture than of piety; and 
around it clustered the tents that sheltered the com- 
mandant, Maisonneuve, the two ladies, Madame de 
la Peltrie and Mademoiselle Mance, and the soldiei-s 
and laborers of the expedition. 

In the morning they all fell to their work, — Mai- 
sonneuve hewing down the fii-st tree, — and labored 
with such good-will that their tents were soon en- 
closed with a strong palisade, and their altar covered 
by a provisional chapel, built, in the Huron mode, of 

'. f 

f ,1 




I' I 

bark. Soon ufhTWiird, tluiir canviis liiilntutions wero 
sii) pliiiitt'd hy solid .striurtiiri'S of wood, and tlio feeble 
genu of a future eity began to take root. 

Tlie IrocjUois liad not yet found tlieni out; nor did 
tliey discover tliein till they had liad ani[)l(! time to 
fortify tiiciMsclvcs. Meanwhile, on a Sunday, they 
would stroll at their h-isure over the adjacent meadow 
and in the shade of the borderin<:; forest, where, as 
the old chi-oniclcr tells us, the grass was gay with 
wild-Howeis and the ])ranehes with the flutter and 
song of many strange birds.' 

The day of the Assum[)tion of the Virgin was cele- 
Imiti'd with belitting solemnity. There was mass in 
their balk clKqjel ; then a Te Deum ; then public 
instruetion of certain Indians who chanced to be at 
Montreal; then a procession of all the colonists after 
vespers, to the admiration of the red-skinned behold- 
eis. Cannon, too, were tired, in honor of their celes- 
tial i)atroness. "Their thunder made all the island 
echo," writes Father Vimont; "and the demons, 
though used to tluuiderbolts, were scared at a noise 
which told them of the love we bear our great Mis- 
tress; and I have scarcely any doubt that the tute- 
lary angels of tlio savages of New France have 
marked this day in the calendar of Paradise. "^ 

The sunnner passed prosperously, but with the 
winter their faith was put to a rude test. In Decem- 

1 DoiliiT do Casson, MS. 

2 Viiiioiit, Riliitiini, 1(!42, 38. Compare Le Clorc, Premier £!ta- 
blissemoit di In Foij, ii. 51. 

, < '! 




her tluTO was a ris(! of IIk^ St. liiiwiciuc, thiviitciiiiij^ 
to s\vo('[) away in a iiij^lit tlic results of all tlit'ir labor. 
Tlicv fell to their prayers; and Maisomieiive jdaiited 
a wooden cross in faco of the advancing; deluLji', lirst 

making' a vow that, should tlic jkmiI he avertecj, lie, 
Maisoinieuve, would hear another cross on hi . shoul- 
ders U}) the nei<,dil)orin_ir mountain and place it on the 
sunnnit. The vow seemed in vain. The flood still 
rose, filled the fort ditch, swc[»t the foot of the j)ali- 
sade, and threatened to saj) the mai^Mzine; hut hero 
it stop[)ed, and presently l)e<^an to recede, till at 
length it had withdrawn within its lawful channel, 
and Villemaric^ was safe.' 

Now it remained to fullil the promise from which 
such happy results had proceede(h Maisonneuve set 
his men at work to clear a path through the forest to 
the top of the mountain. A large cross was made, 
and solenuily blessed by th(5 priest; then, on the 
sixth of January, the Jesuit I)u I*eron led the way, 
followed in i)rocession ])y Madame de la Peltrie, the 
artisans, and soldiers, to the destined spot. The 
commaiuhint, who with all the ceremonies of the 
Church had been declared First Soldier of the Cross, 
walked behind the rest, bearing on his shoulder a 
cross so lieavy that it neecU'd his utmost strengih to 
climb the steep and rugged [)atli. They planted it 

t ! 

^ A little MS. map in M. .Tacquos Vijxi'r'a copy of Le Petit 
lici/istrc dc la Cure, de Muntitud lay.s down tlio jiosition ami sliaj)L' 
of the fort nt this time, and shows the spot where Maisonneuve 
planted the cross. 
VOL. II. — 







I' I 




on tli(^ liii,Hu'Ht (Mcst, and all kiu'lt in adoration JK'fore 
it. Dm IN'idu said mass; and Madanu; dc la Pcltric, 
always Ktmaiitic and always dcvont, I'cccivcd tho 
Hiu^ninicnt on tlio nionntain-top, a siKictaclc to tla^ 
vii'f^in world oulstrctclicd btdow. Sinidry iclics of 
Kainis liad hfcn set in the wood of the cross, which 
remained an object of pi I primage to the pious colo- 
nists of Villcniaric.^ 

Peace and hai'inony reijijne(l within the little fort; 
and so edifying was the deiueanor of the colonists, so 
faithful were they to the confessional, and so constant 
at mass, that a chronicler of tla^ day exclaims, in a 
burst of enthusiasn., that the deserts lately a resort of 
demons were now the abode of ant^els.'"^ The two Jesuits 
who for tlie time were their pastors had them well in 
hand. They dwelt under the same roof with most 
of their flock, who lived in connnunity, in one large 
house, and vied with each other in zeal for the honor 
of the Virgin and the conversion of the Indians. 

At the end of August, 1(U3, a vessel arrived at 
Villemarie Avith a reinforcement commanded by Louis 
d'iUIlcboust de Coulonges, a pious gentleman of 
Champagne, and one of the Associates of INIontreal.^ 
Some years before, he had asked in wedlock the hand 
of l^arbe de Boulogne ; but the young lady had, when 
a child, in the ardor of her piety, taken a vow of per- 
petual chastity. By the advice of her Jesuit confes- 

1 Vimont, RvhtHon, 104:1, 52, 53. 

2 Veritdbles Afofifs, cited by Faillon, i. 453, 454. 
8 Cliaulnier, 101 j JuclKTcau, Ul. 

d at 









sor, slio ai'coptccl liis suit, on condition tliat sho 
sliould [)n'S('rv(', to the iiour of licr death, tlic state 
to wliicli Holy Clnirch lias always asci'ilM'd a peculiar 
inerit.^ D'Aillclioust iiiarrii'd her; and when, soon 
afti^r, ln^ coii('('iv('(l tiic piiipose ol" devoting his life to 
the work of the Faith in Canada, he invited liis 
maiden sjtouse to go with him. She refused, and 
forl)ad(; liim to mention tlie suhjeet again. Her 
liealth was indifferent, and ahoiit this time slie fell 
ill. As a last resort, she made a promise^ to (iod that 
if He would restore her, she would go to Canada 
with her hushand; and foithwith her maladies ceased. 
Still her reluctance contiinied; she hesitated, and 
then refused again, when an inward light revealed 
to her that it was her duty to cast her lot in the 
wilderness. She accordingly embarked with DWille- 
])oust, accompanied l)y her sister, Mademoiselle 
Philippine de Houlogne, who had caught the conta- 
gion of her zeal. The })resence of these damsels 
would, to all appearance, be rather a burden than a 
profit to the colonists, beset as they then were by 
Indians, and often in peril of starvatif)n; but the 
spectacle of their ardor, as disinterested as it was 
extravagant, would serve to exalt the religi(ms enthu- 
siasm in which alone was the life of Villemaric. 

Their vessel passed in safety the Irocpiois v/ho 
watched the St. Lawrence, and its arrival tilled the 

* .TiU'luTi'iui, Ilistolre dr I' llotd-lJitu dr (^nehic, liTO. Tlio (.'on- 
fossur told I)' Ailk'l)()ust tliat it' lii' juTsuaduil liis wifi- to break Ikt 

vow of t'ontiiu'iici', "(ioilwouM cliastist- liim tt>rril>lv 

>» rii 

rill' nun 


; i 

■: I 

historian adds that, undi'tcrrcd by the menace, he tried and failed. 

[ ; 

1 : 

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ii ' ! 

Ij > 





colonists with joy. DWilleboust was a skilful sol- 
dier, specially versed in the arts of fortification; and 
under his direction the frail palisades which formed 
their sole defence were replaced by solid ramparts 
and bastions of earth. He brought news that the 
"unknown benefactress," as a certain generous mem- 
ber of the Association of Montreal was called in 
ignorance of her name, had given funds, to the 
amoinit, as .afterwards appeared, of forty-two thou- 
sand livres, for the Imilding of a hospital at Ville- 
maiie.^ The source of the gift was kejit secret, from 
a religious motive; but it soon became known t'-at 
it proceeded from Madame de Bullion, a lady whoso 
rank and wealth were exceeded only by her devotion. 
It is true that the hospital was not wanted, as no 
one was sick at Villemarie, and one or two chambers 
would have sulliced foi' every prospective necessity; 
but it will be remembered that the colony had been 
established in order that a hosjtital might be built, 
and Madame de Bullion would not hear to any other 
application of her money.^ Instead, therefore, of till- 
ing the land to su})ply their own pressing needs, all 
the lal)orers of the settlemert were set at this pious 
though superfluous task.^ There was no room in the 

1 Arc/u'rcs (ht Semiiidire de Vilhuiitn'r, citotl liy Faillon, i. 406. 
Tl.i' amount of tlio jrift was not (U'clari'd until tlio ni'xt year. 

^ Madonioisello Manco wrote to Iut, to urjjo that the money 
shouhl be devoted to tlie Huron mi.><sion ; but she absolutely refused. 
Dollier de Casson, MS. 

'^ Jnitrndl ill's Siiperii'iirs iIis Jcsiiitis, MS. 

The lios])ital was sixty feet lontf and twenty-four feet wide, with 
a kitchen, a clianiber for Mademoiselle Glance, others for servants, 




fort, which, moreovei', was in daiiij^er of inundation ; 
and the hospital was accordinoly built on higher 
ground adjacent. To leave it unprotected would he 
to abandon its inmates to the Inxpiois; it was there- 
fore surrounded by a strong palisade, and, in time of 
danger, a part of the garrison was detailed to defend 
it. Here Mademoiselle Mance took up her abode, and 
waited the day when wounds or disease should bring 
patients to her empty wai'ds. 

Dauversiere, who had lirst conceived +his plan of 
a hospital in the wilderness, was a senseless en- 
thusiast, who rejected as i\ sin every protest of 
reason against the dreams which governed him: vet 
one rational and practical element entered into the 
motives of those who carried the plan into execu- 
tion. The hospital was intended not only to nurse 
sick Frenchmen, but to nurse and convert sick 
Indians; in other words, it was an engine of the 

From Maisonneuve to tlie humblest laborer, these 
zealous colonists were bent on tin? work of ('oiiver- 
sion. To that end the ladies made i)ilgrimages to 
the cross on the mountain, sometimes for nine days 
in succession, to pray (iod to gather the lieathen into 
His fold. The fatigue was gi'cat ; nor was the (Lin- 
ger less; and armed men always escorted tlicm, as a 

and two larf,a' apir'trneiits for tlic jijiticnts. It was iiii)i)ly jtroviilcil 
with ftiriiituri', linen, nu'difims, aiKi all mci^sarics ; and hail also 
two oxen, thrc'i' cows, and twt'iity sht'i'p. A >inall oratory ot' stoiu" 
was built ailjoininj,^ it. 'Vhv cndosurr was t'niir (n/n'iils in uxtciit. 
Archives du tSemiHairi' de I'll/iinarit, cited \>y Faillnn. 

^ it 

I ■ 


t • 




[ i 


precaution against the Iroquois.^ Tlie male colonists 
were equally fervent; and sometimes as many as fif- 
teen or sixteen persons would kneel at once before 
the cross with the same charitable petition. ^ The 
ardor of their zeal may be inferred from the fact that 
these pious expeditions consumed the greater pail of 
the day, wlien time and labor were of a value past 
reckoning to the little colony. I5esides their pilgrim- 
ages, they used other means, and very eflicient ones, 
to attract and gain over tlie Indians. They housed, 
fed, and clothed them at every oj)[)ortunity ; and 
though they were subsisting chiefly on j'l'ovisions 
brought at great cost from France, there was always 
a portion for the hungry savages who from time ta 
time encamped near their fort. If they coidd })er- 
suade any of them to be nursed, they were consigned 
to the tender care of Mademoiselle Ahince; and if a 
l)arty went to war, their women and children were 
taken in charge till their return. As this attention 
to their bodies had for its object the profit of their 
souls, it was accompanied with incessant catechising. 
This, witli the other influences of the 2>lace. had its 
effect; and some notable conversions were made. 
Among them was that of the renowned chief Tes- 
souat, or Le Borgne, as the French called him, — a 
crafty and intractable savage, whom, to their own 
surprise, they succeeded in taming and winning to 

1 florin, Annales de rilohl-hicu dc St. Joscjili, MS., citt'cl by 
Faillon, i. 457. 

'^ MiirLTiu'rito Bourguoys, Lrrits Autourtiji.'ns, MS., extracts in 
Fiiillon. i. 4o8. 




the Faith. ^ He was cliristeiiecl with the mime of 
Paul, and his squaw with tliat of Madeleine. Mai- 
sonneuve rewarded him with a gun, and celebrated 
the day by a feast to all the Indians present.'-^ 

The French hoped to form an agricultural settle- 
ment of Indians in the neighborhood of Villemarie; 
and they spared no exertion to tliis end, giving them 
tools, and aiding them to till the fields. They might 
have succeeded but for that pest of the wilderness, 
the Iroquois, who hovered about them, harassed them 
with petty attacks, and again and again drove the 
Algonquins in terror from their camps. Some time 
had elapsed, as we have seen, before the Inxpiois 
discovered Villemarie; but at length ten fugitive 
Algonquins, chased by a party of them, made for the 
friendly settlement as a safe asylum; and thus their 
astonished pursuers became aware of its existence. 
They reconnoitred the place, and went back to their 
towns with the news.^ From that time forth the col- 
onists had no peace; no more excursions for fishing 
and hunting; no more Sunday strolls in woods and 
meadows. The men went armed to their work, and 

I ' 

•I I 

1 Vimont, Relation, 1*143, 54, 55. Tt'ssouat was cliief of Allu- 
mt'tte Island, in the Ottawa. His prcdi-ci'ssor, of the same name, 
was Champlain's host in 1013. See " I'ioneeis of France," ii. cliap. 

■•^ It was the usual practice to give j;uns to converts, " pour attiriT 
leur compatriotes a la Foy." They were never ,t,nven to lieathen 
Indians. "It seems," observes Vimont, " tliat our liord wishes to 
make use of this metliod in order that ('Iiristi;inity may become 
acceptable in tliis country." — Jldadun, 1U43, 71. 

3 DoUicr de Casson, ^18. 

i ; 






returned at the sound of a bell, marching in a com- 
pact body, prepared for an attack. 

Early in June, 1(>43, sixty Hurons came down in 
canoes for tralUc, and on reaching the place now- 
called Lachine, at the head of the rapids of St. Louis, 
and a few miles above Villemarie, they were amazed 
at finding a large Iro(piois war-purty in a fort hastily 
built of the trunks and boughs of trees. Surj)rise 
anil fright seem to have infatuated them. They 
neither fought nor fled, Init greeted their inveterate 
foes as if they were fritnids and allies, and, to gain 
their good graces, told them all they knew of the 
French settlement, urging them to attack it, and 
promising an easy victory. Accordingly, the Iro- 
quois detached forty of their wariiors, who sur- 
prised six Frenchmen at work hewing tind)er within 
a gunshot of the fort, killed three of them, took 
the remaining three prisoners, and returned in tri- 
umph. The captives were bound with the usual 
rigor; and the Hurons taunted and insulted them, 
to please their dangerous companions. Their base- 
ness availed them little ; for at night, after a feast 
of victory, when the Ilurons were asleep or off 
their guard, their entertainers fell u})on them, 
and killed or captured the greater part. The rest 
ran for Villemarie, where, as their treachery was 
as yet unknown, they were received with great 

1 I have followed Dollier de Casson. Vimont's account is dilYer- 
ent. lie says that tlie Iroijuois fell upon the Hurons at the outset, 

I I 




The next inoniiii*,' tlie Iroquois (lec';iiii)HM], 0iUTyin<]f 
with them tlieir prisoners and tlie furs plnndeicd 
from the Huron canoes. They had taken also, and 
probably destroyed, all the letters rnmi tlie mission- 
aries in the Huron country, as well as a vi)[)\ ot" their 
Udation of the precedintj^ year. Ol" tlie tlirce Fivneh 
prisoners, one escajjcd and reached Montreal; the 
remaining two were burned alive. 

At Villemarie it was usually dani^jerous to j)ass 
beyond the ditch of the fort or the })alisades of the 
liospital. Sometimes a solitary warrior would lie 1iid- 
den for days, without slcej) and almost without food, 
behind a log in the forest, or in a dense thicket, 
watching like a lynx for some rash straggler. Some- 
times parties of a hun(b'ed or more made ambuscades 
near by, and sent a few of their lunnlu'r to lure out 
the sokUei'S by a i)etty attack and a llight. The dan- 
ger was much diminished, however, when the colr- 
nists received from France a lunuber of dogs, which 
proved most elhcient sentinels and scouts. Of the 
instinct of these animals the writers of the time speak 
witli astonishment. Chief among them was a ])itch 
named Pilot, who every morning made the rounds of 
the forests and fields about the foi-t, followed by a 

\ [ 


and took twenty-three prisoners, killiiii,' mnny others ; after wliicli 
they niiule the attaek at \'ini'Miarie. — liilnlinn, ID}-"., ()2. 

Faillon thinks that Viniont was unwillinii; to ])ul)lisli tlu' tri-ach- 
ery of the Ilurons, lest tlie interests of tlie Huron mission should 
suffer in consequence. 

Belmont, I/istoirc du Cdinu/a. KMo, conllrnis the acccnuit of the 
Huron treai'hery. 

I i 








troop of her offspring. If oiio of them higged 
behind, she bit him to remind him of his (hity; and 
if any skulked and ran home, she punislied tliom 
severely in the same manner on lier return. When 
she discovered the Iroquois, which she was sure to 
do by the scent if any were near, she barked furiously, 
and ran at once straight to the fort, followed by the 
rest. The Jesuit chronicler adds, with an amusing 
naivete^ that while this was her duty, "her natural 
inclination was for hunting squirrels. "^ 

Maisonneuve was as brave a knight of the cross as 
ever fought in Palestine for the sepulchre of Christ; 
but he could temper his valor with discretion. Jle 
knew that he and his soldiers were but indifferent 
woodsmen; that their crafty foe had no equal in 
ambuscades and surprises; and that, while a defeat 
might ruin the French, it would only exasperate an 
enemy whose resources in men were incomparably 
greater. Therefore, when the dogs sounded the 
alarm, he kept his followers close, and stood patiently 
on the defensive. They chafed under this Fabian 
policy, and at length imputed it to cowardice. Their 
murmurings grew louder, till they reached the ear of 
Maisonneuve. The religion which animated him had 
not destroyed the soldierly pride which takes root so 
readily and so strongly in a manly nature ; and an 

;■■ ■! 

■f >vi 

1 Lalemant, Relation, 1017, 74, 75. " Son attrait nature! ostoit la 
chasse aux dourieux." Dollier ile Casson also speaks admiringly of 
her and her instinct. Faillon sees in it a manifest proof of the pro- 
tecting care of God over Villeniarie. 

I L 




imputation of cowiirdice from his own soldiers stnng 
him to the quick. ''3 saw, too, tluit such an 
opinion of liim must .leeds weaken his authority, 
and impair the discipline essential to the safety of 
the colony. 

On the morning of the thirtieth of !March, Pilot 
was heard l)arking with unusual fury in the forest 
eastward from the fort; and in a few moments they 
saw her running over the clearing, v/here the snow 
was still deep, followed by her brood, all giving 
tongue together. The excited Frenchmen flocked 
about their commander. 

"Monsieur, les ennemis sont dans le bois; ne les 
irons-nous jamais voir?"^ 

Maisonneuve, habitually composed and calm, 
ans>vered sharply, — 

"Yes, you siiall see the enemy. Get yourselves 
ready at once, and take care that you are as brave as 
you profess to be. I shall lead you myself." 

All was bustle in the fort. Guns were loaded, 
pouches filled, and snow-shoes tied on by those who 
had them and knew how to use them. There were 
not enough, however, and many were forced to go 
without them. When all was ready, Maisonneuve 
i^allied forth at the head of tliirty men, leaving 
d'Ailleboust, with the remainder, to hold the fort. 
They crossed the snowy clearing and entered the 
forest, where all was silent as the grave. They 
pushed on, wading through the deep snow, with the 

1 DoUier dc Cass^on, MS. 

'i -^ 

1: ' I 

, t 

• "! 

. I 

>! • '■ 




f I 



countless pitfalls hidden benciitli it, when sudderdy 
they were j^rectiMl with thu sereeches of ('iL;Iify 
Ir()(|U()is,i who sprang np from their lurkinL,r-])la('es, 
and showered Indlets and arrows ui)on tlie advancing 
French. The emergency ealled, not for chivalry, hut 
for woodcraft; and Maisoinieuve ordered his men to 
take shelter, like their assailants, l)ehind trees. They 
stood their ground resolutely for a long time; but the 
Iroquois pressed them closi', three of their nundu-r 
were killed, otlieis were wounded, and their annnu- 
nition ])egan to fail. Their t)nlv alternatives were 
destruction or retreat; and to retreat was not easy. 
The ordei' was given. Though steady at fust, the 
men soon became confused, and over-eager to escape 
the galling lire which the Irocjuois sent after them. 
Maisonneuve directed them towards a sledge-track 
whieh had bet'U used in dragging tindn'r for building 
the hospital, and where the snow was iirm beneath 
the foot. He himself remained to the last, encour- 
aging his followers and aiding the wounded to escape. 
The French, as they sti'iigglcd thnmgh the snow, 
faced about from time to time, and fired back to 
check the pursuit; but no sooner had they reached 
the sledge -track than they gave way to their terror, 
and ran in a body for the fort. Those within, seeing 
this confused rush of men from the distance, mis- 

1 Viiiioiit, lii'hitton, 1044, 42. DoUior dc Casson says two liuu- 
dreil ; but it is usually safe in thosu cases to accept the snialliT 
number, and Viniont founds his statement on the infonnation of an 
escaped prisoner. 

■ i;! 




took them for tlie enemy; iind an ovcr-ze'ilous soldier 
tonclied tilt' match to a cannon wliU'li liad Itccn 
pointed to rake tlic sled^^e-track. Had not the [ticcc 
missed liic, from dam[)nt'ss of tlie primiiiijf, he would 
liave (h)ne more execntlon at one shot than tla; Iro- 
quois In all the lii^'ht of that morning. 

Maisonneuve was left alone, retreatin<jf haekwai'ds 
(h)wn tlu! track, and holding his pursuers in check, 
with a i)istol in (>aeh hand. They might easily have 
shot him; but, recognizing him as the conuuander of 
the; French, they were bent on taking him alive. 
Their chief coveted this honor for himsi'lf, and his 
followers held aloof to give him the o[)portunity. He 
pressed close upon Maisonneuve, who snapped a ])is- 
tol at liim, whicli missed fire. Tlu? Irocpiois, who 
liad ducked to avoid the shot, rose erect, and sprang 
forward to seize him, when Maisonneuve, with his 
remaining pistol, shot him dead. Then ensued a 
curious spectacle, not infre([uent in Indian battles. 
The Iro(pi()is seemed to forget their enemy, in their 
anxiety to !-ecure and carry off tlie body of their 
chief; and the French commander continued his re- 
treat unmolested, till he was safe under the camion 
of the fort. From that day, he w^as a hero in the 
eyes of his men.^ 

1 DoUier ile Casson, MS. Vimont's mention of the affair is briof. 
IIo says that two Frcnclimcn wxtc inaili' jJi-isontTs, and hunii'd. 
l?i'lmont, Ili'stiiire dii CoikuIh, l<i4r>, o'ivcs a sticcinct account of the 
fiillit, and indicates the scene of it. It seems to liave been a little 
bflow the site of the I'lace d'Arnies, on which stands the ^rreat 
I'arish Church of Villeinarie, connnonly known to tourists as 

I :• 





QucIk'c, iind IVrontrcsil an^ liappy in tlicir fouiidcrs. 
Sjiinucl (lu Chimi[>liiiii mid ('honicdey de Maisoiineuve 
are ainoii}^' tlio iianuis that sliiiio with a fair and lionest 
lustre on the infancy of nations. 

till' "Ciitlu'dnil." Fnillon thinks that Muis()nneuvL''8 exploit win?. 
achii'Vfd on this very spot. 

Miirjfucriti' Hour(jrt'oys also dt'scribt's the ull'uir in her uiipub- 
UhIiu*! writinf^s. 



1G44, 1045. 


InoQi'ois Prisonkks. — PtsKAiiET: ins Expi.oixfl.— More Pris. 
ONKUH. — Ikoqiois Emuassv. — TiiK Oiivroit. — 'I'iik Gimcat 


In the (lamp and freshness of a midsmnmer morn- 
ing, when tlie sun liad not yet risen, but when the 
river and the sky were red with the gh)ry of approacli- 
ing day, the inmates of the fort at Three Ilivei-s were 
roused by a tumult of joyous and exultant voices. 
They thronged to the sliore, - priests, soldiers, 
traders, and officers, mingled with warrioi-s and 
shrill-voiced squaws from Huron and Algonquin 
camps in the neighboring forest. Close at hand they 
saw twelve or fifteen canoes slowly drifting down the 
current of the St. Lawrence, manned by eiglity young 
Indians, all singing tlieir songs of victory, and strik- 
ing their paddles against the edges of their bark ves- 
sels in cadence with their voices. Among them three 
Iroquois prisoners stood upriglit, singing loud and 
defiantly, as men not fearing torture or death. 

i " 





A ft'w (liiys iM'forc, tlu'so yninii,' wiirriors, in part 
Huron and in pait Ali^ontiniiu liad ^Mn*' out oti tlio 
war-i)alli lo (lie rivrr liidiclicu, wlicrii tlicy liad 
presently found themselves entan^'led imiouijf several 
l)an(ls of Iro(piois. 'I'liey witlidrew in (lie ni^lit, 
ai'tei- a l)attle in tlie dark with an Inxpiois eano(\ 
and, as tiiey approaciicd l-'oit Itiehelieu, liad the ^ood 
fortinie t(» diseovei' ten of tiieir enemy aniltuseaded in 
a elumj> of hushes and fallen trees, watehiiii^ to way- 
lay some of the soldieis on their morniuf,' visit to tho 
lishiiij^-nets in the river hard l»y. They eaj)ture(l 
three of them, and earried them lia(dc in triumi>h. 

'I'he victors landed amid screams of exultation. 
'J'wo of the j)i'isoiiei's were assii^'ned to the Ilurons, 
and the third to the Al^oufiuins, who innuediately 
took him to their lodu'es near the fort at 'I'hreo 
Rivers, and heyan the usual "caress," ])y burnint,'' his 
feet with rcfd-hot stones, and euttinjj^ off his lingers. 
CHiamplleur, the connnandant, went out to them with 
urufcnt renionsti'anees, and at lent^tli prevailed on 
them to leavt^ their victim without further injury, 
luitil Montmagny, tho Governor, should arrive. He 
came with all despatch, — not wholly from a motive 
of humanity', but partly in the hope that the three 
captives nii^ht ])e made instrumental in concluding a 
peace with their conntrymen. 

A council was held in tho fort at Three J^ivers. 
jMontman'ny made valuable presents to the Algon- 
qiiins and tho Ilurons, to induce them to })lace the 
prisoners in his hands. The Algoncpiins complied; 




luul the unfortuiiiito Tnujiiois, ^^aslicd, miiiincd, and 
KC'orclu'd, was ^ivcn up to tin* Frciicli, who trcatod 
him with tlio greatest kindness, liut ncithor the 
(lovcrnor's gilts nor liis clcMjnt'ncc couhl juTsnado 
tho Unions to foUow tiio cxamith' of tiicii' allies; and 
they dt'[»art(Ml fur their own country with their two 
('ai)tives, — proniisint,', however, not to lairn them, 
hut to usL* them for negotiations of peaee. With 
this pledge, scarcely worth the; hreath that uttered it, 
Montmagny was forced to content himself.* 

Thus it appeare(l that thi^ fortunif of war did not 
always smile even on the Inxpiois. Indeed, if there 
is faith in Indian tradition, there liad heen a time, 
scarcely half a century i)ast, when tlu^ Mohawks — 
perhaps the fiercest and haughtiest of the confederate 
nations — had heen nearly destroyed hy the Algon- 
quins, whom they now held in contempt. ^ This 
people, whose inferiority arose chiefly from the want 
of that comi)act organization in which lay the strength 
of the Iro(piois, had not lost their ancient warlike 
spirit; and they had one chaiiipioii of whom oven 

1 Vimont, /idution, 1(114, -LVtO. 

2 Rrhttidii, lO'iO, (! (aiioiiyinoiis). 

Both I'errot and La I'otluTie recount traditionB of the anfiont 
superiority of tlu' Ali/oniiuinH over tlic Ir()q>iois, who formerly, it is 
saiti, dwelt near Montre: 1 and Tlircc Hivers, whence the AI>:on- 
quins expelled them. Tluy withdri'W, first to tlie neiKlihorhooii of 
Lake Erie, then to that of I'.ake Ontario, tlu-ir lustoric .seat. Tiiere 
i.s mueli to supjjort tlu eonjeeture tliat tlie Indians found by Cartier 
at Montreal in In'^'t were Iroquois. (See " Pioiu'ers of France," 
ii. 20.) That tliey l)e'()n>j;ed to the same family of trihes is certain. 
For the traditions alluded to, see I'errot, 9, 12, 70, and La Totlierie, 
i. 288-205. 

VOL. II. — 7 

i I 





the audacious confederates stood in awe. His name 
was Piskaret; and he dwelt on that great island in 
the Ottawa of which Le Borgnc was chief. He had 
lately turned Christiim, in the hope of French favor 
and countenance, — always useful to an ambitious 
Indian, — and perhaps, too, with an eye to the gun 
and powder-horn which formed the earthly reward 
of the convert.^ Tradition tells marvellous stories 
of his exploits. Once, it is said, he entered an 
Iroquois town on a dark night. His first care was 
to seek out a hiding-place, and he soon found one in 
the midst of a large wood-pile.'^ Next he crept into 
a lodge, and, finding the inmates asleep, killed them 
with his war-club, took their scalps, and quietly 
withdrew to the retreat he had prepared. In the 
morning a howl of lamentation and fury rose from 
the astonished villagers. They ranged the fields and 
forests in vain pursuit of the mysterious enemy, who 
remained all day in the wood-pile, whence, at mid- 
night, he came forth and repeated his former exploit. 
On the third night, every family placed its sentinels ; 
and Piskaret, stealthily creeping from lodge to lodge, 
and reconnoitring each through crevices in the bark, 
saw watchers everywhere. At length he descried a 
sentinel who had fallen asleep near the entrance of 
a lodge, though his companion at the other end was 

1 " Simon Picskarot . . . nVstoit Chrestien qu'cn apparence et 
par polico." — Lalomant, /iVA/^/o/i, 1047,08. He afterwards became 
a convert in earnest. 

2 "Rotli the Iroquois and tlie Ilnrons collected great quantities of 
wood in tlieir villages in the autumn. 

rr i:| 

i ! 






still awake and vigilant. He pushed aside the sheet 
of bark that served as a door, struck the sleeper a 
deadly hlow, yelled his war-cry, imd fled like the 
wind. All the village swarmed out in furious chase ; 
hut Piskaret was the swiftest runner of his time, and 
easily kept in advance of his pureuers. When day- 
light came, he showed himself from time U) time to 
lure them on, then yelled defiance, and distanced 
them again. At night, all but six had given over 
the chase; and even these, exhausted as they were, 
had begun to despair. Piskaret, seeing a hollow 
tree, crept into it like a bear, and hid himself; while 
the Iroquois, losing his traces in the dark, lay down 
to sleep near by. At midnight he emei'ged from his 
retreat, stealthily approached his slumbering enemies, 
nimbly brained them all with his war-club, and then, 
burdened with a goodly bundle of scalps, journeyed 
homeward in triumph.^ 

This is but one of several stories that tradition has 
preserved of his exploits; and, with all reasonable 
allowances, it is certain that the crafty and valiant 
Algonquin was the model of an Indian warrior. 
That which follows rests on a far safer basis. 

Early in the spring of 1645, Piskaret, with six 
other converted Indians, some of them better Chris- 
tians than he, set out on a war-[)arty, and, after 

^ Tliis stor}' is told b}' La Pothcrie, i. 200, and, more briefly, l>y 
Perrot, 107. La Potherie, writing more tlian lialf a contury after 
the time in (jnestion, represents tlie Iroquois as hal)itually in awe of 
the Algonquins. In this all tiie contemporary writers contradict 

! :t 

' 1 




f ! 


li M ' 


t I 

(Irai^ging their canoes over the frozen St. Lawrence, 
launclicd them on the open stream of the Kichelien. 
They ascended to I^ake Cliamplaiii, and hid them- 
selves in the leafless forests of a large island, watch- 
ing i)atiently for their liuman prey. One day they 
heard a distant shot. "Come, friends, " said Piskaret, 
"let us get our dinner: perliaps it will be the last, 
for we must die I )e fore we run." Having dined to 
their contentment, the philosopliic warriors prepared 
for action. One of them went to reconnoitre, and 
soon reported that two canoes full of Iroquois were 
approaching the island. Pi: ' aret and his followers 
crouched in the bushes at the })oint for which the 
canoes were making, and, as the foremost drew 
near, each chose his mark, and fired with such good 
effect that of seven warriors all but one were killed. 
The survivoi" jumped overboard, .and swam for the 
other canoe, where he was taken in. It now con- 
tained eight Iroquois, who, far from attempting to 
escape, paddled in haste for a distant part of the 
shore, in order to land, give battle, and avenge their 
slain comrades. But the Algonquins, rumiing through 
the woods, reached the landing before them, and as 
one of them rose to fire they shot him. In his fall 
he overset the canoe. The water was shallow, and 
the submerged warriors, presently finding foothold, 
waded towards the shore, and made desperate fight. 
The Algonquins had the advantage of position, and 
used it so well that they killed all but three of their 
enemies, and captured two of the survivors. Next 

. 1. 

I M 

' 'I 

1 '■ 









they sought out the hodies, caivfully scalped theui, 
and set out in triuiii[)li on tlieir retuni. To the credit 
of their Jesuit teachers, they treated their prisoners 
with a forbearance hitlierto witliout example. One 
of them, who was deliant and abusive, recei\'ed a 
blow to silence him; but no further indignity was 
offered to either. ^ 

As the successful warriors ai)proached the little 
mission settlement of Sillery, immediately above 
Quebec, they raised their song of trium[)h, and beat 
time with tlieir paddles on tlie edges of their canoes; 
while, from eleven poles raised aloft, eleven fresh 
scalps fluttered in the wind. The Father Jesuit and 
all his flock were gathered on the strand to welcome 
them. The Indians lired their guns, and screeched 
in jubilati(m; one Jean 15a[)tiste, a Cliri lian chief 
of Sillery, made a speech from the shore; Piskaret 
replied, standing upright in his eaiioe; and, to crown 
the occasion, a squad of soldiers, marching in haste 
from Quebec, fired a salute of nuisketrv, to the bound- 
less delight of the Indians. Mueh to the surprise of 
the two captives, there was no running of the gant- 
let, no gnawing off of lingei-nails or cutting off of 
fingers; but the scalps were hung, like little flags, 
over the entrances of the lodges, and all Sillery 
betook itself to feasting and rejoicing.- One old 

1 According to Marie do riiicuriiatiun, Littrc, 14 Sipt., MW'), 
Piskaret was for torturin^j the ciijttives ; but a convert, named 
Bernard b}- tlie Freneli, protested aLiainst it. 

« Vimont, Relation, 104-3, lU-21. 

I ; 1 

! 1 

1 ' 


i I 

; r > 




woman, indeed, came to the Jesirt with a pathetic 
appeal: "Oh, my Fatlier! kit me caress these pris- 
oners a little: they liave killed, burned, and eaten 
my father, my husband, and my children." IJut the 
missit)nary answered with a lecture on the duty of 

On the next day, iSIontmagny came to Sillery, and 
there was a grand council in the house of the Jesuits. 
Piskaret, in a solenni harangue, delivei'ed his cap- 
tives to the Governor, who replied with a speech of 
compliment and an ample gift. The two Iroquois 
were present, seated with a seeming imperturbability, 
but great anxiety of heart; and when at length they 
comprehended that their lives were safe, one of them, 
a man of great size and synnuetr}-, rose and addressed 
Montmagny : — 

"Onontio,^! am saved from the fire; my body is 
delivered from death. Onontio, you have given me 
my life. I thank you foi- it. I will never forget it. 
All my country will be gratid'ul to you. The earth 
will be bright; the river calm and smooth; there will 
be peace and friendship between us. The shadow 
is before my e3'es no longer. The spirits of my 
ancestors slain by the Algonquins have disappeared. 

1 Vimont, Relation, 1(U5, 21, 22, 

2 Onontio, Great Movntain, a translation of Montmapny's name. 
It was tlie Iroquois name ever after for tlie Governor of Canada. 
In the same manner, Onas, FeatJter, or Qi////, beeame the oflicial 
name of William I'enn, and all succeedinjj; Governors of Pennsyl- 
vania. We have seen that the Iroquois he."editary chiefs had official 
names, which are the same to-day that tliey were at the period of 
this narrative. 



^*, ," 



Onontio, you are good: we are l)afl. But our anger 
is gone; I have no heart but for p(»ace and rejoic- 
ing." As he said this, he began to dance, holding 
liis hands upraised, as if apostrophizing tlie sky. 
Suddenly he snatched a hatchet, brandished it for a 
moment like a madman, and then Hung it into the 
fire, saying, as he did so, "Thus I throw down my 
anger I thus I cast away the weapons of blood ! Fare- 
well, war! Now I am ytmr friend forever! " ^ 

The two prisoners were alliAved to roam at will 
about the settlement, withheld from escaping by an 
Indian point of honor. INIontmagny soon after sent 
thern to Three Rivers, where the Irixpiois taken 
during the last summer had remained all winter. 
Champfleur, the commandant, now received orders to 
clothe, equip, and send him home, wath a messnge to 
his nation that Onontio made them a present of his 
life, and that he had still two prisoners in his hands 
whom he would also give them, if they saw lit to 
embrace this opportunity of making peace with the 
French and their Indian allies. 

This was at the end of May. On the fifth of July 
following, the liberated Iroquois rea})peared at Three 
Rivers, bringing with him two men of renown, ambas- 
sadors of the ^lohawk nation. There was a fourth 
man of the party, and, as they ap[)roached, the 
Frenchmen on the shore recognized, to their great 

1 Vimont, Relation, 1045, 22, 23. Ho adds, that, "if tliese people 
are barbarous in deed, tiiey have thoiit,dits worthy of Grctdcs and 


i '^l 




f ■ 


t I 

delight, CJuillauine Couture, — the young man cap- 
tured three years before with Fatlier Jogues, and 
long since given up as dead. In dress and appear- 
ance he was an Iroquois. He had gained a gi'eat 
influence over his captors, and this end)assy of peace 
was due in good measure to his persuasions.^ 

The chief of the Iroquois, Kiotsaton, a tall savage, 
covered from head to foot with belts of wampum, 
stood erect in the 2)row of the sail-boat which had 
brought him and his com[)anions from Richelieu, and 
in a loud voice amiounced hhnself as the accredited 
envoy of his nation. The boat fired a swivel, the 
fort replied with a cannon-sliot, and the envoys 
landed in state. KiotsatiMi and his colleague were 
conducted to the room of the conunandant, where, 
seated on the floor, they were regaled sinnptuously, 
and presented in due course ^\'ith pipes of tobacco. 
They had never before seen anything so civilized, 
and were delighted with their entertainment. "We 
are glad to sec you," said Champfleur to Kiotsaton; 
"you may be sure that you are safe here. It is as if 
you were among your own people, and in your own 
house. " 

"Tell your chief that he lies," replied the honored 
guest, addi'essing the interpreter. 

Champfleur, though he probably knew thnt this was 
but an Indian mode of expressing dissent, showed 
some little surprise ; when Kiotsaton, after tranquilly 
smoking for a moment, proceeded: — 

^ Marie de I'lncarnation, Lettre, 14 Sept., 1646. 

f !| 




111 niv own 

"your chief says it is us if I wore 
country. This is not true; for tlieri! I iiin not so 
honored and caressed. He says it is as if I were in 
my own house; hut in my own lionse I am soiiu'tiiiics 
very ill served, and here you feast me wit)' all manner 
of good cheer." From this and many otiier re[)lies, 
the French conceived that they had to do with a man 
of esprit.^ 

He undoubtedly helonged to that class of professed 
orators who, though rarely or never claiming tiie 
honors of hereditary chieftainship, had great iiillii- 
ence among the Iroquois, and were employed in all 
affairs of embassy and negotiation. They had mem- 
ories trained to an astonishing tenacity, were perfect 
in all the conventional meta})hors in whicli the lan- 
guage of Indian diplomacy and rhetoric mainly con- 
sisted, knew by heart the traditions of the nation, 
and were adepts in the parliamentary usagt>s which 
among the Iroquois were held little less tliaii sacii.'d. 

The ambassadors were feasted for a week, not only 
by the French, but also by the Hurons and Algon- 
quins; and then the grand peace council took place. 
Montmagny had come up from Quebec, and with him 
the chief men of the colony. It was a bright mid- 
summer day; and the sun beat hot upon the ])ar('1i('d 
area of the fort, where awnings were spread to shel- 
ter the assembly. On one side sat Montniiigny, with 
officers and others who attended him. Near him was 
Vimont, Superior of the Mission, and other Jesuits, 

1 Vimont, Relation, 1G45, 24. 

I i 






— Jogues among the rest. Tmmefliately hefore llieiu 
sat the rn)([U()is, on slieets of spnicc-hark sjircad on 
the ground like mats: for they liad insisted on l)eiiig 
near the French, as a sign of the extreme h)vc tliey 
had of late coneeived towards them. On the oppo- 
site side of the area were tlie Algonqniiis, in tlicir 
several divisions of tlie Algcmquins pro^xM", tlie 
Montagnais, and the Attieamegnes,^ sitting, lying, or 
squatting on the ground. On the right liand and 
on the left were Ilurons mingled with Frenchmen. 
In the midst was a large open space like the arena t)f 
a prize-ring; and here were planted two poles with 
a line stretched from one to the otlier, on which, in 
due time, were to he hung the wampum helts that 
represented the words of tlie orator. For the present, 
these helts were in part hung about the persons of the 
two and)assadors, and in part stored in a bag carried 
by one of them. 

When all was ready, Kiotsaton arose, strode into 
the open space, and, raising his tall figure erect, stood 
looking for a moment at the sun. Then ho gazed 
around on the assembly, took a wampum belt in his 
hand, and began : — 

" Onontio, give ear. I am the mouth of all my 
nation. When you listen to me, you listen to all the 
Iroquois. There is no evil in my heart. jNIy song 
is a song of peace. We have many war-songs in our 

* The Atticanie<?ues, or tribe of tlie White Fir' dwelt in the 
forests north of Three Ilivers. They much resembk'd their Mon- 
tagnais kindred. 

I' ■' ! 


L' - , 'i 




country; hut we have tlirown tliem all away, and now 
we siiij^ of notliiiii; l)ut gladness and rejoicing. " 

Hereupon he hegan to sing, his eountrynien join- 
ing with him. Hi' walked to and fro, gesticulated 
towards the sky, and seemed to apostrophize the sun; 
then, turning towards the Governor, resumed his 
harangue. First he thaid-ced him for the life of the 
Iro([Uois prisoner released in the spring, hut hlamed 
him for sending him home without com[)anyor escort. 
Then he led forth the young Frenchman, (Juillaume 
Couture, and tied a wam})um helt to his arm. 

"With this," he said, "I give you hack this pi'is- 
oner. I did not say to him, ' Ne[)hew, take a canoe 
and go home to Quehec.' I should have heen with- 
out sense, had I dime so. I should have heen 
trouhled in my heart, lest some evil might hefall 
him. The prisoner whom you sent hack to us 
suffered every kind of danger and hardship on the 
way." Here he proceeded to represent the dil'licul- 
ties of the journey in pantomime, "so natural," says 
Father Vimont, "that no actor in France could equal 
it." He counterfeited the lonely traveller toiling up 
some rocky portage track, with a load of haggage on 
his head, now stop[)ing as if half spent, and now 
tripping against a stone. Next he was in his canoe, 
vainly trying to urge it against the swift current, 
looking around in despair on the foaming rapids, then 
recovering courage, and paddling des[)erately for his 
life. "What did you mean," demanded the orator, 
resuming his harangue, "hy sending a man alone 





among thoso dangers? I liavo not done so. 'Como, 
nephew,' I said to tlio j)risoiier (here before you," — 
jjointing to Coiitin-e, — "' I'olhiw me: I will see you 
liome at the risk of my life.'" And to eonlirm his 
words, he hung another belt on the line. 

The third helt was to deelare that the nation of 
the s[u'aker had sent presents to the other nations to 
reeall their war-parties, in view of the approaching 
peace. The fourth was an assurance that the memory 
of the slain Inxpiois no longer stirred the living to 
vengeiinee. "J passed near the place M'here I'iskanjt 
and the Algoiujuins slew our warriors in the si)ring. 
1 saw the scene of the tight where the two piisoncra 
here were taken. I passed rpiickly; I would not 
look on the blood of my people. Theii- bodies Ho 
there still; I turned away my eyes, that I miglit not 
be angry." Then, stooping, lie struck the ground 
and seemed to listen. "1 heard the voice of my 
ancestors, slain by the Algonquins, crying to me in 
a tone of ai'l'ection, ' My grandson, my grandson, 
restrain your anger: think no more of us, for you 
cannot deliver us from death; think of the living; 
rescue them from the knife and the fire.' When I 
heard these voices, I went on my way, and jour- 
neyed hither to deliver those whom you still hold in 

The lifth, sixth, and seventh belts were to open the 
passage by w^ater from the French to the Iroquois, 
to chase hostile canoes from tlie river, smooth away 
the rapids and cataracts, and calm the waves of the 


1(5 ir,.] 

SPKKcn OK KlorsA'I'ON'. 



hike. Tlu^ i'i«;litli clciiicd the [nitli l»y laiul. 
would liavc said," writes Vimoiit, "tliat lio was ciit- 
tinf( down tn-cs, liackiiiL^ off i)raii('li('s, dran'i^'iiiii^ away 
hiislu'H, and lilliiiL,'" U[) liolcs."' — ^ ''Lookl " oxidainii'd 
llio oi'utor, wlu'ii lie had undi'd liiis [)aiitoiMiiii(', "(Iio 



d straiLdit 

d lit' bent 

roacl IS ()[H'ii, SMioolli, and sirai;^nit; and lie ix-nl 
towards tlio earth, as if to siui tliat no inipcdinicnt 
runiainod. ''There is no tiiorn or stoiiu or h)^' in the 
way. Now you may see the smoke of our viUa^cs 
from Queljcc, to the heart of our country." 

Another Itelt, ot" unusual si/.c; and beauty, was to 
bind the Iro([Uois, the French, and their Indian allies 
togiither a;, one man. As he presented it, the orator 
led forih a Frenehman and an Al^ouiiuin from anions; 
his auditors, and, linkiuL^ his arms with theirs, pressed 
them closely to his sides, in token of indissoluble union. 

The next belt invited tlu^ Frencii to feast with 
the Iroquois. "Our countiy is full of lish, venison, 
moose, beaver, and game of every kind. Leave these 
liltliy swine that run about among your houses, feed- 
ing on garbage, and come and eat good food with us. 
The road is open; there is no danger." 

There was another l)elt to scatter the clouds, that 
the sun might shine on the hearts of the Indians and 
the French, and reveal their sincerity and truth to 
all; then others still, to coidirm the llurons in 
thoughts of })eace. By the liftt'enth belt, Kiotsaton 
declared that the Iroquois had always wished to send 
home Jogues and IJressani to their friends, and had 
meant to do so; but that Jogues was stolen from 

I ' ' 



[in If). 




tlicm hy the Dutcli, and they luul jjfivcii HrcHHinii 
to tluMii heciUisn lu; desired it. "If lie li;id l)ut 
been initieiil," !idd«'(l (lie ainltassador, "I would have 
broujjfht hlin hack inyself. Now I know not what 
has befallen him. Perhaps he is drowned. Perhaps 
lio is dead." lien^ Jo^nies said, with a smile, to tho 
Jesuits near hl>n, '"'I'hey liad the jiile laid to burn 
me. They would have killed me a hundred times, 
if (Jod had not saved my life." 

Two or three more lu'lls weic hunjr on the lino, 
each with its a[»pro[)riatesj)eeeh; and then the speaker 
closed his haranj^ue: "I go to s[)end what remains of 
the sununer in my own country, in games and dances 
and rejoicing f(»r the blessing of peace." He had 
interspersed his discoui'se throughout with now a 
song and now a (hmce ; and the council ended in a 
general dancing, in which Iroquois, Ilurons, Algon- 
quins, Montagnais, Attieamcgues, and Frencli, all 
took i)art, after their respective fashions. 

In spite of one or two palpa))le falsehoods that 
embellished his oratory, the Jesuits were delighted 
witli him. "Every one admitted," says Vimont, 
"that ho was eloquent and pathetic. In short, he 
showed himself an excellent actor, for one who has 
had no instructor but Nature. I gathered only a 
few fragments of his speech from the mouth of the 
interpreter, who gave us but broken portions of it, 
and did not translate consecutively." ^ 

1 Vimont lU'scribcs tho council at Icnptli in tho Rfhtion of 1045, 
Marie ilc I'lncurniition also describes it in a letter to her son, of 


Two flays aftcM*, anotlior council was called, when 
tlu! (iovcnior ^avc his answer, acci'|itin_i; tiic [>n>IT»'it'(l 
peace, and coiiliniiiii^ las aei'e[)tance by Jjilts of con- 
sideraltle value, lie deiiiaiided as a condition, that 
the Indian allies of (he French should he left unmo- 
lested, until their j)rineii)al chiefs, who were not then 
present, should make a formal treaty with the Iroipiois 
in behalf of their several nations, {'iskaret thtiu 
made a present to wipe away the ri'membrance of tho 
Inxpiois he had slaughtered, and the a.ssembly was 

In tho eveniiiL,', Vimont invited the ambassadors to 
the mission-house, and <^ave each of them a sack of 
tobacco and a pipe. In return, Kiotsaton made him 
a speech: "When I left my country, I pive up my 
life; I went to meet death, and I owe it to you that 
I am yet alive. I thank you that I still see the sun; 
1 thank you for all your words and acts ()f kindness; 
I thank you for your gifts. You have covered me 
with them from head to foot. You left nothing free 
but my mouth; and now you have stopped that with 
a handsome pipe, and regaled it with tho taste of tho 
herb we h)ve. T bid you farewell, — not foi- a long 
time, for you will hear from us soon. Kven if we 
should be drowned on our way home, tho winds and 
the waves will boar witness to our countrynu'ii of 
your favors; and I am sure that some good spirit has 

Sept. 14, KM'). SIk' fvidi-ntly gaiiKil litr information from Vimont 
and thu other Jesuits present. 





gone l)eff)re us to tell them of the good news that we 
are about to bring." ^ 

On the next day, he and his companion set forth 
on their return. Kiotsaton, when he saw his party 
embarked, turned to the French and Indians who 
lined the shore, and said with a loud voice, " Fare- 
well, brothers! I am one of your relations now." 
Then turning to the Governor, — " Onontio, your 
name will be great over all the earth. When I came 
hither, I Jicver thought to carry back my head, I 
never thought to come out of your doors alive; 
and now T return loaded with honors, gifts, and 
kindness." "Brothers," — to the Indians, — "obey 
Onontio and the French. Their hearts and their 
thoughts are good. Be friends with them, and do 
as they do. You shall hear from us soon." 

The Indians whooped and fired their guns; there 
was a caiinon-shot from the fort; and the sail-boat 
that bore the distinguished visitors moved on its way 
towards the Richelieu. 

But the work Avas not done. There must be more 
councils, speeches, wampum-belts, and gifts of all 
kinds, — more feasts, dances, songs, and uproar. 
The Indians gathered at Three Rivers were not 
suflicient in numbers or in influence to represent their 
several tribes; and more were on their way. The 
princi[)al men of the Ilurons were to come down this 
year, with Algonquins of many tribes, from the North 
and ihi) Northwest; and Kiotsaton had promised 

1 Vimont, Relation, 10-15, 28. 




tliiit Iroquois am])assa(lors, duly einpoworcd, shonkl 
meet them at Tliree Rivers, and make a solemn peace 
with them all, under the eye of Onontio. Hut what 
hope was there that this swarm of iickle and way- 
ward savages could be gathered together at one time 
and at one place, — or that, being there, they eoidd 
be restrained from cutting each other's throats? Yet 
so it was; and in this happy event the Jesuits saw 
the interposition of God, wrought upon by the prayers 
of those pious souls in France who daily and nightly 
besieged Heaven with supplications for the welfare 
of the Canadian missions.^ 

First came a band of ^Montagujds; next followed 
Nipissings, Atticamegues, and Algonquins of the 
Ottawa, their canoes deep-laden with furs. Then, 
on the tenth of September, apj)ear(!d the great fleet 
of the liurons, sixty canoes, bearir:g a host of war- 
riors, among whom the French recognized the tattered 
blac!c cassock of Father Jerome Lalemant. There 
were twenty French soldiers, too, returning from the 
Huron country, whither they had been sent the year 
before, to guard the Fathers and their flock. 

Three Rivers swarmed like an ant-hill with savatres. 
The shore was lined with canoes; the forests and the 
fields were alive with busy camps. The trade was 
brisk; and in its attendant speeches, feasts, and 
dances, there was no respite. 

But where were the Irocpiois? Montmagny and 
the Jesuits grew very anxious. In a few days more 

1 Vimont, litlatiuii, KU-j, 29. 

VOL. II. — 8 






IM ' 



the concourse would begin to disperse, and the gohlen 
moment be lost. It was a great relief when a canoe 
ap})eared witli tidings that the promised embassy was 
on its way; and yet more, when, on the seventeenth, 
four Iroquois approached the shore, and, in a loud 
voice, announced themselves as envoys of their na- 
tion. The tumult was prodigious. Montmagny's 
soldiers formed a double rank, and the savage rabble, 
with wild eyes and fnces smeared with grease and 
paint, stared over the shoulders and between the gun- 
barrels of the musketeers, as the ambassadors of their 
deadliest foe stalked, with unmoved visages, towards 
the fort. 

Now council folloAved council, with an insufferable 
prolixity of speech- inaking. There were belts to 
wipe out the memory of the slain ; belts to clear the 
sky, smooth tlie rivers, and calm the lakes; a belt 
to take the hatchet from the hands of tlie Iroquois; 
another to take away their guns; another to take 
away their shields ; another to wash the war-paint 
from their faces; and another to break the kettle in 
Avhich they boiled their prisoners.^ In short, there 
were ])elts past numbering, each with its meaning, 
sometimes literal, sometimes figurative, but all bear- 
ing upon the great work of peace. At length all 
was ended. The dances ceased, the songs and the 
whoops died awa}', and the great muster dispersed, 
— some to their smoky lodges on the distant shores 
of Lake Huron, and some to frozen hunting-grounds 
in northern forests. 

1 Vimout, Relation, 1G45, 34, 




There was peace in this dark and blooa-stained 
wilderness. The lynx, the panther, and the wolf 
had made a covenant of love; but who should be 
their surety? A doubt and a fear mingled with the 
joy of the Jesuit Fathers ; and to their thanksgivings 
to God they joined a prayei', that the hand which had 
given might still be stretched forth to preserve. 

! 1 ' i 



1G45, 1G4G. 



Uncertainties. — Tin; Mission of Jcxues: iie reaches the 
Mohawks; his Hkcki-tion ; his KETiitN; his Second Mis- 
sion. — WAUMNfiS Ol' DaNCIEU. — KaGE Or THE MOilAWIlS. 

Mlhdku of Joules. 


. J , 


i ' 

There is little doubt that the Iroquois negotiators 
acted, for the moment, in sincerity. Guillaume 
Couture, who returned with them and spent the 
winter in their towns, saw sulHcient proof that they 
sincerely desired peace. And yet tVie treaty had a 
double defect. First, the wayward, capricious, and 
ungoverned nature of the Indian parties to it, on 
both sides, made a speedy rupture more than likely. 
Secondly, in spite of their own assertion to the con- 
trary, the Iroquois envo3^s represented, not the con- 
federacy of the live nations, but only one of these 
nations, the Mohawks: for each of the mcrjbers of 
this singular league could, and often did, make peace 
and war independently of the rest. 

It was the Mohawks who had made war on the 
French and their Indian allies on tlie lower St. 
Lawrence. They claimed, as against the other Iro- 







quois, a certain right of domain to all this region; 
and though the warriors of the four upper nations 
had sonietiines poached on the Mohawk preserve, by 
murdering both French and Indians at Montreal, they 
employed their energies for the most part in attacks 
on the Hurons, the Upper Algonquins, and other 
tribes of the interior. These attacks still continued, 
unaffected by the peace with the Mohawks. Imper- 
fect, however, as the treaty was, it was invaluable, 
could it Init be kept inviolate; and to this end 
Montmagny, the Jesuits, and all the colony anxiously 
turned their thoughts. ^ 

It was to hold the Mohawks to their faith that 
Couture had bravely gone back to winter among 
them; but an agent of more acknowledged weight 
was needed, and Father Isaac Jogues was chosen. 

1 The Mohawks were at this time more numonms, as compared 
with the other four nations of the Iroquois, than tliey were a few 
years later. They seem to liave sutYereil more reverses in war than 
any of the others. At this time tli^y may he rt'clvoned at six or 
seven hundred warriors. A war witii the Moliej^ans, and anotlier 
witli tlie Andastes, besides their war witli tlie Alji:on(iuins and tlio 
Frencli of Canada soon after, told severely on their strentitii. The 
following are estimates of the numbers of the Iroquois warriors 
made in IGGO by the atithor of the li< I'lfimi of tliat year, and by 
Wentworth Greenhalgh in 1077, from piTsonal inspection: 


Oneidas 100 







GOO . 

. . ;]00 

100 . 

. . 200 

300 . 

. . 3.jO 

300 . 

. . .300 

1 ,000 . 

. . 1 ,000 

1 t 









No white man, Couture excepted, knew their hin- 
guage and their character so welL His errand was 
half political, half religious; for not only was he to 
be the bearer of gifts, wampum-belts, and messages 
from the Governor, but he was also to found a new 
mission, christened in advance with a prophetic name, 
— the Mission of the Mar/i/rs. 

For two years past, Jogues had been at IMontreal ; 
and it was here that he received the order of his 
Superior to proceed to the Mohawk towns. At first, 
nature asserted itself, and he recoiled involuntarily 
at the thought of the horrors of which his scarred 
body and his mutilated hands were a living memento. ^ 
It was a transient weakness; and he j)repared to 
depart with more than willingness, giving thanks to 
Heaven that he had been found worthy to suffer and 
to die for the saving of souls and the greater glory of 

He felt a presentiment that his death was near, 
and wrote to a friend, "I shall go, and shall not 
return." 2 An Algonquin convert gave him sage 
advice. "Say nothing about the Faith at first, for 
there is nothing so repulsive, in the beginning, as 
our doctrine, which seems to destroy everything that 
men hold dear; and as your long cassock preaches, 
as well as your lips, you had better put on a short 
coat." Jogues, therefore, exchanged the uniform 

1 Lettre cln P. Isaac Jwjucs an li. P. Jerosme L'Allemant. Mon- 
treal, 2 .!/(//, 1()4(5. MS. 

'■^ "Ibo et non retlibo." Lettre du P. Joijuen au R. P. No date. 




of Loyola for a civilian's doublet and lioso; "for," 
observes his Superior, "one should be all thino-s to all 
men, that he may gain them all to Jesus Christ." ^ 
It would be well if the application of the maxim had 
always been as harmless. 

Jopfues left Three Rivers about the middle of May, 
with the Sieur Bourdon, engineer to the (jovernoi-, 
two Algonquins with gifts to contirm the peace, and 
four Mohawks as guides and escort. He passed the 
Richelieu and Lake Champlain, well-remembered 
scenes of former miseries, and readied the foot of 
Lake Cleorge on the eve of Corpus Christi. Hence 
he called the lake "Lac St. Sacrement; " and this 
name it preserved, until, a century after, an ambi- 
tious Irishman, in compliment to the sovereign from 
whom he sought advancement, gave it the name it 
bears. 2 

B>om Lake George they crossed on foot to tho, 
Hudson, where, being greatly fatigued by their heavy 
loads of gifts, they borrowed canoos at an h-ofpiois 
fishing-station, and descended to Fort Orange. Here 
Jogues met the Dutch friends to whom he owed his 
life, and who now kindly welcomed and entertainc'd 
him. After a few days he left them, and ascended 
the river Mohawk to the first Mohawk town. Crowds 
gathered from the neighboring towns to gaze on tlie 
man whom they had known as a scorned and abused 

^ Lak'inant, Relation, 1G4G, 15. 

2 Mr. Sliea very reasonably sutrKests that a chaiifre from "'Lake 
George" to "Lake Jogues" would be equally easy and appropriaty. 




; ^ 



; .t.) I 

slave, and who now apj)eared among tlieni as the 
amhassach)!' of a power whi'.-h hitherto, indeed, they 
liad despised, hut wliich in their present mood they 
were wiUing to propitiate. 

Tliere was a eouncil in one of tlie h)dges; and 
while his crowded auditory smoked their pipes, 
Jogucs stood in die midst, and harangued them. 
He offered in due form tlie gifts of the (lovernor, 
with the wampum helts and their messages of peace, 
wliile at eveiy pause liis words were echoed by a 
unanimous grunt of applause from the attentive con- 
course. Peace speeches were made in return; and 
all was harmony. Wlien, however, the Algonquin 
deputies stood before the council, they and their gifts 
were coldly received. The old hate, maintained by 
traditions of mutual atrocity, burned fiercely unde^' a 
thin semblance of peace; and though no outbreak 
took place, the prospect of the future was very 

The business of the end)assy was scarcely finished, 
when the Mohawks counselled Jo[;ues and his com- 
panions to go home with all despatch, saying that if 
they waited longer, they might meet on the way war- 
riors of the four upper nations, who would inevitably 
kill the two Algonquin deputies, if not the French 
also. Jogues, therefore, set out on his return; but 
not until, despite the advice of the Indian convert, 
he had made tlie round of the houses, confessed and 
instructed a few Christian prisoners still remaining 
here, and baptized several dying jMohawks. Then 





lio and his party crossed tliroiitfh tlu; forost to tlio 
southern extronuty of T^ako Gcor^^', inii(lt> l)ark 
canoes, and descended to Fort HichcIitMi, wlicrc tliey 
arrived on the twenty-seventli of June.' 

Flis political errand was aceoni[>lis]it:l. Now, 
should he return to the Mohawks, or should the 
Mission of the ISIartyrs be for a time al .idoncd? 
Lalemant, who had succeeded Viinont as Superior of 
the missions, held a council at Quel)ec with three 
other Jesuits, of whom Jogues was one, and it was 
determined, that, unless some new contiiigciu'y should 
arise, he should remain for the winter at Montreal. ^ 
This was in July. Soon aftei-, the? [)lan was chaiiouid, 
for reasons which do not appear, and Joguos received 
orders to repair to his dangerous post. Jle set out 
on the twenty-fourth of August, aeoom[)anied by a 
young Frenchman named Lalande, and tliree or four 
Hurons.3 On the way they met Indians who warned 
them of a change of feeling in the Mohawk towns, 
and the Ilurons, alarmed, refused to go farther. 
Jogues, naturally perhaps the most timid man of the 
party, had no thought of drawing back, and pursued 
his journey with his young companion, who, like 
other donnh of the missions, was scarcely behind the 
Jesuits themselves in devoted enthusiasm. 

The reported change oi feeling had indeed taken 
place; and the occasion of it was chai'acteristic. Oii 
his previous visit to the Mohawks, Jogues, meaning 

1 Lalemant, Relation, 104(1, 17. 

2 JiinriHil (If s Sitjierii'iirs ilcs ./esititis. MS, 


\ I 

I if 

3 Jhi>L 





to return, luul left in ilieir cluu<^o a small chest or 
l)ox. From the first they were distrust I'lil, suspect- 
ing that it contained some secret mischief. Ifc there- 
fore opened it, and showed them the contents, which 
were a few personal necessaries ; and havin(( tlius, as 
he thought, reassured them, locked the hox, and h ft 
it in their keeping. The Huron jjrisoners in the 
town attempted to make favor with their Ii-ocjuois 
enemies by abusing their Krcnch friends, — declaring 
them to be sorcerers, who had bewitched, by their 
charms and nnnnmeries, the whole Huron nation, and 
caused dnmght, famine, pestilence, and a host of 
insupportable miseries. Thereui)on, tho susi)icions of 
the Mohawks against the box revived v.ith doid)le 
force ; and they were convinced that famine, the pest, 
or some malignant spirit was shut up in it, waiting 
the moment to issue forth and destroy them. There 
was sickness in the town, and caterpillars were eat- 
ing their corn: this was ascribed to the sorceries of 
the Jesuit.^ Still they were divided in opinion. 
Some stood firm for the French; others were furious 
against them. Among the IMohawks, three clans or 
families were predominant, if indeed they did not 
compose the entire nation, — the clans of the Bear, 
the Tortoise, and the "^^^olf.^ Though, by the nature 
of their constitution, it was scarcely possible that 
these clans should come to blows, so intimately were 
they bound together by ties of blood, yet they Avero 

^ Ltttrp (le }farip, dc I'Tncarndtiiin i\ Aon Fils. Qnehec, 
^ Soo Tntroduction, i. 41. 





often divided on points of interest or polie'y; and on 
this oceasion the liear raged at^ainst the Freneli, and 
howhnl for war, while the Tortoise and the Wolf still 
clunf^ to the treaty. AinoiiL,' savages, with no gov- 
ernment exeept the intermittent one of eonniils, tlu^ 
party of aetion and violence nnist always prevail. 
The Bear chiefs sang their war-songs, and, followed 
by the young men of their own clan, an<l by sneh 
others as they had infe(;ted with their frenzy, set 
forth, in two bands, on the war-path. 

The warriors of one of these bands were making 
their way through the forests between the Mohawk 
and LakeCJeorge, when they met Jogues and Lalande. 
They seized them, stri[)ped thein, and led them in 
triumpli to their town. Here a savage crowd sur- 
rounded them, beating them with stii'ks and with 
their fists. One of them cut thin stri[)S of flesh from 
the back and arms of Jogues, saying, as lie did so, 
"Let us see if this white flesh is the flesh of an oki." 
— "I am a man like yourselves," replied Jogues; 
"but I do not fear death or torture. I do not know 
why you would kill me. I come hero to eonlirm the 
peace and show you the way to heaven, and you treat 
me like a dog.''^ — "You shall die to-morrow," cried 
the rabble. "Take courage, we shall not burn ycm. 
We shall strike you both with a lu:^<']iet and place 
your heads on the palisade, that your brothers may 
see you when we take them prisoners."^ The clans 

1 fA'ttre (lit P. De Qiteii ait A'. /', Lali'inaitt. No date. MS, 
^ Lett re de ./. Ldbdtie a M. Ln Mmdmjne, Frnt (/'(Jnniiji', HO Oct, 
1040. MS. 



[in 10. 

I ^ 

of tlio Wolf iuul the Tortoise! still niist'd tlicir voiccH 
ill bchiilf (»r the (M[)tivti Fn-iicliincii; Init tlit^ fury of 
tlio ininoi'ity s\vt'[)t all before it. 

Ill tliu evi'iiing, — it was the I'i^htcii'ntli of October, 
— Jogiics, smarting with his wounds and bruises, was 
sitting in one of the lodges, when an Indian entered, 
and asked him to a feast. To refuse would have 
been an offence. He arose and followed the savage, 
who led him to the lodge of the Uear chief. Jognes 
bent his head to enter, when another Indiiin, slaiidiiig 
concealed within, at the side of the doorway, struck 
at him with a hatchet. An lro([U()is, called by the 
French Le lierger,^ who seems to haye followed in 
order to defend him, brayely held out his arm to 
ward off the blow; but the hatchet cut through it, 
and sank into the missionary's brain, lie fell at the 
feet of his murderer, who at once linished the work 
by hacking off his head. Lalande was left in sus- 
I)ense all night, and in the morning was killed in i^ 
similar miinnei". The bodies of the two Frenchmen 
were then thrown into the Mohawk, and their heads 
displayed on the points of the palisade which enclosed 
the town. 2 


1 Tt liaa been erroneously stated tlmt this brave attempt to save 
Jojrues was made by tlie orator Kiotsatoii. Le Ikrji'er was one of 
those who liad Wen iiiaik' prisoners liy I'isliaret, and treated l\indly 
by tile Freneli. In Ki-tS, jic voluntariiy eame to 'J'liree Kivers, and 
gave liimsidf up to a party of I''ren('lin\in. IIi' was converted, l)ap- 
tizi'd, and carrii'd to I^rance, wlicrr liis licliavior is reporteil to liave 
been very edifyini;-, imt wiu're lie soon die(l. " I'l'rliaps lie liad eaten 
his share of more tlian lifty niioi," is the relieclion of Fatlier IJa^iie- 
nean, after reeountinu' liis cxi'iiipiary coiuhut. — liilatlnii, Ki'iO, 4;J— 18. 

2 In re.'peet to thi- dc'atii of -Ioj^mk's, tlie best autliority is tlie 


(•irAIlACTKK or .lOdCKS. 


Tliiis (lied Isaac Joufucs, oiu' of Uii' purest ('Xain|tIt'S 
of Ivoiiiaii Calliolic. virtiiu wliicli tliis VVi'sUtii coii- 
tinciil lias sccmi. TIk' pi'icsts, liis associati'S, jtraiso 
his liumility, and tell us that it reached the point of 
self-cout(MUpt, — a erowuini,' virtue in their eves; that 
h(^ rej^'ai'ih'd iiiniself as notliinc^, and lived noIcIv to 
do the vill of (iod as uttered by tiie lips of his 
Su[)eriois. They add that, wheu left to tin' nuid- 
auci3 of his own judi^nu'nt, his self-distrust made him 
very slow of decision, Init that when aclin^Lj^ under 
orders he kn(!W ueithei- hesitation nor fear. With all 
his t^^'utleness, ho liad a certain warmth or vivacity 
of temperament; and wc have seen how, during' his 
first ca})tivity, while humhly suhmittiiiL,^ to eveiy 
caprice of liis tyrants and appearing to rejoic(! in 
uhasemcnt, a derisive word au^ainst his faith would 
chan^^o the himl) into the lion, and the lips that 
^eemed so tanu^ would speak iu sharp, hold tones of 
menace and rei)roof. 

Ic'tttT of Labatii', before (.'iti'il. lie was tlie French interpreter at 
Fort Orani^e, and, lieinj; near tlie scene of the uuirdcr, took jjainn 
to learn the facts. 'I'lie letter was enclosed in aiioihiM- written to 
Montn>aj,Miy 1»y the Diiteli (iovernor, Kieft, \viii( ii is also liefore me, 
to^a-thiT with a MS. acconnt, written from hearsay, by Fatiier 
liuteux, and a letter of De (iueii, cited above. Compare the A'' /,• 
tiuiis of 1017 and 1050. 

1 J 



1. "^ 

:i ' 



1646, 1647. 


Mohawk Inroads. — The Hunters of Men. — The Captive Con- 
verts. — The Escape of Mauie: her Story. — Thi Algon- 
quin Prisoner's Revenge: her Flight. — Termor of the 
Colonists. — Jesuit Intrepidi;. r. 

The peace Avas broken, and the hounds of war 
turned loose. The contagion spread tlirough all the 
Mohawk nation, the "-ar-songs were sung, and the 
warriors took ':\\q patli for Canada. The miserable 
colonists Rinl their more miserable allies v/oke from 
their dream of peace to a reality of fear and horror. 
Again IMontreal and Three Rivers were beset with 
murdering savages, skulking in thickets and prowl- 
ing under cover of night, yet when it came to blows, 
displaying a courage almost equal to the ferocity 
that inspired it. They plundered and burned Fort 
Richelieu, which its small garrison had abandoned, 
thus leaving the colony without even the semblance 
of ]n'otection. licfore the spring opened, all the 
lighting men of the jMohawks took the war-path; but 
it is clear that many of them still had little heart for 
their bloody and perfidious work ; for, of tliese hardy 






and all-enduring warriors, two-thirds gave out on the 
way, and returned, complaining that the season was 
too severe.^ Two hundred or more kept on, divided 
into several hands. 

On Ash -Wednesday, the French at Three Rivers 
were at mr ss in the chapel, when the Iroquois, quietly 
approaching, plundered two houses close to the fort, 
containing all tlie property of the neighboring inhab- 
itants, which had been brought hither as to a place 
of security. They hid their booty, and then went in 
quest of two large parties of Christian Algonquins 
engaged in their winter hunt. Two Indians of the 
same nation, whom the.y captured, })asely set them 
on the trail; and they took up the chase like hounds 
on the scent of game. Wrapped in furs or blanket- 
coats, some with gun in hand, some with bows and 
quivers, and all with hatchets, war-cluljs, knives, or 
swords, — striding on snow-shoes, with bodies half 
bent, througli tie gray forests and the frozen pine- 
swamps, among wet, black trunks, along dark ravines 
and under savage hillsnles, their small, fierce eyes 
darting quick ghmces that pierced the farthest recesses 
of the naked wood;^, — the hunters of men followed 
the track of their human prey. At length tliey 
descried the bark wigwams (^f the Algonquin camp. 
The warriors were absent; none were here but women 
and children. Tlie In)(pi()is surrounded the huts, 
and captured all the shrieking inmates. Then ten of 
them set out to lind the traces of the absent hunters. 

1 Lettre da P. Butmx au II. P. Laleinunt. MS. 




anotiip:ii war. 



' I, i : 

They soon me: tli3 renowned Piskaret returning 
alone. As they recognized him and knew his mettle, 
they thought Ireaehery better than an open attack. 
They tlierefore appioached him in the attitude of 
friends; while he, ignorant of the rupture of the 
treaty, hegan to sing his peace-song. Scarcely had 
they joined him, when one of them ran a sword 
through his body; and, having scalped him, they 
returned in triumph to their companions. ^ All the 
hunters were soon after waylaid, overpowered by 
iivuid)ej's, and killed or taken prisoners. 

Anotlier 'oand of the Mohawks had meanwhile pur- 
sued the other party of Algonquins, and overtaken 
them on the march, as, encumbered with their sledges 
and baggage, they were moving from one hunting- 
camp to another. Though taken by surprise, they 
made light, and killed several of their assailants; but 
in a few moments their resistance was overcome, and 
those who survived tlie fray were helpless in the 
clutches of the enraged victors. Then began a mas- 
sacre of the old, the disabled, and the infants, with 
the usual beating, gashing, and severing of fingers to 
the rest. The next day, the two bands of Mohawks, 
each with its troop of ca})tives fast bound, met at an 
appointed spot on the Lake of St. Peter, and greeted 
each other witli yells of exultation, with which 
mingled a wail of anguish, as the prisoners of either 

1 LaU'iniiiit, Relation, 1047, 4. Marie de I'Incarnation, Lef're a 
fori Flls. (^Kcber, . . . Iu47. IVrrot's account, drawn from tradi- 
tion, is dilTiTL'nt, tliough not cssL-ntially so. 





party recognized their companions in misery. Tliey 
all kneeled in the midst of tlieir savage conquerors, 
and one of the men, a noted convert, after a few 
words of exhortation, repeated in a loud voice a 
prayer, to which the rest responded. Then tliey 
sang an Algonquin hynm, while the Iroquois, who 
at first had stared in wonder, broke into laughter and 
derision, and at length fell upon them with renewed 
fury. One was burned alive on the spot. Another 
tried to escape, and they burned the soles of his feet 
that he might not repeat the attempt. iVIany otliers 
were maimed and mangled; and some of the women 
who afterwards escaped, affirmed tluit in ridicule of 
the converts they crucified a small child by nailing it 
with wooden spikes against a thick sheet of bark. 

The prisoners Avere led to the Mohawk towns ; and 
it is needless to repeat the monotonous and revolting 
tale of torture and death. The men, as usual, were 
burned; but the lives of the women and children 
were spared, in order to strengthen the conquerors 
by their adojition, — not, however, until both, but 
especially the women, had been made to endure the 
extremes of suffering and indignity. Several of 
them from time to time escaped, and reached Canada 
with the story of tlieir woes. Among these was 
Marie, the wife of Jean Bai)tiste, one of the principal 
Algonquin converts captured and burned witli the 
rest. Karly in June, she appeared in a canoe at 
Montreal, where Madame d'Ailleboust, to whom she 
was well known, received her with great kindness, 

VOT,. II. 



in ^ 

130 ANOTHER WAR. |;1G17. 

and led her to her room in the fort. Here Marie 
was overcome with emotion. Madame d'Ailleboust 
spoke Algonquin with ease; and her words of sym- 
pathy, joined to the associations of a place where the 
unhappy fugitive, with her nuu'dered husband and 
child, had often found a friendly welcome, so wrought 
upon her that her voice was smothered with sobs. 

She had once before been a prisoner of the Iroquois, 
at the town of Onondaga. When she and her com- 
panions in misfortune had reached the jMohawk towns, 
she was recognized by several Onondagas who chanced 
to be there, and who, partly by threats and partly by 
promises, induced her to return with them to the 
scene of her former captivity, where they assured her 
of good treatment. With their aid, she escaj)ed from 
the j\Ioliawks, and set out witli tliem for Onondaga. 
On their way, they passed the great town of the 
Oneidas; and her conductors, fearing that certain 
Mohawks Avho were there would lay claim to her, 
found a hiding-place for her in the forest, where they 
gave her food, and told her to wait their return. She 
lay concealed all day, and at night approached the 
town, under cover of darkness. A dull red glare of 
flames rose above the jagged tops of the palisade that 
encompassed it ; and, from the pandemonium within, 
an uproar of screams, yells, and bursts of laughter 
told her that they were burning one of her captive 
countrymen. She gazed and listened, shivering with 
cold and aghast with horror. The thought possessed 
her that she would soon share his fate, and she 





resolved to fly. The ground was still covered with 
snow, and her footprints would infallibly have be- 
trayed her, if she had not, instead of turning towards 
home, followed the beaten Indian path westward. 
She journeyed on, confused and irresolute, and tor- 
tured between terror and hunger. At length she 
approached Onondaga, a few miles from the present 
city of Syracuse, and hid herself in a dense thicket 
of spruce or cedar, whence she crept forth at night, 
to grope in the half-melted snow for a few ears of 
corn, left from the last year's harvest. She saw 
many Indians from her lurking-place, and once a 
tall savage, with an axe on his shoulder, advanced 
directly towards the spot where she lay; but in the 
extremity of her fi'ight she murmured a prayer, on 
which he turned and changed his course. The fate 
that awaited her if she remained, — for a fugitive 
could not hope for mercy, — and the scarcely less 
terrible dangers of the pitiless wilderness between 
her and Canada, filled her with despair, for she was 
half dead alreadv with hunu'er and cold. She tied 
her girdle to the bough of a tree, and hung herself 
from it by the neck. The cord broke. She repeated 
the attempt wdth the same result, and then the 
thought came to her that (Jod meant to save lier life. 
The snow by this time liad melted in the forests, and 
she began her journey for liome, with a few hand- 
fuls of corn as her only provision. She directed her 
course by the sun, and for food dug roots, peeled the 
soft inner bark of trees, and sometimes caught tor 





I ^ 


toises in the muddy brooks. She had the good for- 
tune to find a hatchet in a deserted camp, and with 
it made one of those wooden implements which tlie 
Indians used for kindling fire \>y friction. This saved 
her from her worst suffering; for she liad no cover- 
ing but a thin tunic, which left lier legs and arms 
bare, and exposed her at night to tortures of cold. 
She ouilt her lire in some deep nook of the forest, 
wnrmed herself, cooked \\liat food she had found, 
toid her rosary on her lingers, and slept till daylight, 
when she always threw water on tlie embers, lest the 
rising smoke should attract attention. (.)nce she dis- 
covered a party of Iro(pU)is hunters; but she lay con- 
cealed, and they passed without seeing her. She 
followed their trail ])ack, and found their bark canoe, 
which they had hidden near the bank of a river. It 
was tot> lai'ge for her use; but, as she was a practised 
canoe-makei-, slu^ reduced it to a convenient size, 
embarked in it, and descended the stream. At length 
she reached the St. Lawrence, and paddled with the 
current towards Montreal. On islands and rocky 
shores she found eggs of \\'ater-fowl in abundance; 
and she s})eared fish with a sharpened pole, hardened 
at the point with fire. She even killed deer, by driv- 
ing them into the water, chasing them in her canoe, 
and striking them on the head with her hatchet. 
When she landed at Montreal, her canoe had still 
a good store of eggs and dried venison. ^ 

1 This story is takni from tlio licUttion of 1047, and tlio letter of 
Marie do rincariiatioii to lier son, before eited. The woman must 





Her journey from Oiioiidagii had occupied about 
two montlis, uuder hardsliips which no woman hut a 
squaw coukl have survived. Escapes not h'ss re- 
markable of several other women are chronicled in 
the records of tliis year; and one of them, with a 
notable feat of arms which attended it, calls for a 
brief notice. 

Eight Algonquins, in one of those fits of dc^sperate 
valor which sometimes occur in Indians, entered at 
midnight a camp where thirty or forty Iroquois war- 
riors were buried in sleep, and wit!i ([uick, sharp 
blows of their tomahawks began to brain them as 
they lay. They killed ten of them on the spot, and 
wounded many more. The rest, panic-stricken and 
bewildered by the surprise and the thick darkness, 
fled into the forest, leaving all they had in the hands 
of the victors, including a number of Algon{[uin cap- 
tives, of whom one had been unwittingly killed by 
his countrymen in the confusion. Another cai)tive, 
a woman, had escaped on a previous night. They 
had stretciicd her on her back, with limbs extended, 
and bour.;I her wrists and ankles to four stakes firmly 
driven into the earth, — their ordinaiy mode of secur- 
ing prisoners. Then, as usual, they all fell asleep. 
She presently became aware that the cord that bound 
one of lier wrists was somewhat loose, and, by long 
and painful efforts, she freed her hand. To release 
the other hand and her feet was then comparatively 

have doscendetl the sjrreat rapids of Lacliine in her canoe, — a feat 
demanding no ordinary nerve and skill. 

I '. 





easy. Sho cautiously rose. Around lier, brcatliing 
in deep sleep, lay stretched the dark forms ofc' the 
unconscious warriors, scarcely visible in the <,dooin. 
She stepped over them to the v itrance of the hut; 
and here, as she was passing out, she descried a 
hatchet on the <^round. The temptation was too 
strong for her Indian nature. She seized it, and 
struck again and agi^in, with all hvv force, on the 
skull ">f ihe Iroquois who lay at the entrance. The 
soand of the blows and the convulsive struggles of 
the victim roused t)ie slee])ers. They sprang uj), 
groping in the dai'k, mid demanding of each other 
what was the matter. .\t length they liglited a roll 
of birch-bark, fon 1 their i)ris(mer gone and their 
comrade dead, rushed out in a rage in search of 
the fugitive. She, mea'nvhile, instead of running 
away, had hid herself in the hollow of a tree, which 
she had observed the evening before. Her pui'suers 
ran through the dark woods, shouting and whooping 
to each other; and when all had passed, she crept 
from her hiding-place, and lied in an opposite direc- 
tion. In the morning they found her tracks and 
followed them. On the second day thcA- had over- 
taken and surrounded her, when, hearing their cries 
on all sides, she gave up all hope. But near at 
hand, in the thickest depths of the forest, the beavers 
had dammed a brook and formed a })ond, full of 
gnawed stumps, dead fallen trees, rank weeds, and 
tangled bushes. She plujiged in, and, swimming 
and wading, found a hiding-place, where her body 







was concealed by the water, and her head by the 
masses of dead and living vegetation. Her pursuers 
were at fault, and, after a long searcli, gave up the 
chase in despair. Shivering, nulvcd, and half-starved, 
she crawled out from her wild asylum, and resumed 
her flight. By day, the briers and bushes tore hci" 
unprotected limbs; l)y niglit, she sliivered witli cold, 
and the mosquitoes and small black gnats of tlie 
forest persecuted her witli torments which the modern 
sporUuian will a})preciate. She subsisted on su(,'li 
roots, bark, reptiles, or other small animals, as her 
Indian habits enabled her to gather on her way. She 
crossed streams by swimming, or on rafts of drift- 
wood lashed together with strips of linden-bark, and 
at length reached the St. Lawrence, where, with the 
aid of her hatchet, she made a canoe. Her home was 
on the Ottawa, and she was ignorant ot the great 
river, or, at least, of this part of it. She had scai'cely 
even seen a Frenchman, but had heard of tlu; French 
as friends, and knew that their dwellings wei'e on 
the banks of the St. Lawrence. This was her oidy 
guide; and she drifted on her way, doubtful whether 
the vast current would bear lier to the abodes of the 
living or to the land of souls. She passed the wateiy 
wilderness of the Lake of St. Peter, and presently 
descried a Huron canoe. Fearijig that it was an 
enemy, she hid herself, and resumed her voyage in 
the evening, when she soon came in sight of the 
wooden buildings and palisades of Three Rivers. 
Several Hurons saw her at the same moment, and 

» I 





! 1 


made towards liei-; on which she leaped asliorc; and 
hid in the bushes, whence, heinij entirely witliout 
clothing, she would not come out till one of them 
threw her his coat. Having wrapped herself in it, 
she went with them to the fort and the house of 
*he Jesuits, in a wretched state of emaciation, but 
in liigh spirits at the hir'ny issue of her voyage.^ 

Such stories might be nndtiplied; but these will 
sufhce. Nor is it necessary to dw(.'ll further on the 
bloody record of inroads, l)utcheries, and tortures. 
We have seen enough to show the nature of the 
scoui'ge that now fell without mercy on the Indians 
and the French of Canada. There was no safety but 
in the inipiisonment of })alisades and ramparts. A 
deep dejection sank on the white and red men alike; 
but the Jesuits would not despair. 

"Do not imagine,'' writes the Father Superior, 
"that the rage of the Irocpiois, and the loss of many 
Christians and many catechnmens, can bring to nought 
the mystery of the cross of Jesus Christ and the 
efficacy of his blood. We shall die; we shall be 
captured, burned, butchered; be it so. Those who 
die in their ])eds do not always die the best death. 
I see none of our company cast down. On the con- 
trary, they Jisk leave to go up to the Ilurons; and 
some of them protest tliat the fires of the Iroquois 
are one of their motives for the journey." ^ 

1 Lalemant, Relation, KMT, 15, 10, ^ Jbld., 8. 






t I 

Miscou. — TADorssAC. — Joi'rvkys of Di; QrKv. — Drii'iu.KTKs: 

SIONS. — TiiK AitKNAKis. — 1)i{iim,i:ti:s ON Tin; Kicnnkhkc : iiis 
Embassy t(j Hoston. — (iiiiitoNs. — Drni.m. — ISka in oitn. — 
Kmot. — Kndk'ott. — I<'i{i;Nt II and I'l itn an (" a i io\. — 
Faihuk or Diuii.M/ii'.s's Kmhassy. — Ni;\v Ki:t;iLATioNs. — * 
New-Ye>k's Day at C2i:i;iikc. 

Before passing to tlio closirii^ soenos of tliis wil- 
derness (Irami!, we will ionch bricUy on a few points 
aside from its ninni action, yet essential to an nnder- 
standing of the scope of the mission. Hesich^s their 
estahlishments at Qnehec, Sillcrv, 'I'lu-ee Rivers, iind 
the neighl)oi'hood of Lake Hnron, the Jesnits had an 
outlying post at the island of Miseon on the (Jnlf 
of St. Lawrence, near the entrance of the Hay of 
Chaleurs, where they instrncted the wandering sav- 
ages of those shores, and confessed the French fisher- 
men. The island was unhealthy in the extreme. 
Several of the priests sickened and di(Ml; and scarcely 
one convert repaid their toils. Tliei-e was a more 
successful mission at Tadoussac, or Sadilege, as the 
neighboring Indians called it. In winter, this })laco 

■( .,11 



[in 10-47. 

I \ 


WHS a Holitiidc!; Init in Hiiiiuner, wlieii tlio MontiignaiH 
giithered from tlu'ir huiitin^'-^roiinds to iiict't tlio 
Fronoli traders, Jesuits ramo yearly from Qiicboc to 
instruct tliom in the Faitli. Sometimes they followed 
tliem northward, into wilds wliero at this day a white 
man rarely penetrates. Tiuis, in l(!li'>, I)e Qncn 
ascended the Siipfuenay, and, by a scries of livers, 
torrents, lakes, and ra[)ids, reached a M(>ntii<,nmis 
horde called tlu! "Nation of tiu^ l*oi'(Mi|»ine," where 
he found that the teachings at Tiuloussac, had home 
fruit, and that the convcts had planted a cross on 
the borders of the savaiic! lahe wiiere they dwelt. 
TiuM-e was a kindred hand, liie Nation of (he Whitt; 
Fish, amonj:^ the rocks an^ forests north of Three 
Rivers. They proved tractable iK'yond all others, 
threw away their '' medicines," or fetiches, burned 
their magic drums, renounced their medicine-songs, 
and accepted instead rosaries, crucifixes,* and versions 
of Catholic hynuis. 

In a former chapter, wo followed Father Paul Le 
Jeune on his winter roamings, with a })and of Mon- 
tagnais, among the forests on the northern boundary 
of Maine. Now Fatlier Gabriel Druilletes sets fortii 
on a similar excursion, but with one essential differ- 
ence. Le Jeune 's companioiis were heathen, who 
persecuted him day and night with their gibes and 
sarcasms. Those of Druilletes were all converts, 
who looked on him as a friend and a father. There 
were prayers, confessions, masses, and invocations of 
St. Joseph. They built their bark chapel at every 


t M 

i I 





ciiiiii), iind no festival ol' the Cliiiivli passed uiioIh 
HtTvcd. On (i(K)d Friday tlu-y laid tlirlr Ix'st foIk) 
of l)('avt'r-slvin on tiio snow, placed on it a crucilix, 
and knelt around it in prayer. What was their 
prayer? It was a i)otition for the foi'^^dveness and the 
conversion of their enemies, the Iro(|Uois.i Those 
who know the intensity and tenacity of an Indian's 
hatred will see in this sonietliing more tlian a ehantjfe 
from one sni)erstitioii to another. An idea had l)een 
presented to the mind of the savage to whieh he had 
previously been an utter stranL,^'r. Thi; is the most 
remarkable record of success in the whole body of 
the Jesuit Jiilations; but it is very far from beinj^ 
the only evidence, that, in teaching the dogmas and 
observances of the Roman ('hurch, the missionaries 
taught also tlie morals of "Christianity. When we 
look for the results of these missions, we soon be- 
come aware that the influence of the French and the 
Jesuits extended far l)eyond the cii'cle of converts. 
It eventually moditicd and softened the maiujcrs of 
many unconverted tribes. In the wars of tlu; next 
century we do not often Iind those examples of dia- 
bolic atrocity witli whicli the earlier annals are 
crowded. The savage burned his enemies alive, it is 
true, but he rarely ate them; neither did he torment 
them with the same deliberation and persistency. 
He was a savage still, but not so often a devil. The 
improvement was not great, but it was distinct; and 
it seems to have taken place wherever Indian triljcs 

1 Vimont, l{>l,itinn, lOl."., KJ. 

' I 

I I 


I ! 

i \ 





I' I 

l!- b 

were in close relations with any respectable com- 
mnnity of wliite men. Tims Philip's war in New 
England, cruel as it was, was less ferocious, judging 
from Canadian experience, than it would have been 
if a generation of civilized intercourse had not worn 
down the sharpest asperities of barbarism. Yet it 
was to French priests and colonists, mingled as they 
were soon to be among the tribes of the vast interior, 
that the ciiange is chiefly to be ascribed. In this 
softening of manners, such as it was, and in the obe- 
dient Catholicity of a few hundred tamed savages 
gathered at stationary missions in various parts of 
Canada, we find, after a century had elapsed, all the 
results of the heroic toil of the Jesuits. The mis- 
sions had failed, because the Indians had ceased to 
exist. Of the great tril)es on whom rested the hopes 
of the early Canadian Fathers, nearly all were vir- 
tually extinct. The missionaries built laboriously 
and M'ell, but they were doomed to build on a failing 
foundation. The Indians melted away, not because 
civilization destroyed them, but because their own 
ferocity and intractable indolence made it impossible 
that they should exist in its presence. Eitlier the 
plastic energies of a higher race or the servile pliancy 
of a lower one would, each in its way, have preserved 
them : as it was, their extinction was a foregone con- 
clusion. As f< >r the religion which the Jesuits taught 
them, however Protestants may carp at it, it was the 
only form of Christianity likely to take root in their 
crude and barbarous nature. 





To return to Druillotes. The smoke of the wier- 
warn blinded hiip, and it is no matter of surprise to 
hear that he was cured by a miracle, lie returned 
from his winter roving to Quebec in high health, 
and soon set forth on a new mission. On the river 
Kennebec, in the present State of Maine, dwelt the 
Abenakis, an Algonquin people, destined hereafter 
to become a thorn in the sides of the New Eno'Iand 
colonists. Some of them had visited their friends, 
the Christian Indians of Sillery. Here they became 
converted, went home, and preached tlie Faith to their 
countrymen, — and this to such purj)ose that the 
Abenakis sent to Quebec to ask for a missionary. 
Apart from the saving of souls, there were solid 
reasons for acceding to their request. The Abenakis 
were near the colonies of New England, — indeed, 
the Plymouth colony, under its cliarter, claimed 
jurisdiction over them; and in case of rupture they 
wouki prove serviceable friends or dangerous enemies 
to New France.^ Their messengers were favorably 
received; and Druilletes was ordered to proceed upon 
the new mission. 

He left Sillery, with a party of Indians, on the 
twenty-ninth of August, 1646,2 and following, as it 
seems, the route by which, a hundi-ed and twenty- 
nine years later, the soldiers of Arnold made their 
way to Quebec, he readied the waters of the Kenne- 
bec and descended to the Abenaki villages. Here 



i ■ < 

1 Charlevoix, i. 280, fjivcs this as a motive of the mission. 
» Lalemant, Relation, 1G47, 51. 




! M 


he nursed the sick, baptized the dyiiip^, and gave 
such instruction as, in his ignorance of the hinguage., 
ho was able. Apparently he had been ordered to 
reconnoitre; for he presently descended the rive]' 
from Norridgewock to the first English trading-post, 
where Augusta now stands. Thence he continued 
his journey to the sea, and followed the coast in a 
canoe to the Penobscot, visiting seven or eight 
English posts on the A\'ay, where, to his surprise, he 
was very well received. At the Penobscot he found 
several Capuchin friars, under their Superior, Father 
Ignace, who welcomed him with the utmost cor- 
diality. Returning, he again ascended the Kennebec 
to the English post at Augusta. At a spot three 
miles above, the Indians had gathered in considerable 
numbers; and here they built him a chapel after their 
fashion. He remained till midwinter, catechising 
and baptizing, and waging war so successfully against 
the Indian sorcerers that niedicine-l)ags were thrown 
away, and charms and incantations were supplanted 
by prayers. In January the whole troop set off on 
their grand hunt, Druilletes following them, — "with 
toil," says the chronicler, "too great to buy the king- 
doms of this world, but very small as a price for the 
Kingdom of Heaven."'^ Tlioy encami^ed on IMoose- 
liead Lake, where new disputes with the "medicine- 
men" ensued, and the Father again remained master 
of the field. When, after a prosperous hunt, the 

1 Lalomant, Rcldtlun, 1047, 54. For an account of this mission, 
Bee also Maurault, Uistoirc ikn Abenakis, ll()-lo(3. 




party returned to the English trading-house, John 
Winslow, the agent in charge, again received the 
missionary with a kindness which sliowed no trace 
of jealousy or religious prejudice.^ 

Early in the summer Druilletes went to Quebec ; 
and during the two following years, the Ahenakis, 
for reasons which are not clear, were left without a 
missionary. He spent another winter of extreme 
hardship with the Algonquins on their winter rov- 
ings, and during the summer instructed the wander- 
ing savages of Tadoussac. It was not until the 
autumn of 1650 that he again descended the Kenne- 
bec, xhis time he went as an envoy charged witli 
the negotiation of a treaty. His journey is worthy 
of notice, since, with the unimportant exception of 
Jogues's embassy to the ]\Iohawks, it is the first 
occasion on which the Canadian Jesuits appear in a 
cliaracter distinctly political. Afterwards, when the 
fervor and freshness of the missions had passed away, 
tacy frequently did the work of political agents 
among the Indians; but the Jesuit of the earlier 
period was, M'ith rare exceptions, a missionary only; 
and though he was expected to exert a powerful 
influence in gaining subjects and allies for France, 
he was to do so by gathering them under the wings 
of the Church. 


1 Winslow would scarcely have recognized his own name in the 
Jesuit spelling, — " Lc Sieur de Jf<iuins/iiii(l." In his journal of 
1050 Druilletes is more successful in his orthography, and spells it 




. * 


The Colony of "Massachusetts had applied to the 
French ofHcials at Quebec, with a view to a reci- 
procity of trade. The Iroquois had brought Canada 
to extremity, and the French Governor conceived 
the hope of gaining the powerful support of New 
England by granting the desired privileges on con- 
dition of military aid. But as the Puritans would 
scarcely see it for their interest to provoke a danger- 
ous enemy, who liad thus far never molested them, it 
was resolved to urge the proposed alliance as a point 
of duty. The Abenakis had suffered from Mohawk 
inroads; and the French, assuming for the occasion 
that they were under the jurisdiction of the English 
colonies, argued that they were bound to protect 
thein. Druilletos went in a double character, — as 
an envoy of the government at Quebec, and as an 
agent of his Abenaki ilock, who had been advised 
to petition for English assistance. The time seemed 
inauspicious for a Jesuit visit to Boston; for not 
only had it been announced as foremost among the 
objects in colonizing New England "to raise a bul- 
wark agahist the kingdom of Antichrist, w^hich the 
Jesuits labor to rear up in all places of the world," ^ 
but, three years before, the Legislature of Massachu- 
setts had enacted that Jesuits entering the colony 
should be expelled, and if they returned, hanged. ^ 

1 Consideratirns for thr Plantation in New England. (See Hutch- 
inson, Colkctio, , 27.) Mr. Sava-^^e thinks that this paper was by 
Winthrop. See ISavjiye's Wintlirop, i. 3U0, note, 

'■' See tile Act, in Hazanl, 550. 




! !■' 





Nevertheless, on tlie first of SeptA-niljer, Druilletes 
set forth from Quebec with a Cliristiiui chief of 
Sillery, crossed forests, mountains, and torrents, and 
readied Norridgewock, tlie highest Abenaki settle- 
ment on the Kennebec. Thence he descended to the 
English trading-house at Augusta, where his fast 
friend, the Puritan Winslow, gave him a warm wel- 
come, entertained him hospitably, and promised to 
forward the object of his mission. He went with 
him, at great personal incvjuvenience, to Merrymeet- 
ing Bay, where Druilletes embarked in an English 
vessel for Boston. The passage was stormy, and the 
wind ahead. He was forced to land at Cape Ann, 
or, as he calls it, Kepanc^ whence, partly on foot, 
partly in boats along the shore, he matle his way to 
Boston. The three-hilled city of the Puritans lay 
chill and dreary under a Dccem!)er sky, as the priest 
crossed in a boat from the neighborhig peninsula of 

Winslow was agent for the merchant Edward Gib- 
bons, a personage of note, whose life presents curious 
phases, — a reveller of Merry Mount, a bold sailor, 
a member of the church, an adventurous trader, an 
associate of buccaneers, a magistrate of the common- 
wealth, and a major-general.^ The Jesuit, with cre- 
dentials from the Governor of Canada and letters 
from Winslow, met a reception widely different from 
that which the law enjoined against persons of his 

1 An account of him will bu found in ralfruy, History of New 
England, ii. 225, note. 
VOL. II. — 10 




11 ^ 


I f 

i } 


■ I 
' '.1 , 

profession.! Gibbons welcomed him heartily, prayed 
him to accept no other lodging than his house while 
he remained in Boston, and gave him the key of a 
chamber, in order that he miglit pray after his own 
fasliion, without fear of distu]'])ance. An accurate 
Catholic writer thinks it likely that lie brought with 
him the means of celebrating the mass.^ If so, the 
house of the Puritan was, no doubt, desecrated by 
that Popish abomination; but be this as it may, 
Massachusetts, in the person of her magistrate, be- 
came the gracious host of one ol those whom, next to 
the Devil and an Anglican bishop, 3he most abhorred. 
On the next day. Gibbons took his guest to Ilox- 
bury, — called Ro(j^hray by Druilletes, — to see the 
Governor, the liarsli and narrow Dudley, grown gray 
in repellent virtue and grim honesty. Some half a 
century before, he had served in France, under Henry 
the Fourth; but he had forgotten his French, and 
called for an interpreter to explain the visitor's cre- 
dentials. He received Druilletes with courtesy, and 
promised to call the magistrates together on the fol- 
lowing Tuesday to hear his proposals. They met 
accordingl}^ and Druilletes was asked to dine with 
them. The old Governor sat at the head of the 
table, and after dinner invited the guest to open the 
business of his embassy. They listened to him, de- 

1 In tlio Act, an exception, however, was made in favor of Jesuits 
coming as ambassadors or envoys from tlieir government, who were 
declared not liable to the penalty of hanging. 

2 J. G. Shea, in Boston Pilot. 














sired liim to withdraw, and, after consulting among 
themselves, sent for him to join them again at supper, 
when they made him an answer, of which the record 
is lost, but which evidently was not definitive. 

As the Abenaki Indians were within the juris- 
diction of Plymouth, 1 Druilletes [)roceeded thither in 
liis character of their agent. Here, again, he was 
received with courtesy and kindness. Governor 
Bradford invited him to dine, and, as it was Friday, 
considerately gave him a dinner of fish. Druilletes 
conceived great hope that the colony could be 
wrought upon to give the de.<ired assistance ; for 
some of the chief inhabitants had an interest in the 
trade with tlie Abenakis.^ He came back by land 
to Boston, stopping again at Roxbury on the way. 
It was night when he arrived ; and, after the usual 
custom, he took lodging with the minister. Here 
were several young Indians, pupils of his host: for 
he was no other than the celebrated Eliot, who dur- 
ing the past summer had established his mission at 
Natick,^ and was now laboring, in the fulness of his 
zeal, in the work of civilization and conversion. 

1 For the documents on the title of Plymouth to lands on the 
Kenueliec, see Drake's additions to Baylies's History ofXtw Pli/mouth, 
l](5, where they are illustrated by an ancient map. The patent was 
obtained as early as l(i28, and a tradinii-house soon after established. 

2 T/te Revixui of till' Colnnij nf J'/i/i:untth, Juir- 5, 1051, contains, 
however, the entry, " Tlie Court declare themselves not to be will- 
ing to aid them [tlie French] in their desiixn, or to grant them 
liberty to go through their jurisdiction for the aforesaid purpose" 
(to attack the Mohawks). 

^ See Palfrey, Xew Eiujlaml, ii. 336. 


!i ^ 







tween tlic two mission- 
aries; and Eliot prayed his guest to spend tlie winter 
with him. 

At Salem, wliich Druilletes also visited, in com- 
pany witli the minister of jMar])lehead, he had .'^n 
intervie' wit' he stern, but manly Endifott, wiio, 
io says, I't'kv) Fieitch, and expressed botli interest 
and g. od-';vill tu>'ard.^; th.e ol)jeets of the expedition. 
As the envoy had w., money left, Erdicott paid his 
charges, and asked him to dine with the magistrates.^ 

Druilletes was evidently struck with the thrift and 
vigor of these sturdy young colonies, and the strength 
of their po})ulati(m. He says that Boston, meaning 
Massachusetts, could alone furnish four thousand 
fighting men, and tl'at the four united colonies could 
count forty thousand souls. '-^ Tliese numbers may be 
challenged; but, at al^ "vents, tlie contrast was strik- 
ing with tlie attenuated and suffering Imnds of priests, 
nuns, and fur-traders on the St. Lawrence. About 
twenty-one thousand persons had come from Old to 
New England, with the resolve of making it their 
home; and though tliis immigration had virtually 
ceased, the natural increase had been great. The 
necessity, or the strong desire, of escaping from 

1 On Druilletes's visit to Now Englaiul, see his journal, entitled 

Nurre da Voi/djic Jin'cf poitr la Mission il<:s Ahenaquois, rt des Connois- 
sauces tirez de la S^unvtl/e Amjlctcrrc et des JJispositions des Magistrals 
de cette liepub/ique pour le Serours cuntre les Iroquois. Sec also Druil- 
letes, Rapport sur le Rcsultid de ses Xcyotiatinus, in Ferland, Xotes sur 
les Rei/istres, 95. 

2 Druilletes, Reflexions toiichant ce qit'on pent esperer de la Nouvelle 
Anjh'terre contre I'lrccqiiois {^'il'), appended to liis journal. 


' i 

'i|. '-ii 





persficntion luid givon tlio iinpiilso to Puritan colo- 
nization; while, (HI the other hand, none but good 
Catholics, the favore class of France, were tolerated 
in Canada. The^e had no motive for exchanging the 
comforts (jf homo and the smiles of Fortune for a 
starving wilderness and the scali)lng-l<nives of the 
Iroquois. Tlic Huguenots would have emigrated in 
swarms; hut tliey were i-igidly forlddden. The /.eal 
of propagandism and the fur-trade were, as we liave 
seen, the vital forces of New France. Of . )r ■ ^ble 
population, the best part was bound to pei^ • 'ual 
chastity; while the fur-traders and th- ■» in their 
service rarely brought tlieir wives to the w dcness. 
The fur-trader, moreover, is always the ■ rs"^ of colo- 
nists; since the increase of population, by diminisliing 
the niiml)ers of the fur-bearing animals, is adverse 
to his interest. But beliind all this there was in the 
religious ideal of the rival colonies an influence which 
alone would have gone far to produce the contrast in 
material growth. 

To the mind of the Puritan, heaven was God's 
throne ; but no less was the earth His footstool : and 
each in its degree and its kind had its demands on 
man. He held it a duty to labor and to nuUtiply; 
and, building on the Old Testament quite as mucli 
as on the New, thought that a reward on earth as 
well as in heaven awaited those who ^^-('re hiitliful 
to the law. Doubtless,- such a belief is widely open 
to abuse, and it would be folly to pretend that it 
escaped abuse in New England; but there was in it 





I I 

1 I 


an element niiuily, liculthl'iil, and iiivijjfomliiicj. On 
the otlier hand, those who sha[)('(l tlie cliaracter Jind 
in ^aviit nieasnn^ tlie destiny of New France liad 
alvvays on tlieir lips the notliin^'iicss and the vanity 
of life. For tlieni, time was notliino- hut a prepara- 
tion for eternity, and the highest virtue consisted in 
a renunciation of all the cares, toils, and interests of 
earth. That such a doctrine has often In-cn joined 
to an intense worldliness, all history in'oclaims; but 
with this we have at present notliinf^ to do. If all 
mankind acted on it in good faith, the world would 
sink into docrepitmle. Ft is the monastic idea car- 
ried into the wide held of active life, and is like the 
error of those who, in their zeal to cultivate their 
higher nature, suffer the neglected body to dwindle 
and pine, till body and mind alike lapse into feeble- 
ness and disease. 

Druilletes returned to the Abenakis, and thence 
to Quebec, full of liope that the ol)ject of his mis- 
sion was in a fair way of accomplishment. The 
Governor, D'Ailleboust,^ who had succeeded ]\Iont- 
magny, called his council; and Druilletes was again 
despatched to New England, togethei- with one of the 
principal inhabitants of Quebec, Jean Paul Godefroy.^ 
They repaired to New Haven, and appeared before 
the Commissioners of the Four Colonics, then in ses- 

1 The same wlio, with liis wife, had joined the colonists of ^lont- 
real. See avtr, 82. 

2 He was one of the Governor's council. Ferland, Xotes sur les 
Registres, 07. 




there: but th 





Hion tnere; DUt their erniiid proved bootless. mo 
Commissioners refused eitlior to declare wiir or to 
permit volunteers to bo raised in Ne\v I^nj^land 
ai^ainst the Irocpiois. The I'uritan, like his descend- 
ant, would not liL,dit without a reason. The bait of 
free-trade with Cauada failed to tempt him ; and 
the envoys retraced their stei)S, with a flat, though 
courteous refusal.^ 

Now let us stop for a moment at Que])eo, and 
observe some notable changes that had taken })lace 
in the affairs of the colony. The Company of the 
Hundred Associates, whose outlay had been great 
und their profit small, transferred to the inhabitants 
of the colony their monopoly of the fur-trade, and 
with it their debts. The inhabitants also assumed 
their obligations to furnish arms, munitions, soldiers, 
and works of defence ; to pay the Governor and other 
officials, introduce emigrants, and contribute to sup- 
port the missions. The Company was to receive, 
besides, an annual acknowledgment of a thousand 
pounds of beaver, and was to retain all seigniorial 
rights. The inhabitants were to form a corporation, 
of which any one of them might be a mendjer; and 

1 On Druillctt's's second embassy, see Lettrc ecrile par le Consril 
de Qu^/irr aux Commissionaires de la Nouvclle AiK/lcterrf, in Charle- 
voix, i. 287; Ertrait dis R((/isfres de I'Ancien Conseil de Quebec, Ibid., 
i. 288; Copj/ of a Letter from the Commissioners of the United (.'ninnies 
to the Gurernor of Canada, in Hazard, ii. ISo; Answare to the Prajio- 
sitions })resented bij the honercd French Af/rnfs, Ilnd., ii. 184; and 
Hutchinson, Collection rf Papers, 240. Also, Records of the Commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies, Sept. 5, 1051 ; and Commission of iJruil- 
letrs and Ciodefrnij, in \. Y. Col. Docs. ix. fj. 





I ' 


no individiuil could trade on liis own account, except 
on condition of sell intent ii fixod price to tlio nm^mzine 
of tliis new coiiii)any.* 

Tiiis {'liaiifje took place in Idto. It was followed, 
in 1047, by tlie establislmicnt of a (yonncil, (;oniposed 
of tlu^ Govoriior-CnMicral, the Su[)('rior of the Jesuits, 
and tlio (Jovernor of ^^o^tr('al, who were invested 
with absolute i)owers, legislative, judicial, and exec- 
utive. The (irovernor-deneral had an appointment 
of twenty-five thousaud livres, besides the privilege 
of briugiun- over seventy tons of freight, yearly, in 
the Company's shi[)s. Out of this he was required 
to pay the soldiers, repair tin; forts, and sui)j)ly arms 
and munitions. Ten thousand livres and thirty tons 
of freight, with similar conditions, were assigned to 
the Governor of Montreal. Under these circum- 
stances, one camiot wonder that the colony was but 
indifferently defended against tlie Iroquois, and that 
the King had to send soldiers to save it from destruc- 
tion. In the next year, at the instance of ]\Iaison- 
neuve, another change was made. A s[)ecified sum 
was set apart for pnri)os('s of defence, and the salaries 
of the Governors were proportionably reduced. The 
Governor-General, Montmagny, though he seems to 
have done better than could reasonably have been ex- 
pected, was removed ; and, as iNIaisonneuve declined 
the oflice, d'Ailleboust, another Montrealist, was 

1 Articles accordes nitrf Im Direrteiirs et Associes de la Cumjjiu/nic 
de la N'"' France et Ics JJejndes dcs llahitans d\i (lit Paijs, Mars, 
1045. MS. 




• » 


appoiutefl to it. Tliis mnvcniont, indood, liad hcon 
acconiplisli<!(l l)y the interest of tlie ^^tlltI•eaI party; 
for already there was no slit^lit jealousy lietweeii 
QuelKiC and her rival. 

The Couneil was reorganized, and now eonsisted (»f 
the Governor, the Superior ol" the .Jesuits, and tlireo 
of the prineipal inhabitants.' These last were to bo 
chosen every three yeais by the Couneil itself, in con- 
junction with the Syndics of Quebec, Montreal, and 
Three Rivers. The Syndic was an ollicer elected by the 
inhabitants of the connuunity to whicii he belon<,'ed, 
to manage its affairs. Hence a slii^ht ino-rcdient of 
liberty was introduced into the new ortranization. 

The colony, since the transfer of the fui'-tradc, had 
become a resident corporation of merchants, with the 
Governor and Council at its head. They were; at 
once the directors of a trading company, a legislative 
assembly, a court of justice, and an executive body: 
more even than this, for they regulated the jjrivate 
affaire of families and individiials. The a|)|)()intnient 
and payment of clerks and the examining of accounts 
mingled with high functions of government; and the 
new corporation of the inhabitants seems to hav(! been 
managed with very little consultation of its members. 
How the Father Superior acquitted himself in his capa- 
city u. director of a fur-company is nowhere recoi'ded.^ 

1 The (i.)vernors of Montn-al and Throe Kivcrs, wlien prosont, 
liad also seats in the Council. 

2 Those curious in roj^ard to these new n-uniliitioiis will tiuil an 
account of them at greater len^^tli, in Ferland ami Faillon. 




; I 


As for Montreal, tlioiigli it had given a Governor 
to the colon}', its prospects were fiir from liopeful. 
The ridiculons Dauversiere, its cliief founder, Avas 
sick and l)ankrnpt; and tlie Associates of Montreal, 
once so fidl of zeal and so ahonnding in wealth, were 
reduced to nine persons. What it had left of vitality 
was in the entlnisiastic ^Mademoiselle Chinee, the 
earnest and disinterested soldier iNfaisonneuve, and 
the priest Olier, with his new Seminary of St. Sulpice. 

Let us visit Quehec in midwinter. We pass the 
warehouses and dwellinjis of the lower town, and as 
we climb the zigzag way now called jNlountain Street, 
the frozen river, the roofs, the sunmuts of the cliff, 
and all the broad landscape below and .around us 
glare in tlie sharp sunlight with a dazzling whiteness. 
At the top, scarcely a private house is to be seen; 
but, instead, a fort, a church, a hospital, a cemetery, 
a house of the Jesuits, and an Ursuline convent. 
Yet, regardless of the keen air, soldiers, Jesuits, 
servants, officials, women, all of the little community 
who are not cloistered, are abroad and astir. Despite 
the gloom of the times, an unwonted cheer enlivens 
this rocky perch of France and the Faith; for it is 
New-Year's Day, and there is an active interchange 
of greetings and presents. Thanks to the nimble 
pen of the Father Superior, we know what each gave 
and what each received. lie thus writes in his 
private journal: — 

" The soldiers went with their guns to salute Mon- 
sieur the (xovornor: and so did also the inhabitants 



I , 

.^ .11 




in a body. He was beforeluuul with us, and came 
here at seven o'ch^ck to wish us a lia}»})y New- Year, 
each in turn, one after another. I went to see him 
after mass. Another time we must he beforeliand 
with him. M. Giffard also came to see us. The 
Hospital nuns sent us letters of compliment very 
early in the morning; and the Ursulines sent us some 
beautiful presents, with candles, rosaries, a crucilix, 
etc., and, at dinner-time, two excellent pies. I sent 
them two images, in enamel, of St. Fgnatius and St. 
Francis Xavier. We cave to M. Giffard l-'ather 
Bonnet's book on the life of Our Lord; to M. des 
Chatelets, a little volume on Eternity ; to M. P)ourd()n, 
a telescope and compass; and to others, reliquaries, 
rosaries, medals, images, etc. I went to see M. 
Giffard, M. Couillard, and Mademoiselle de Repen- 
tigny. The Ursulines sent to beg that I would come 
and see them before the end of the day. I went, and 
paid my compliments also to MadauK; de la Peltrie, 
who sent us some presents. I was near leaving this 
out, which would have been a sad oversight. We 
gave a crucifix to the woman who washes the ciuirch- 
linen, a bottle of cmc-de-fic to Abraham, four hand- 
kerchiefs to his wife, some ])ool<s of devotion to 
odiers, and two handkerchiefs to liobert llache. He 
asked for two more, and we gave them to him." ^ 

^ Jinirmd des Siipen'cnrs des Jesnitis, MS. <hily fraLrinents of 
tliis curious record are extant. It was lie^uii by L.'ilciiiant in l'i4o. 
For tlio prlvilogo of haviiij,^ wlu't rcniain,s of it coiiiiil, 1 am 
inilfbtcd to M. Jacfj^ios Vigcr. TIic entry translated above is of 
Jan. 1, IGiO, Of the persons named in it, Gitl'anl was seigneur of 






r?eauport, and a member of tlie Council ; Des Chfitelcts was one of 
the earliest settlers, and connected by marriaj^e witli fiilTard ; Coii- 
illard was son-in-law of the first si'ttler, llebtTt ; ^Mademoiselle de 
liepcntigny was (laughter of LeCiardeurde Kepentigny, commander 
of the fleet; Madame de la IVltrie has been described already; 
Bourdon was chief enj^nneer of the colony ; Abraham was Al)raham 
Martin, pilot for the Kinjr on the St. Lawrence, from whom the his- 
toric Plains of Abraham received their name. (See Ferland, Notes 
sur Iicgistres, 16.) The rest were servants, or persons of humble 

I < 

i I 





Indian Ixfatuatiox. — Iroqiois and IIi'ron. — ITttrox Triumphs. 
— The Captive Iroquois: his Ferocity' and Foktituue. — 
Partisan Exploits. — Diplomacy — The Andastks. — The 
Huron Emrassy. — New Negotiations. — The Iroquois Amuas- 
sador : HIS Suicide. — Iroquois Honor. 

It was a strange and miserable spectacle to l)eliold 
tlie savages of this continent at the time wl'.en the 
knell of their common ruin had already sounded. 
Civilization had gained a foothold on their l)orders. 
The long and gloomy reign of barbarism was drawing 
near its close and their united efforts could scarcely 
have availed to sustain it. Yet, in this crisis of their 
destiny, these doomed tribes were tearing each other's 
tlu'oats in a wolfish fury, joiiied to an intelligence 
that served little purpose but mutual destruction. 

How the quarrel ])egan between the Iroquois and 
their Huron kindred no man can tell, and it is not 
worth while to conjecture. At tiiis time, the ruling 
passion of the savage Confederates was the annihila- 
tion of tills rival people and of their Algonquin allies, 
— if tlK. underGtanding between the Hurons and these 

^ 1 

1 '! 




incoherent hordes can ])e called an jdliance. United, 
they far outnumbered the Iroquois. Indeed, the 
Ilurons alone were not much inferior in force; for, 
by the largest estimates, the strength of the five 
Iroquois nations must now have been considerably 
less than three tliousand warriors. Their true supe- 
riority was a moral one. Tliey were in one of those 
transports of pride, self-contidence, and nig'^ for 
ascendency, wliicli in a savage people marks an era 
of conquest. With all the defects of their organiza- 
tion, it was far ijctter than that of their neighbors. 
There were biekerijigs, jealousies, plottings, and 
counter-plottings, separate wars and separate treaties, 
among the five members of the league; yet nothing 
could sunder tlii-m. Tlie bonds tliat united them 
were like cords of India-rubljer: they would stretch, 
and the parts would be seemingly disjoined, only to 
return to their old union with the recoil. Such was 
the elastic strength of those relations of clanship 
which were the life of the league. ^ 

Tlie first meeting of white men with the Hurons 
found them at l)lows with the Iroquois; and from 
that time forward, tlie war raged with increasing 
inry. Small scalping-parties infested the Huron 
forests, killing squaws in the cornfields, or entering 
villages at midnight to tomahawk their sleeping 
inhabitants. Often, too, invasions were made in 
force. Sometimes towns were set upon and burned, 
and sometimes there were deadly conflicts in the 

1 See ante, Intioiluction. 


le in 




depths of the fopjsts and the passes of the hills. 
The invaders were not always successful. A bloody 
rebuff and a sharp retaliation now and then requited 
them. Thus, in 1038, a war-party of a hundred 
Ir()([Uois met in the forest a band of three hundred 
Huron and Algonquin warriors. They might have 
retreated, and the greater number were for doing so; 
but Ononkwaya, an Oneida chief, refused. "Look! " 
he said, "the sky is clear; the Sun })eholds us. If 
there were clouds to hide our shame from his sight, 
we might fly; but, as it is, we must fight while we 
can." They stood their ground f(jr a time, but were 
soon overborne. Four or five escaped ; but the rest 
were surrounded, and killed or taken. This year, 
Fortune smiled on the Ilurons; and they took, in all, 
more than a hundred prisoners, who were distributed 
among their various towns, to be burned. These 
scenes, with them, occurred always in the night; and 
it was held to be of the last importance that the tor- 
tui'o should be protracted from sunset till dawn. 
The too valiant Ononkwaya was among the victims. 
Even in death he took his revenge; for it was , ought 
an augury of disaster to the victors, if no cr if pain 
could be extorted from the sufferer, and on the 
present occasion he displayed an unflinching courage, 
rare even among Indian warriors. I lis ex utiontook 
place at the town of Teanaustayd, called St. Joseph 
by the Jesuits. The Fathers could not save his life, 
but, what was more to the purpose, they ba[)tized 
liim. On the scaffold where he was burned, he 


1 ! 





, I 

wrought himself into a fury wliich seemed to render 
him insensible to [)uin. Thinking him nearly spent, 
his tormentors scalped him, wlien, to their amaze- 
ment, he leaped up, snat(du'd the brands that had 
been the instruments of liis torture, drove the screech- 
ing crowd from the scaffold, and held them all at 
bay, while they pelted him from below with sticks, 
stones, and showers of live coals. At length he 
made a false st('[) and fell to tlie ground, when they 
seized him and tlircwliim into the fire. lie instantly 
leaped out, covered witii blood, cinders, and ashes, 
and ruslit'd upon them, with a l)lazing brand in each 
hand. The crowd gave way before him, and he ran 
towards tlic town, as if to set it on fire. They threw 
a pole across his way, wliich trij)ped him and flung 
him hcitdlong to the earth; on which they all fell 
upon him, cut off his hands and feet, and again 
threw him into the fire. He rolled himself out, and 
crawled forward on his ell)o\vs and knees, glaring 
upon them witli such uiuitterable ferocity that they 
recoiled cuice more, till, seeing that he was helpless, 
they threw themselves upon him and cut off his 

When the Ii'oquois could not win by force, they 
were sometimes more successful with treachery. In 
the summer of 104"), two war-parties of the hostile 
nations met in the forest. The Ilurons bore them- 
selves so well th;^"^ they had nearly gained the day, 

1 Laloinant, Relafion des Ilnrons, 1(539, 08. It was this chief 
whoso sovured iiaiul was thrown to tho Jesuits. See ante, i. 229. 





when the Iroquois called for a parley, displayed a 
great number of wanipuni-helts, uutl said that they 
wished to treat for peace. The Ihirons had the folly 
to consent. The cliiefs on both si(k's .sat down to a 
council, during which the Iroipiois, seizing a favor- 
able moment, fell upon tlieir dupes and routed them 
completely, killing and capturing a considerable 
number. 1 

The large frontier town of St. Joseph was well 
fortified willi palisades, on which, at intervals, were 
Avooden watch.- towers. On an evening of this same 
summer of 1645, the Iroquois approaclied the place 
in force; and the young Huron warriors, mounting 
tlieir palisades, sang tlieir war-songs ..".' night, with 
the utmost power of their lungs, in oider that the 
enemy, knowing them to be on their guard, might 
1)6 deterred from an attack. The night was dark, 
and the hideous dissonance resounded far and wide ; 
yet, regardless of the din, two Iroquois crept close 
to the palisade, where they lay motionless till near 
dawn. By this time the last song had died away, 
and the tired singers had left their posts or fallen 
asleep. One of the Iroquois, Avith tho silence and 
agility of a wild-cat, climbed to the top of a w^atch- 
tower, where he found two slumbering Hurons, brained 
one of them with his hatchet, and threw the other 
down to his comrade, wlio quickly despoiled him of 
his life and his scalp. Then, with the reeking 

^ Ragueneau, Relation des lluroiis, 1G4(), Hu, 

VOL. II. — 11 





/ V 

If i 


>l \ 



tropliios of their exploit, the adventurers rejoined 
their eountrynien in the forest. 

The III 


ed a counter-stroke; and three 
of them, after a journey of twenty days, reached the 
great town of the Senecas. They entered it at niid- 
niglit, and found, as usual, no guard; but the doors 
of the houses were made fast. They cut a hole in 
the bark side; of one of them, crept in, stirred the 
fading end)ers to give them light, chose each his 
man, tomahawked him, scalped him, and escaped in 
the confusion.^ 

Despite such petty triumphs, the Ilurons felt them- 
selves on the verge of ruin. Pestilence and war had 
wasted them away, and left but a skeleton of their 
former strength. In their distress, they cast about 
them for succor, and, remembering an ancient friend- 
ship with a kindred nation, the Andastes, they sent 
a]i eml)assy to ask of them aid in war or intervention 
to obtain peace. This pow^erful people dwelt, as has 
been shown, on the river Susquehanna. ^ The way 
was long, even in a direct line; but the Iro(iuois lay 

^ Ra}j;uonoaii, lirhition dcs Ilurons, 1040, 55, 5(5. 

2 See Iiitroiluc'tion, i. 80. The Susqueliannocks of Smith, 
clearly the same ix-ojile, are placed, in iiis iiiaj), on the east side of 
the Susquehanna, some twenty miles from its mouth. He speaks 
of them as preat enemies of the Massawomekes (Mohawks). No 
other savHixe iie(,;)le so boldl}' resisted the Iroquois; l)ut the story 
in Hazard's AuikiIs af Pcnnsiilrdiiid, tliat a hundred of them beat olf 
sixteen hundreil, is disproved by the fact that the Senecas, 
in their best estate, never had so many warriors. The miserable 
remnant of the Andastes, called Conestogas, were massacred by the 
Paxton Boys, in 1703. See "Conspiracy of I'ontiac." Compare 
Historical Majazine, ii. 204. 




ed the 
t mid- 
Lole in 
id the 
3h his 
ped in 

ar had 
E their 

ly sent 

as has 
le way 
ois hiy 


;t side of 


ks). Nu 

tlie story 

beat olt 



il by tiie 






l)et\veen, and a wide, cirenit was necessary to avoid 
Iheni. A Cln-islian chief, wIkuu the Jesuits liad 
named Charh's, together with lour Christian and 
four lieatlien llurons, iH'ariiig \vaini)Uiu-helts and 
gifts from tlie council, (h'[»iirted on tliis embassy on 
the thlileenth of April, 1(547, and reacned the great 
town of the Andastes early in .June. It contained, 
as the Jesuits were told, no less than thirteen hun- 
dred warriors. The council assembled, and the chief 
ambassador addressed them: — 

"We come from the Land of Souls, where all is 
gloom, dismay, and desolation. Our fields are 
covered with blood; our houses are (illed only witii 
the dead; and we ourselves have but life enouLi'h to 
beg our friends to take pity on a people who are 
drawing near their end."^ 

Then he presented the wampinn-belts and othe» 
gifts, saying that they were the voice of a dyin^ 

The Andastes, who had a mortal quarrel with the 
jNIohawks, and who had before promised to aid the 
llurons in case of need, returned a favoralJe answer, 
l)ut were disposed to try the virtue of diplomacy 
rather than the tomahawk. After a series of coun- 

^ "II leur (lit qu'il venoit (bi pays des Ames, on la fjtierre et la 
terreur d.s eiinemis aiioit tout desolc', ou les camiiat^nies n'estoient 
coiiuertes ([ue de saiiii-, oil Ics eabaiies n'estoient remjjlies (jiie ilo 
eadaures, et (jii'll lie leiir restolt a eux-iiiesmes de vie, sinon autant 
qu'ils en auoiiiit eii besoin pour venir dire h. leurs amis, {|u'ils 
eussent pitie d'vn pays qui tiroit ii sa tin." — Kagueneuu, Relation 
ilts llurons, 10-18, 58. 

I 1 

( ' 



A i.M)f)Mi:i) NATION. 


oils, tlicy (leiennincil to send aiiiltiissadoiH, not to 
their old ciuMuies tliu Moliiiwks, but to tlic OiiondiiLias, 
Onc'idas, and Cayiii^as, ' who were j^con'rapliically tho 
central nations (»!' the Iro([Uoi.s lea^^tu', while tlio 
Moliawks and tlie Seneeas were respectively at its 
eastern and western extremities. \\y iiidnein<( th(^ 
three central nations — and, if ])nssil(le, the Seneeas 
also — to eonelude a treaty with the Unions, these 
last would 1h! enabled to concentrate th(.'ir force 
against the Mohawks, whom the Andastes would 
attack at the same time, unless they luunbled tliem- 
selves and made peace, 'I'liis scheme, it will be seen, 
was based on the assumption that the dreaded league 
of the Irocpiois was far from being a unit in action 
or counsel. 

Charles, with some of his colleagues, now set out 
for home, to report the result of their mission; but 
the Seneeas were lying in \\'ait for them, and they 
were forced to make a wide sweep through the 
Alleghanies, western Pennsylvania, and apparently 
Ohio, to avoid these vigilant foes. It was October 
before they reached the Huron towns, and meanwhile 
hopes of peace had arisen from another quarter.^ 

Early in the spring, a band of Onondagas had 


1 Exnni'iiiitioii leaves no doubt tliiit tlie Oniournronnnns oi Kajrue- 
iieau {Rihttimi (lis ///inois, l(i4S, 40, o*,*) were the Oiogouins or (I'm/o- 
(jDuins, that is to say, tlie Cayiipis. They must not ha confounded 
with the OiU'iiroliroiiiioiis, a small trihe hostile to the Iroquois, who 
took ret'uii'e amoiii;- tlie Ilurons in U!;]<S. 

2 On this mission of the Ilurons to the Andastes, see Kagueneau, 
delation des Ilurons, lU4b, 58-00. 

I :. f 1 





iiis, who 

mulo an inroad, but wi-rc roui^-lil}- liaiullrd hy tlio 
Ifui'ons, who killrd scvoral of tlu'iii, cajitiircd otlicrs, 
and put tlie n'st to Uiglit. TIn' |tiis(iiii'i's wwo, 
l)iini('d, — with (he exception (»t' (Hic wlio coinniittrd 
suicido to ('sca[u' the torture; and one (tthci-, the 
('liii)f man of the; i)ai'ty, wliosc uamc was Aiiiicinais, 
Soniu of tlic Hurons wvvv. dissutislicd iit the nicicy 
shown liiiii, and L^'ave out tliat llicy woidd kill Iiiiii; 
ou wliifdi the chiefs, wiio iieNCi' jilaeed theiiisel\('S iu 
()])eii oi)positi(»n to tlie populai- will, secretly fitted 
him out, made him prcs(Mits, and tided him to esca[ie 
at night, with an iniderstandiiig that he should use 
his inthience at Onondaga in favor of j)eace. After 

crossing Lake Ontario, he met neai'ly all the Oiion- 
(h\ga warriors on the niaich to a\'enge his su])posed 
death; for ho was a man of high account. 'Hiey 


'eetcd liini as one ris(>n from the L!i'ave: and, on 

liis part, he persna(h'd them to renounce! their war- 
like purpose and return home. On their arrival, the 
chiefs and old men were called to council, and the 
matter was debated with the usual delihei'atioii. 

Al)out this time the amhassaehtr of the Andast 


ajjpeared with his wampum-helts. Uoth this nation 
and the Onomlagas had secret motives which wcr(^ 
perfectly in acconhmce. The Andasles hated th(> 
Mohawks as <'ne:nies. and the Onondagas were jeal- 
ous of them as confederates; for, since they had 
armed themselves with Dutch guns, their arrogance 
and boastings had given umbrage to their brethren 
of the league, and a peace with the Ilurons would 

' t 





1^ |2.8 

|50 l"^* 







.4 6" — 













WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 







leave the latter free to turn tlieir undivided strength 
against the Mohawks, and curb their insolen'^e. 'J'he 
Oneidas and the Cayugas were of one mind with the 
Onondagas. Three nations of the league, to satisfy 
their spite against a fourth, would strike hands with 
the connnon enemy of all. It was resolved to send 
an embassy to the llurons. Yet it niay be, that, 
after all, the Onondagas had but half a mind for 
peace. At least, they were unfortunate in their 
choice of an ambassador. lie was l)y birth a Huron, 
who, having been captured when a boy, adopted, and 
naturalized, had ])ecome more an Iroquois than the 
Iroquois themselves; and scarcely one of the fierce 
confederates had shed so much Huron blood. When 
he reached the town of St. Ignace, which he did 
about midsummer, and delivered his messages and 
wampum-belts, there was a great division of opinion 
among the llurons. The liear Nation — the member 
of tlieir confederacy which was farthest from the 
Iroquois, and least exposed to danger — was for re- 
jecting overtures made by so offensive an agency; 
but those of the llurons who had suffered most Avere 
eager for peace at any price, and, after solenm delib- 
eration, it was resolved to send an embassy in return. 
At its head was placed a Christian chief named Jean 
Baptiste Atironta; and on the first of August he and 
four others departed for Onondaga, carrying a pro- 
fusion of presents, and accompanied by the apostate 
envoy of the Iroquois. As the ambassadors had to 
hunt on the way for subsistence, besides making 




canoes to cross Lake Ontario, it was twenty days 
before they reached thoir destination. When they 
arrived, there was great jubihition, and, for a fnll 
month, nothing bnt councils. Having tlins sifted 
the matter to the bottom, the Onondagas determined 
at last to send another embassy with Jean Haptiste 
on his return, and with them fifteen Huron prisoners, 
as an earnest of their good intentions, retaining, on 
their part, one of Baptiste's colleagues as a hostage. 
This time they chose for their envoy a chief of tlieir 
own nation, named Scandawati, — a man of renown, 
sixty years of age, — joining with him two colleagues. 
The old Onondaga entered on his mission with a 
troubled mind. His anxiety was not so nnich for 
his life as for his honor and dignity; for while the 
Oneidas and the Cayugas were acting in concurrence 
with the Onondagas, the Senecas had refused any 
part in the embassy, and still breathed nothing l>ut 
war. Would they, or still more the Mohawks, so 
far forget the consideration due to one wliose name 
had been great in the councils of the League as to 
assault the Hurons while he was among them in the 
character of an ambassador of liis nation, whereby his 
lionor would be compromised and his life endangered? 
His mind brooded on this idea, and he told one of his 
colleagues that if such a slight were put upon him, 
he should die of mortification. ""I am not a dead 
dog," he said, "to be despised and forgotten. lam 
worthy that all men should turn their eyes on me 


• r 

I i' 

I ! 

•; t 

i h 




•■, I- 

i i 



while I am among enemies, and do nothing that may 
involve me in danger."' 

What with hunting, fishing, canoe-making, and 
bad weather, the progress of the august travellers 
was HO slow that they did not reach the Huron towns 
till the twenty-third of October. Scandawati pre- 
sented seven large belts of wampum, each composed 
of three or four thousand beads, which the .Jesuits 
call the pearls and diamonds of the country, lie 
delivered, too, the fifteen captives, and promised a 
hundred more on the final conclusion of peace. The 
three Onondagas remained, as surety for the good 
faith of those who sent them, until the beginning of 
January, when the llurons on their part sent six 
ambassadors to conclude the treaty, one of the Onon- 
dagas accompanying them. Soon there came dire 
tidings. The prophetic heart of the old chief had 
not deceived him. The Senecas and Mohawks, dis- 
regarding negotiations in which they Jiad no part, 
and rest)lved to bring them to an end, were invading 
the country in force. It might be thought that the 
Hurons would take their revenge on the Onondaga 
envoys, now hostages among them ; but they did not 
do so, for the character of an aml)assador was, for 
the most part, held in respect. One morning, how- 
ever, Scandawati had disappeared. They were full 
of excitement; for they thought that he had escaped 
to the enemy. They ranged the woods in search of 
him, and at length found him in a thicket near the 
town. He lay dead, on a bed of spruce-boughs 




which he hud maih', liis throat deeply jjfashed with a 
knife. lie had died ]»y liis own liaiid, a victim of 
mortified pride. "See,'' writes Father Ua,L;ueiieaii, 
"how inueli our Indians stand on tiie point of 

We have seen that one of his two eolleau^nes had 
set out for Onondaga with a (h'putation of six 
Ilurons. Tliis i)arty was met])va Inuidred Moliawks, 
who captured them all and killed the six Ilurons, 
hut spared the Onoiuhiga, and eom])elled him to join 
them. Soon after, they made a snchh-n onset on 
about three himdred Ilurons journeying through the 
forest from the town of St. Ignaee; aiul, as many of 
them wx're women, they routed the whole, and took 
forty prisoners. The Onondaga bore part in the 
fray, and captiu'ed a Christian Huron girl; hut the 
next day he insisted on returning to the Huron town. 
"Kill me, if you will," he said to the Mohawks, "hut 
I cannot follow you; for then I should be ashamed 
to appear anumg my countrymen, who sent me on a 
message of peace to the Ilurons; and I mnst die with 
them, socmer than seem to act as their enemy." On 
this, the Mohawks not only permitted him to go, but 
gave him the Huron girl whom he had taken; and 
the Onondaga led her back in safety to her ciiuntry- 
men.2 Here, then, is a ray of light out of l\gy})tian 

1 This rt'ni,irkal)le story is told by Kairueneau, ft'lation d, s 
Hurons, 104H, 50-58. Ik- was jiresfiit at tliu time, aiid i<iu\v all tliL' 
circuni stances. 

'^ " Coliiy qui Tauoit priso cstoit Onnontaoroiiiiori, i|ui I'stant icy 
en ostage a cause de la \k\\\ qui se traite auec les Unnoutaeromions, 


i a' 


' ( 

! i' 

! I 
t ■ 

^ ^' 



[in IS. 

darkness. Tlie principle of honor was not extinct in 
these wild hearts. 

We hear no more of the negotiations hetwecn tlie 
Onondagas and the Hurons. They and their results 
were swept away in the storm of events soon to be 

et s'estnnt trouue auec nos Hurons h cette chasso, y fut pris tout 
(Ic's premiers par Ics Sonnontoueronnons {Annierotinoits ?), qui I'ayans 
reconnu ne luy firent aucun mal, et niesnie rol)linerent dc les siiiure 
et prendre part Ji leur victoire ; et ninsi en ce rencontre cet ( )nnontae- 
ronnon auoit fait sa prise, tellenient neantinoins qu'il desira s'en 
retourner le lendeniain, disant aux Sonnontoueronnons qu'ils le 
tuassent s'ils vouloient, inn is qu'il ne pouuoit so resoudre h les 
suiure, et qu'il auroit lionte de reparoistre en son pays, les atlaires 
qui I'auoient amene aux Hurons pour la paix ne perniettant pas 
qu'il fist autre chose que de niourir avec eux plus tost que de i)a- 
roistrc s'ostre comportc? en ennemy. Ainsi les Sonnontoueronnons 
luy perniirent de s'en retourner et de ramener eette l)f)nne Clires- 
tienne, qui estoit sa captiue, laquelle nous a console ])iir le recit des 
entretiens de COS pauures gens dans leur affliction." — Kajfueneau, 
Relation (Iph Hnrnns, 1()48, 05. 

Apparently the word Sonnontouemnnons (Senecas), in the ahove, 
should read Annieronnmis (Mohawks) ; for, on pages 50, 57, the 
writer twice speaks of the party as Mohawks. 

i ■; I 

! I 






Hopes ok the Mission. — Ciiuistian and Heathen. — Body and 
Son,. — Position ok I'kosei.ytks. — The Hikon Giui/s Visit 
to Heaven. — A Caisis. — Hikon Jlstice. — .Miudek and 
Atonement. — HoI'ES and Fkaus. 


How (lid it fare with the missions in tliese days 
of woe and terror? They had thriven beyond liope. 
The Hurons, in their time of trouble, had Ijeconie 
tractal)le. They liumbled themselves, and, in their 
desolation and despair, came for succor to the priests. 
There was a harvest of converts, not only exceedin<^ 
in numbei-s that of all former years, but giving in 
many cases undeniable proofs of sincerity and fer- 
vor. In some towns the Christians outnumbered the 
heathen, and in nearly all they formed a strong 
party. The mission of La Conception, or Ossossan(3, 
was the most successful. Here there were now a 
church and one or more resident Jesuits, — as also 
at St. Joseph, St. Ignace, St. Michel, and St. Jean 
IJaptiste:^ for we have seen that the Huron towns 
were christened with names of saints. Each church 

^ Riigucncau, Rehition dis Ifuroif^, V'AO, '><>. 


) > 

! I 


! I 





liiul its bell, wliicli wiis soinetlinos Imiig in ;i lu.'i^'h- 
boring tret'.' Kvi'iy morning it raiiL,' its summons to 
niiiss; and, issuing from their (Iwellings ol" luirk, the 
converts gathered within tin; saered precinct, where 
the hare rude walls, fresh from the axe and saw, con- 
trasted witl: the sheen of tinsel and gilding, and the 
hues of gay draperies and gaudy pictures. At even- 
ing they met again at prayers; and on Sunday, 
masses, confession, catechism, sermons, and repeating 
the rosary consumed the whole day.''^ 

These converts i-arely took i)art in the hurning of 
prisoners. On the contrary, they sometimes set their 
faces against the practice; and on one occasion a 
certain Etienne Totiri, while his heathen countrymen 
were tormenting a cai)tive Iroquois at St. Ignace, 
boldly denounced them, and promised them an eter- 
nity of ilames and demons uidess they desisted. Not 
content with this, he addressed an exhortation to 
the sufferer in one of the intervals of his torture. 
The dying wretch demanded baptism, which Etienne 
took it upon himself to administer, amid the hootings 
of the crowd, who, as he ran with a cup of water 
from a neighboring house, pushed him to and fro to 
make him spill it, crying out, "Let him alone! Let 
the devils burn liim after we have done! "^ 

1 A friiLTiiU'iit of OIK' of Uk'sc bi'l'.s, found on the site of a Huron 
town, is prescrv dl in the niusouni of Huron relics at the Laval 
University, Quehet'. The bell was not larj^e, but was of very elabo- 
rate worknuuiship. Hefore 1044 the Jesuits had used old copper 
kettles as a substitute. Lcttre de Liilniiaiit, 31 March, 1(544. 

^ Ragueneau, Rdalion dva llnrmis, 1()4(», 5(). 

8 Ibid., Oy. I'he llurons often resisted the baptism of their pris- 

' V 

oiis to 
k, the 

•, COll- 
11(1 tlio 

linuf of 
■t tlK'ir 
ision a 
111 ctcr- 
ion to 
fro to 
I Let 

|a Huron 

JO Laval 
ry c'liibo- 
11 copper 

leir pns- 

1 til.-)-! 8.1 

TiiK rouTruK 




In regard to thes(^ atrocious scones, wliicli formed 
the favorite Huron recreation of a suiniiier iiiglit, tlio 
Jesuits, it must l»e eoiifessed, did not ([uile eoii 
up to the requirements of nuxh'rn sensihility. 'I'liey 
were offended at them, it is true, and j)reveiited tliem 
wlien tliey couhl , hut tliey were wholly given to the 
saving of souls, and held the body in scorn, as the 
vile source of incaleulahle mischief, woi'thy the worst 
inllictions that could be put upon it. What were a 
few hours of suffering to an eternity of bliss or woe? 
If the victim were heathen, these brief pangs were 
but the faint i)relude of an undying flame; and if 
a Christian, they were the liery portal of Heaven. 
They might, indtH'd, be a blessing; since, acce})te(l 
in atonement for sin, they would shorten the tor- 
ments of Purgatory. Yi't, while schooling them- 
selves to despises the body, and all the pain or 
l)lcasure that pertained to it, the Fathers were em- 
phatic on one point, — it nnist not be eaten. In the 
matter of cannibalism, they were loud and vehement 
in invective.^ 

oners, on the ^^roiind that hell, and not licavcn, was the place to 
whicli tliey would have tlieni po. See Laleinaiit, liilntinn dis 
J/iiidiis, lti42, 00; Raj^ueneau, /hid., H'AS, ;j.'{, and several other 

1 The followinir curious case of conversion at tjje stake, gravely 
related by Laleniant, is wortli proscrvinir : — 

"An Iro(|Uois was to be burned at a town some way off. What 
consolation to set fortli, in the liottcst sumimut weather, to deliver 
tliis poor victim from the hell prepari'd for him! The Father 
approaches him, and instructs him even in tiie midst of liis tor- 
ments. Forthwith the Faith tinds a jjlace in his lieart. He recog- 
nizes and adores, as the author of his life, Ilim whose name he had 

!•• I 


t I 

'i ^ 



I ' 

I 'I 



Uiuk'niiibly, the Faith was iimking progress: yet 
it is not to be supposed tluit its patli was a smooth 
Olio. The ohl op[)osition and the old calumnies were 
still alive and active. "It is hi pi'ih'c that kills us. 
Your books and your strings of beads have bewitched 
tlie country. Hefore you came, we were hai)i)y and 
prosperous. You are magicians. Your charms kill 
our corn, and bring sickness and the Iroquois. 
Echon [lir(^beuf] is a traitor among us, in league with 
our enemies." Such discourse was still rife, openly 
and secretly. 

The Huron who endu'aced the Faith renounced 
thenceforth, as we have seen, the feasts, dances, and 
gamos in which was his delight, since all these 
savored of diabolism. And if, being in health, he 
could not enjoy himself, so also, being sick, he could 
not be cured; for his physician was a sorcerer, whose 
medicines were charms and incantations. If the con- 
vert was a chief, his case was far worse ; since, writes 
Father Lalemant, " to be a chief and a Christian is to 
combine water and fire ; for the business of the chiefs 

never heard till the hour of liis deatli. He receives the praee of 
baptism, and hreathes nothing hut heaven. . . . This newly made, 
but {Tenerous ('liristian, mounted on the seatTold which is the place 
of his torturi', in the si^lit of a thousand sjji'ctators, wlio are at 
once his enemies, his jud^^cs, and his executioners, raises his eyes 
and his voice heavenward, ami cries aloud, 'Sim, who art witness of 
my torments, hear my words! I am about to die; but after my 
death I shall i^o to dwi'U in heaven.'" — Jiclation drs Ffurons, 1('>41,(57. 
The Sun, it will be remembered, was the god of the heathen Iro- 
quois. The convert appealed to his old deity to rejoice with him in 
his happy future. 




is iMiiinly to do the Devil's bicMiu^, pivsido ovtT 
ct'ii'inoiiit'S of licll, uiul excite the youn^r Indiiins to 
dances, feasts, and slianieless indecencies." * 

It is not snipiisin^', tiien, that proselytes were 
dillicnlt to make, or that, bein*^' made, they often 
relapsed. The J ;uits complain that they hud no 
mi'ans of controlling their converts, and coercing 
backsliders to stand fast; and they atld, that the 
Iro(piois, ])y destroying the fur-trade, had ])roken the 
j)rincii»al bond l)et\veen the Hurons and the French, 
and greatly weakened the influence of the mission. ^ 

Among the slanders devised by the heathen party 
against the teachers of the obnoxious doctrine was 
one which found wide credence, even among the con- 
verts, and i)roduced a great effect. They gave out 
that a l)aptized Huron girl, who had lately died, 
and was buried in the cemetery at Sainte Marie, had 
returned to life, and given a deplorable account of the 
heaven of the French. No sooner had she entered, 
— such was the story, — than they seized her, chained 
her to a stake, and tormented her all day with incon- 
ceivable cruelty. They did the same to all the other 
converted Hurons; for this was the recreation of the 
French, and es[)ecially of the Jesuits, in their celes- 
tial abode. They ba^jtized Indians with no other 
object than that they might have them to torment 

1 Rclntiim (/< s Ifiinins, 1042, 80. The indt'Ccnciea alliuU'd to were 
cliiefly nakt'd dances, of a sujuTstitious character, and the mystical 
cure called AiKldiinuidvt, hefori' mciitionetl. 

'^ Li'ttro tin P. Jlierosme LaleiiKUtt, appended to the Rehttion of 

\" H 




I'lii; III lioN cm ncii. 




in lifiivcTi; Id wliicli end tlicy woro \villing to moot 
li;ir(lsliij).s ;iii(l (laii_L;('rs in this life, jiiHt as a wiir- 
piii'ty iiivadt's the ciicmy's couiitrv iit prcjit risk 
tliiit it may hiiii.L,' iiomc prisoiUTs t.) l)urn. After 
licr paiiitiil cxjx'rii'iu'c, an iiiikiiowii Iriciid secretly 
showed tlie ^irl a path down to the eartii; and siio 
hasttJiied thillier to warn lier conntrynien against tho 
wiles of the missionaries.' 

In thesprinj^ of 1«(4S tlie excitement of the heathen 

an, name 


])arty reached a crisis. A yonng French 
Ja('(|iies Donart, in the service of tlie 
ing ont at evening a short distance from the .lesnit 
honse of Sainte Marie, was tomahawked by unknown 
Indians,- who proved to U; two brotliers, instigated 
by the heathen eliiefs. A great commotion followed, 
and for a fi'W days it seemed tliat the advei"se parties 
would fall to blows, at a time when the connnon 
enemy threatened to destroy them botli. But sager 
counsels prevailed. In view of the manifest strength 
of the C-hristians, the pagans lowered their tone; and 
it soon became ai)i)arent that it was the part of the 
Jesuits to insist boldly on satisfaction for the outrage. 
They made no demand that the nuirderers shouhl be 
punished or surreiuhu'cd, but, with their usual good 
sense in such matters, conformed to Indian usage, 
and recpiired that the nation at large should make 

1 RaRUcncaii, Relation drs IIurovR, 1646, 65. 

'^ Ihiil., 1648, 77. Cotiipari' Lcttrv du P. Jean de Brehcufan T. R. 
P. Vinrcvt Carafii, (ieneral dt la Conijntijnie de Jesus, iSainte Marie, 
2 Jain, 1(548, in Carayon. 

.1 ii 



:, risk 


1(1 slio 
ist tlio 

)n, go- 
t sager 
|ie; and 

of the 
mid 1)0 
[d good 


'a« r. R. 
ke Marie, 




utoneinriit for tlic criiiic by pn^soiits.^ The iiuiidM'r 
of tiirsc, their \alin'. and the mode of delivering then» 
\ver«' all fixed l>y iiiieieiit custom; and some t»f the 
convtMts, a'.'ting as eoiinsel, advised tlie Fathers of 
every step it h<'iiooved them to take in a ease of siirii 
imitortaiice. As tiiis is tiie best ilhistration of Huron 
iustiee on record, it niav he wt'll to oi»serve the 
methf)d of procediii-e, — recollecting tiiat the puhlic, 
and not the criminal, was to pay the forfeit of the 

Fii'st of all, the Ihiron chiefs summoned the Jesuits 
to meet tiiem at a grand council of tiie nation, when 
an old orator, ciiosen hy the rest, rose and addressed 
Kagucncau, as chief of the French, in the following 
iiaranguc. Kagnenean, who reports it, declares that 
he has added nothing to it, and th(^ translation is as 
literal as possible. 

''My Hrother," began the sjieakcr, ''behold all the 

tribes of our leaa'ue assembled 

? " 

and he named 

them one ])y one. "' VVc ai'(^ but a handful; you are 
tiie prop and stay of this nation. A thunderbolt has 
fallen from the sky, and rent a chasm in the eaiih, 
Wc shall fall into it, if you do not support us. 'I'ake 
pity on us. We are here, not so much to sjjcak as to 
weep over our loss and yours. Diir cfmntry is but 
a skeleton, without flesh, veins, sinews, or arteries; 
and its bones hang together by a thread. This thread 
is broken by the blow that has fallen on the head of 

1 See Introduction, i. At. 

; '11; 

' I 

• 1 

VOL. II. — 1: 








■ 1'! 

you^ ncplicw,^ for Avhoni we weep. It was a demon 
of hell who placed the hatchet in the niui'dei-er's 
hand. Was it yon, Snn, whose beams shine on iis, 
who led him to do this deed? Why did you not 
darken yonr light, that he might be stricken with 
horror at his crime ? Were you his accomplice ? 
No; for he walked in darkness, and did not see 
where he struck. He thought, this wretched nuu*- 
derer, that he aimed at the liead of a young French- 
man; Imt the blow fell upon his country, and gave 
it a death-wound. The earth opens to receive the 
blood of the innocent victim, and we shall be swal- 
lowed up in the chasm ; ±oi' we are all guilty. The 
Iroquois rejoice at his dcatli, and celebrate it as a 
triumph ; for they see that our weapons are turned 
against each other, and know well that our nation is 
near its end. 

"Brother, take pity on this nation. You alone 
can restore it to life. It is for you to gather up all 
these scfittered bones, and close this chasm that opens 
to engulf us. Take pity on your country. I call it 
yours, for you are the master of it ; and we came here 
like criminals to receive your sentence, if you will 
not show us mercy. Pity those who condemn them- 
selves and come to ask forgiveness. It is you who 
have given strength to the nation by dwelling with 
it; and if you leave us, we shall be like a wisp of 


1 The usual Indian fifjure in such cases, and not meant to express 
an actual relationsliip, — " Uncle" for a superior, " Brother" for an 
equal, " Nephew " for an inferior. 




straw torn from tlie ground to be tlio sport of the 
wind. This country is an ishuid drifting on the 
waves, for the lirst storm to overwhehn and sink. 
Make it fast again to its foundation, and posterity will 
never forget to i)raise you. When we i'lmt heard of 
this murder, we could do nothing but weep; and we 
are ready to receive your orders and comply with 
your demands. Speak, then, and ask what satisfac- 
tion you will, for our lives and our possessions are 
yours; and even if we rob oiu- children to satisfy 
you, we will tell them that it is not of you that they 
have to complain, but of him whose crime has made 
us all guilty. Our anger is against liim; but for you 
Ave feel nothing but love, lie destroyed our lives; 
and you will restore them, if you will but speak and 
tell us what you will have us do." 

Ragueneau, who remarks that tb"*j harangue is a 
proof that eloquence is the gift of Nature rather than 
of Art, made a reply, w^hicli he has not recorded, and 
then gave the s[)eaker a bundle of small sticks, indi- 
cating the number of presents which he required in 
satisfaction for the murder. These sticks were dis- 
tributed among the various tribes in the council, in 
order that each might contribute its share towards 
the indenniity. The council dissolved, and the chiefs 
went home, each with his allotment of sticks, to col- 
lect in his village a corresponding number of presents. 
There v/as no constraint ; those gave who chose to 
do so; but, as all were ambitious to show their pub- 
lic spirit, the ccmtributions were ample. No one 

. I 




I ^ 

I if: 

li' ' 



;b ' 


thought of molesting tlie inurderers. Tlieir i)unish- 
iiiont was their sliaino at the sacrifices which the 
public were making in their behalf. 

The presents being ready, a day was set for the 
ceremony of their delivery; and crowds gathered 
fiom all parts to witness it. The assembly was con- 
vened in the open air, in a field beside the mission- 
house of Sainte ^larie ; and, in the midst, the chiefs 
held solenni council. Towards evening, they deputed 
four of their nund)er, two Ciiristians and two heathen, 
to carry tlieir address to the Father Superior. They 
came, loaded with presents; but these were merely 
l)reliminary. One was to open the door, another for 
leave to enter; and as Sainte Marie was a large house, 
with several interior doors, at each one of which it 
behooved them to repeat this formality, their stock of 
gifts became seriously reduced before they reached 
the room where Father Raguencau awaited them. 
On arriving, they made him a speech, every clause 
of which w^as confirmed by a present. The first was 
to wi[)e away his tears; the second, to restore his 
voice, which his grief was supposed to have impaired ; 
the third, to calm the agitation of his mind; and the 
fourth, to allay the just angei' of his heart. ^ These 
gifts consisted of wam})um and the large shells of 
which it was made, together with other articles, 
worthless in any eyes but those of an Indian. Nine 
additional presents followed: four for the four posts 

1 Rajfueneau liiuisi.'lt' ilescribcs the scene. Relation dcs Ilurons, 
1048, 80. 

t t 

I !i i.i; 




,vas coii- 

of the sepulclire or scaffold of tlie imirdered man; 
four for the cross-pieces wliii-li connected the posts; 
and one for a })illo\vto support his liead. Then came 
eight more, corresponding to tlie eight hugest hones 
of the victim's body, and also to the eight clans of 
the Ilurons.i Ragnenean, as re(piired hy established 
custom, now made them a present in his turn. It 
consisted of three thousand beads of wampum, and 
was designed to soften tlie earth, in order that they 
might not be hurt when falling upon it, overpowered 
by his reproaches for the enormity of tlieir crime. 
This closed the interview, and the deputation 

The grand ceremony took place on the next day. 
A kind of arena had been preparc'd, and here were 
hung the fifty presents in which the atonement essen- 
tially consisted, — the rest, amounting to as many 
more, being only accessory. ^ The Jesuits had the 
right of examining them all, rejecting any that did 
not satisfy them, and demanding others in place of 
them. The naked crowd sat silent and attentive, 
while the orator in the midst delivered the fifty 
presents in a series of harangues, whicli the tired 
listener has not thoaght it necessary to [)reserve. 
Then came the minor gifts, each with its significa- 

1 I 

(les Iliiruns, 

1 Ragueneau says, " los liuit nations ;" Imt, as tin- Iliirons con- 
sisted of only fonr, or at most five, nations, hv prf)l)al)ly ok aii> the 
clans. For the nature of tlicsc ilivisions, see Introduction, i. H-14. 

* The number was unusually iarui-, — ])artly hcciiusc llic atl'air 
was thoujxht very important, anil partly hccausc tlic munUrcil man 
belonged to another nation. See Introduction, i. ')\. 




■- ",;, 


! . 

"i| 1 ill 

tion explained in turn by the speaker. First, as a 
sepulchre had been provided tlie day l)ofore ff)r the 
dead man, it was now necessary to clothe and equip 
him for his journey to the next world; and to this 
end three presents were made. They represented a 
hat, a coat, a shirt, breeches, stockings, slioes, a gun, 
powder, and bullets; but they were in fact something 
quite different, as wampum, beaver-skins, and the 
like. Next came several gifts to close up the wounds 
of the slain. Then followed three more. Tlie first 
closed the chasm in tlie earth, w^hich had burst 
through horror of the crime. The next trod the 
ground firm, that it might not open again ; and here 
the whole asseml^ly rose and danced, as custom re- 
quired. The last placed a large stone over the closed 
gulf, to make it doubly secure. 

Now came another series of presents, seven in num- 
ber, — to restore the voices of all the missionaries ; to 
invite the men in their service to forget the murder; 
to appease the Governor when he should licar of it; 
to light the fire at Sainte Marie ; to ojicn the gate ; 
to launch the feriy-boat in which the Huron visitors 
crossed the river ; and to give back the paddle to the 
boy who had charge of the boat. The Fathers, it 
seems, had the right of exacting two more presents, 
to rebuild their house and church, — supposed to have 
been shaken to the earth by the late calamit}'; but 
they forbore to urge the claim. Last of all were 
three gifts to confirm all the rest, and to entreat the 
Jesuits to cherish an undying love for the Hurons. 

Ml '■ 

il . i;)l I 

! ■ I 




The priests on their part gave presents, as tokens 
of good-will; and with that the assembly dispersed. 
The mission had gained a triumph, and its intluence 
was greatly strengthened. The future would have 
been full of hope but for the portentous cloud of war 
that rose, black and wrathful, from where lay the 
dens of the Iroquois. 


1 ::'i 




If ; 



1648, 1649. 


The Ckntkk of tiik Missions. — Fort. — Convknt. — IIosimtal. — 
Cahavansat{y. — CnrKCH. — Tin; Inmatics ok Saintk Makir. — 
DoMKSTic Economy. — Missions. — A Mkktinu ok Jesuits. — 
The Dead Missiunakv. 

The river Wye enters the 15ay of Glocester, an 
inlet of the Bay of Matcliedash, itself an inlet of 
the vast Georgian Bay of Lake Hni'on. Retrace the 
track of two centuries and more, and ascend this 
little stream in the summer of the year 1G48. Your 
vessel is a hirch canoe, and your conductor a Huron 
Indian. Ou the right hand and on the left, gloomy 
and silent, rise the primeval woods; hut you have 
advanced scarcely half a league when the scene is 
changed, and cultivated fields, planted chiefly with 
maize, extend far along the bank and hack to the 
distant verge of the forest. Before you opens the 
small lake from which the stream issues; and on your 
left, a stone's tln-ow from the shore, rises a range of 
palisades and hastioned walls, enclosing a numher of 
buildinsfs. Your canoe enters a canal or ditch innne- 





ster, an 
inlet of 
^•ace the 
nd this 
)U have 
cene is 
Iv with 
to the 
ens the 
on your 
■iinge of 
nil)er of 
1 innne- 

(liately ahove them, and you land at the Mission, or 
llesidence, or Fort of Sainte Ahirie. 

Here was the centre iind l)ase of the Huron mis- 
sions; and now, for once, one must wish that Jesuit 
pens had heen more fluent. Tiicy have tohl us l)ut 
little of Sainte Marie, and even this is to In; gathered 
chiefly from incidental allusions. In the forest, which 
long since has resumed its reign over this memorahle 
spot, the walls and ditches of the fortilications may 
still he j)lainly traced: and the deductions from these 
remains are in perfect accord with what we can gather 
from the lUldtions and letters of the priests.^ Tlie 
fortified work which enclosed the huildiiigs was in 
the form of a parallelogram, ahout a hundred and 
seventy-five feet long, and from eighty to ninety 
wide. It lay parallel with the river, and somewhat 
more than a luuidred feet distant from it. On two 
sides it was a continuous wall of masoniyi^ flanked 
with square bastions, adapted to musketry, and prob- 
ably used as magazines, storehouses, or lodgings. 
The sides towards the river and tlie lake had no other 
defences than a ditch and palisade, flanked, like the 
others, by bastions, over each of which was displayed 
a large cross. ^ The buildings within were, no doubt, 

* Before me is an elaborate plan of the remains, taken on tlio 

2 It seems probable that the walls, of \vhi( h the remains may 
still be traced, were fonndaticns siii)i)iirtiiiu' a woixlen siiiierstnir- 
ture. Kajjneneau, in a letter to tlie (ii'iieralof the Jesuits, (l.ilrd 
March l:}, l(i50, alhides to the defences of Sainte Marie as " tine >\m- 
ple palissa<le." 

^ " Qnatre jxrandes Croix (Mil sont aux (piatre I'oiiis de nostre en 
clos." — l^airueneau, ilcUition dis JJiirdiia, 1G4S, bl. 

■ I 




1 1 

of wood; and tlioy incliult'd a clnircli, a kitclien, a 
refectory, places of retreat for reli<,n()iis instruction 
and meditation,^ and lodgini^s for at least sixty i)er- 
sons. Near the chnrcli, but outside the fortification, 
was a cemetery. Beyond the ditch oi- canal which 
opened on the river was a larf:^e area, still traceable, 
in the form of an iri-egular triangle, surrounded by a 
ditch and apparently by palisades. It seems to have 
been meant for the protection of the Indian visitors 
who came in throngs to Sainte Maiie, and who were 
lodged in a large house of bark, after the Huron man- 
ner.2 Here, perhaps, was also the hospital, which 
was placed without the walls, in order that Indian 
women, as well as men, might be admitted into it.^ 

No doubt the buildings of Sainte Marie were of 
the roughest, — rude walls of ])oards, windows with- 
out glass, vast chinmeys of unhewn stone. All its 
riches were centred in tlie church, which, as Lalemant 
tells us, was regarded by the Indians as oue of the 
wonders of the world, but which, he adds, would 
have made but a beggarly show in France. Yet one 
wonders, at first thought, how so much labor could 

1 It seems that these phiccs, besides those for the priests, were 
of two kinds, — " vne retraite pour k'S pelerins {/iidians), eiifin vn 
lieu plus separe, ou les infideles, qui n'y sont adniis que de iour au 
passage, y puissent tousiours reeeuoir quehjue lion mot pour leur 
salut." — Lalemant, lirhition dis Ilnnnis, 1()44, 74. 

2 At least it was so in 1()42. " Nous leur auons dresse vn Hos- 
pice ou Cahane d'oeoree." — Ihid., I(i42, ')7. 

8 " Cet hospital est tellenient sejiare de nostre demeure, que non 
seulement les honimes et enfans, uuiis les femmes y peuuent estre 
admises." — ////(/. 11)44, 74. 

^1; ' 

i illl . 




[ifive lx?on accomplished liere. Of la to yours, how- 
ever, the numher of inen at the ooinniiind of the mis- 
sion had been coiisidorahlo. Soldiers had Ixjen sent 
up from time to tiiuo, to escort the Fathers on their 
way, and defend tliem on their arrival. Thus, in 
1044, MontmaLrnv ordered twontv men of a leinforei;- 
nil \t just arrived from Franci' to escort Urdlunif, 
(larreau, and Chahanel to the Hurons, and remain 
there during the winter.^ These soldiers l()d<;ed with 
the Jesuits, and lived at their table. '^ It was not, 
however, on detachments of troops that they mainly 
relied for labor or defence. Any inhabitant of 
Canada who chose to undertake so hard and danger- 
ous a service was allowed to do so, receiving only 
his maintenance from the mission, without pay. In 
return, he was allowed to trade with the Indians, and 
sell the furs thus ol)tained at the magazine of the 
Company, at a fixed price. ^ Many availed them- 
selves of this permission; and all whose services were 
accepted by the Jesuits seem to have been men to 
whom they had connnunicated no small portion of 
their own zeal, and who were enthusiastically attached 
to their Order and their cause. There is abundant 
evidence that a large proportion of them acted from 
motives wholly disinterested. They were, in fact, 

^ Vimont, Ticlatiou, 1()44, 40. Ik' adils, that soino of tlu'si' sol- 
diers, tlioiiyli they had oiicc been " assez inauvais j^areoiis," liad 
shown j>Tcat zeal and devotion in behalf of tlie mission. 

'^ JtiunutI (hs .'^itjieriiHfs </< s ./csnitis, MS. In I'i 48 a small cannon 
was sent to Sainte Marie in tiie Huron eanoes. /Iii(/. 

^ J{t;/istres das Arreis da Cuitsiil, extract in Kaillon, ii. 04. 


'■ I 




il I 

dnnm's of the mission,^ — ^ivcn, lu-art and hand, to 
its s('rvi('(\ 'I'licic is jM-ohaliility in tii(> ('(iiijcctnro 
that the profits of tiicir trach' with tlic IncHans were 
r('a})('d, not for their own lu-hoof, hnt for tiiat of tlio 
mission. 2 Jt is (hlhcnlt otiii'rwisc to cxphiin tlic con- 
tiiU'nce witii wliicli tho Father SuiJcrior, in a k'ttcr 

1 St'c !(/(/(, i. 20'_', /(o/r, imd ii. ."U. (iiirniiT calls tlii'in " Beculicrs 
(I'liiibit, inais ri'li;;iiu.\ dc (•(rur." — Ltllns, MSS. 

^ Thi' .Ii'siiits, I'Vi'ii at this i-arly pi-riod, wire (tfti'ii and loudly 
(•liarjii'd with shariu^i' in tlic t'lir-tradc. It is ciTtaiii tiiat tliis charjiL' 
was lint wludly without foiiinlatioii. J.c -IcuiU', in the Jlihitiun <»t' 
1(157, Kjicakin^r of tiii- wampum, guns, jiowtUr, lead, hatcheta, ki't- 
tk'H, and other articles which the missionaries were oldij^ed to jjive 
to the Indians, at councils and elsewhere, says that tlu'se must he 
l)oujiht from the traders with heaver-skins, which are the iiKjney of 
the country ; and he adds, " l^ue si vii hsuite en revolt on en recui-ille 
(liU'l(|iu's-\ lis pour ayder aux frais iiiimeiises qu'il faiit faire dans 
ees .Missions si c'loii,nii'es, et pour g'a^nier ces peuples ii lesus-Clirist 
et Ics i)orti'r ii la i)aix, il seroit ii souhaiter ([Ue ceiix-lii iiiesme (lui 
deuroieiil faire ces desiiensts pour la conseruation du pays, ne 
fussent pas du moins les premiers ii condamner le zele do ces Teres, 
ot h les rendri' par lours discours plus noirs que leurs rohes." — 
Rehttlini, Iti.'iT, \{\. 

In the same year, Chaumonot, addressing; a council of the Iro- 
quois durinji a jteriod of truce, said, " Keoj) your beaver-skins, if 
you elioosi', for the Dutch. Kveii such of thom as may fall into 
our ])ossession will he I'lnployed for your service." — lliitl., 17. 

In l(t;}('>, Le tleuiie thoujiht it iiect-ssary to write a long letter of 
defence against the charge; and in 1()4;>, a declaration, ai)pended 
to the h'( hilii'ii of that year, and certifying that the Jesuits took no 
])art in tlu' fur-trade, was drawn uj) and signed by twelve niemhers 
of the (^)nii)any of New France. Its only moaning is, that the 
Jesuits were neither jiartiiers nor rivals of the Company's monoj)oly. 
They certainly bought siipjtlies from its magazines with furs which 
they ol)taiiU'(l from tlu- liuliaiis. 

Their object evidently was to make the mission partially self- 
su])])orting. To impute mercenary motives to (Jarnier, Jogues, and 
their co-Ialiorers is manifistly idle; but, evi'ii in tlii' highest flights 
of his enthusiasm, the Jesuit never forgot his worldly wisdom. 


\A \ 





to the Gencnil of tlio Jcsnit.s at Uoiiic, sjm'hIss of its 
iv.soiii'ccH. He says, " 'I'lioiiLjIi our iiuiiiiici' is ^n-catly 
iuoivascd, and tlioun'h \\'«' still lio|i(' tor iiioic men, 
and t'Hpccially lor more prit'sts ol" oui- Society, it is 
notnect'ssaiy to incivasc tlic jn'riini;iry aid ^iven us."' 
Much of this |)ros[)('rity was no donht due to tlu; 
excelh'nt nianau^emout of their resoui'ces and a very 
successful aijrieuliure. While th(» Indiiins around 
thcni were stal■vinL,^ they raised niai/e in such (juan- 
titics, that, in tlie sprint^ of li!41>, the I-'atlicr Sujk rior 
t]iou<j^ht that tlu'ir stoidv of {trovisions nii^lit sullicc 
for three years. "'Iluntinnr and lishinLC," he says, 
"are ])etter tlian lieretofore; '' and he adds that they 
had fowls, swine, and even cattle. ^ I low they could 
have brousrht these last to Sainti' .Marie it is diriicult 

to conceive. The feat. 


ler tl 

le circumstances, is 

truly astonishing. Everything indicates a fixed re- 
solve on the part of the Fathers to build up a solid 
and permanent estahlishnient. 

It is by no means to be iid'erred that the houseliold 
fared suni})tuously. Tiieir ordinary food was maize, 
pounded and boiled, and seasoned, in the absence of 



salt, which was regarded as a luxury, with 
of smoked tish.'"^ 

In March, 1G49, there were in the Huron country 
and its neighborhood eighteen Jesuit j)i'iests, four lay 

1 Lettrr du P. Paul i 

idi/itrliKlil ait 

r. /('. /'. ]'iiitint ('(iiii/ii,(i('ii('- 

rill 1 1)' la (' 

iinjiiuiini' I 

l>- J, 


a lioiiir, Sdiiitr Maria aitr 11 


Mars, l<i40 (('iirayon). 
a Ihhl. 

IlaglU'IH'iUl, /ulatiiin tins /fit 

1(548, 48. 




[1018- If). 

brothers, twciity-tlircc iiicii scrvlii^^Mvitlioiil jtay, Hevcii 
liirt'd incii, four boys, mid ci^dit soldicis.' Of tliis 
nuinlK.'r, littccii priests were enpij^'ccl in the various 
missions, wliih' all tlie rest were retained perniaiUMitly 
at Sainte Marie. All was method, diseijiline, and 
suhordinatioii. Some of the nii'n were assi^nied to 
liousehold work, and some t(» the li(ts|iital; while the 
rest iahoi'ed at the foitilieatioiis, tilled the lields, and 
stood ready, in ease of need, to linht the Iiuxjuois. 
The Fathei' Suj>erior, with two otlier priests as assist- 
ants, controlled and ^niided all. 'I'he remainin,L( 
Jesuits, undisturbed by tempoial cares, were devoted 
exclusively to the char^'e of their resju'ctive mis- 
sions. Two or tlii'ce times in the year, they all, or 
nearly all, assend)le(l at Sainte ^blrie, to take counsel 
tofj^ether and (U'termine their future action. Hither, 
also, they came at intervals for a period of medita- 
tion and prayei', to nerve themselves and gain new 
inspiration for their stern task. 

liesides beinyf the citadel and the maiXiizine of the 
mission, Sainte Ahirie was the scene of a bountiful 
bosj)itality. On every alternate Saturday, as well as 
on feast-days, the converts came in crowds from the 
farthest villatifes. They were entertained during Sat- 
urday, Sunday, and a part of Monday; and the rites 
of the rhurch were celebrated before them with all 

1 Si'i' tlu' ri'jxirt of till' FatluT Siijicritir to the Gonoral, above 
citi'd. Till' iiimil)t'r was {greatly increasi'il within the year. In 
April, 1('»4S, IJatiut'iU'au n-jiorts but forty-two French in all, includ- 
ing priests. Mifort' tlie end of the summer a large reinfurcement 
came up in the Huron eanoes. 




j)(tsMil»l(? H»»l('iimity ami poiu]). Tlioy were wclcniiit'd 
also at other tiiiics, and ciitcilaiiKMl, usually with 
tliiu'c meals to eaeii. In these latt»'r years the |ii't!- 
vailin^' laiiiine drove them to Saiiite Marie in swarms. 
Ill tin' ennrse of 1»I17 three thousand were lo<I<M'd 
and Ted here; and in the I'ollowiiii,' year the niimher 
was diinl)le(l.' llealheii Indians were also received 

and sn|i|tlied witli t"oo(l, lint were not permitti'd to 
remain at ni^ht. There was jirovision for the soul 
as w(dl as the liody; and, Christian or iieatladj, 
few left Sainte Marie without a woid of instruction 
or exiiortation. ("harity was an instriimuiit of con- 

Sueli, so far as we can rcconstniet it from the aeat- 
teri'd hints reinaininu', was this siuLnilar establish- 

ment, at once military, monastic, and jiatriarehal. 
The missions of which it was the hasis werc^ now 
eleven in iiumher. To those amoiiLj the llurons 
already mentioned another had lately been added, — • 
that of Sainte Madeleine; and two others, called St. 
Jean and St. Matthias, had been established in the 
neighboring Tobacco Nation.'^ The three remainini^ 
missions were all among tribes speaking the Algon- 
(juin languages. Every winter, bands of these sav- 
ages, driven by famine and fear of the Iroquois, sought 

^ Compare Hiit^iU'inau in /illation (l):s I/nrmis, KitH, IS, ami iti 
iiis report to tlie (leiU'ral in 1()4!). 

'^ The mission of tlu' Neutral Nation liad 1)een abamloned for the 
time, from tiu' want of missionaries. 'I"he Jesuits had ri'solveil on 
concentration, and on the thoronjih conversion of the Uurons, as u 



preliminary to iiinri' fMcndrd i 


i ■„'' 




'' I 

Yi:, 7 


liarl)(irage in the Huron couiitiy, and the mission of 
Sainte Elisaheth was established for their benefit. 
The next Algonquin mission was that of St. Esprit, 
embracing the Nipissings and other tribes east and 
northeast of Lake Huron; and, lastly, the mission of 
"St. Piei'iv included tiie tribes at the outlet of Lake 
Superior, and throughout a vast extent of surround- 
ing wilderness.' 

These missions were more laborious, though not 
more perilous, than those among the Hurons. The 
Algoncpuii hordes were never long at rest; and, 
sununer and winter, the priest nnist follow them by 
lake, forest, and stream, — in sununer plying the 
l)a(ldle all (hiy, or toiling thi'ough jjathless thickets, 
])cnding under the weight of a birch canoe or a load 
of baggage, — at night, his bed the rugged earth, or 
some l)are rock, lashed by the restless waves of Lake 
Huron; while famine, the snow-storms, the cold, the 
treacherous ice of the Great Lakes, smoke, filth, and, 
not rarely, threats and persecution were the lot of 
his winter wanderings. It seemed an earthly para- 
dise when, at long intervals, he found a respite from 

1 Bfsiilcs tliL'fic tribes, tlic Jesuits liad become more or less 
ac(iu;iiiiteil witJi many otliers, also Algonquin, on the west and 
soutli of liake Huron; as well as witli the I'uans, or Winnebagocs, 
a Dacotali tribe between Lakt' Mieliigan and the Mississippi. 

Tiu' Mission of Sault Sainte Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, 
was establisiuil at a later period. Modern writers have confounded 
it witli Sainti' Marie of the Hurons. 

Ey the Ihhitidii of Kill) it a])i)ears tliat another mission had lately 
bt'eii beu'un at tlie (irand Manitoulin Island, which the Jesuits also 
christened Isle Sainte Marie. 




his toils among his brother Jesuits under the roof of 
Sainte Marie. 

Hither, while the Fathers are gathered from their 
scattered stations at one of their periodical meetings, 
— a little before the season of Lent, 1(J41>,^ — let us, 
too, repair, and join them. We enter at the eastern 
gate of the fortification, midway in the wall l)etween 
its northern and southern bastions, and pass to the 
hall, where, at a rude table, spread with ruder fare, 
all the household are assemljled, — laborers, domes- 
tics, soldiers, and priests. 

It was a scene that might recall a remote half feu- 
dal, half patriarchal age, when, under the smoky 
rafters of his antique hall, some warlike thane sat, 
with kinsmen and dependants ranged down the long 
hoard, each in his degree. Here, doubtless, Rague- 
neau, the Father Superior, held the place of honor; 
and, for chieftains scarred with Danish battle-axes, 
was seen a band of thoughtful men, clad in a thread- 
bare garb of black, their brows swarthy from exposure, 
yet marked witli the lines of intellect and a fixed 
enthusiasm of purpose. Here was Bressani, scarred 
with firebrand and knife ; Chabanel, once a professor 
of rhetoric in France, now a missionary, bound by 
a self-imposed vow to a life from which his nature 
recoiled; the fanatical Chaumonot, whose character 
savored of his peasant ])irth, — for the grossest fungus 
of superstition that ever grew under the shadow of 

1 The (lato of this huh tiiitr is a snpixisition iiuTcly. It is adopted 
witli roforfnce to I'vcnts whicii preceilid ami t'ollowod. 

VOL. II. — 13 

I , 





Rome was not too miicli for his omnivorous credulity, 
and miracles and mysteries were his daily food; jet, 
such as his faith was, he was ready to die for it. 
Garnier, beardless like a woman, was of a far finer 
nature. His religion was of the affections and the 
sentiments; and his imagination, warmed with the 
ardor of his faith, shaped the ideal forms of his wor- 
ship into visible realities. BrCibeuf sat conspicuous 
among his Ijrethren, portly and tall, his short mous- 
tache and beard grizzled with time, — for he was 
fifty-six years old. If he seemed impassive, I' was 
because one overmastering principle had merged and 
absorbed all the impulses of his nature and all the 
faculties of his mind. The enthusiasm wliich with 
many is fitful and spasmodic was with him the cur- 
rent of his life, solemn and deep as the tide of des- 
tiny. The Divine Trinity, the Virgin, the Saints, 
Heaven and Hell, Angels and Fiends, — to him, 
these alone were real, and all things else were 
nought. Gabriel Lalemant, nephew of Jerome Lale 
mant, Superior at Quebec, was Brdbeuf's colleague 
at the mission of St. Ignace. His slender frame and 
delicate features gave him an appearance of youth, 
though he had reached middle life; and, as in the 
case of Garnier, the fervor of his mind sustained him 
through exertions of which he seemed physically 
incapable. Of the rest of that company little has 
come down to us but the bare record of their mis- 
sionary toils ; and we may ask in vain what youth- 
ful enthusiasm, what broken hope or faded dream, 


.d; }it, 
for it. 
ar finer 
uid the 
nth the 
his wor- 
L't mous- 
he was 
I, I' was 
■ged and 
I all the 
ich with 
the cur- 
! of des- 
to him, 
se were 
me Lale 
■arae and 
s in the 
ined him 
ittle has 
leir mis- 

1049.J DANIEL. 195 

turned the current of their lives, and sent them from 
the heart of civilization to this savage outpost of the 

No element was wanting in them for the achieve- 
ment of such a success as that to whicli tiiey aspired, 
— iR'itlier a transcendent zeal, nor a matchless disci- 
pline, nor a practical sagacity very seldom sur})assed 
in the pursuits where men strive for wealth and 
place; and if they were destined to disa[)i)()intment, 
it was the result of external causes, against which no 
[)()wer of theirs could have insured them. 

There was a gap in their numher. The place of 
Antoine Daniel was empty, and never more to be 
lilled by him, — never at least in the flesh; for 
Chaumonot averred that not long since, when the 
Fathers were met in council, he had seen their dead 
companion seated in their midst, as of old, with a 
countenance radiant and majestic.^ They believed 

1 " Co bon Pore s'apparut apros sa mort h vn des nostres par 
(k'ux (liutTsos fois. Kii I'vne il sc fit voir on cstat de jjloire, portant 
le visa^a' tl'vn honiiiK' d'enuiron trontt' an.s, qiuiy qu'il soit niort en 
ITiji,!.' du quarante-liuiL't. . . . Vne autre fois il f iit veil assister a vne 
assoniblce que nous teiiions," etc. — Kagueiieau, RiUition ilea Ifurons, 
V>V.), 5. 

" Le r. Chaumonot vit an milieu de rassemblce le 1*. Daniel qui 
aidait les Peres de ses eon:«eil.s, et les remplitisait d'une force sur- 
naturclle ; son visage etait i)lein di' majeste et d'eclat." — Ibid., 
I.ettre nii (jt'iieral di hi CnmiitKjnie ile Jt'sus (Carayon, '24'->). 

" Le P. Chaumonot nous a quehjue fois raeonto, ii la j,doire de 
eet illustre confesseur de J. C. [Daiiitd] tju'll sV'toit fait voir a lui 
dans la gloire, ii I'aue d'environ ;!<) aiis, (juoiqu'il en eut pros de 50, 
et avec les autros eirconstanees (jui se trouuent lii [in the Ifistoria 
Ouuidi )isis (if Dh CVf ((.(•]. II ajoutait seulenient qu'a la vuo de ce 






his story, — no doubt lie bulieved it himself; and they 
consoled one iuiother with the thouglit, that, in losing 
their colleague on earth, they had gained him as a 
powerful intercessor in heaven. Daniel's station had 
been at St. Joseph; but the mission and the mis- 
sionary had alike ceased to exist. 

bien-heurt'ux taut de choscs lui vinri'iit h I'fsprit pour k-s lui 
dt'inaiKlLT, qu'il nc savoit i)as ou comniunctr son tiitruti(.'n avfc cc 
chcr (let'uiit. Entiii, lui dit-il: 'Appreuuz iiiui, niou I'ltc, cf (juo ie 
dois tain.' pour Otru l)ii.'U ai^roabk' a Dii'U.' — ' .Jamais,' ropoiidit lo 
martyr, ' lu' ])t'rdi.'Z k' souvenir de vos puckus.'" — ^uitc de la Vie de 
Chaumonot, 11. 


!• 1 , 





IIiRON Tradkus. — Rattm; at 'riiHKi: KiVKiis. — St. Joseph. — 
Onskt of Tin; luoiiiJi**- — Dkatii ok Damkl. — 'I'm; Town 


In the summer of 1047 tlio Ilurons dare^ not cro 
down to the French settlements, hut in tlie tnllowiiitjf 
year they took heart, and resolved at all i-isks to make 
the attempt; for the kettles, hatchets, and knives of 
the traders had hecome necessaries of life. Two 
hundred and fifty of their best warriors tlierefore 
emharked, under five valiant chiefs. Tliey made tlie 
voyage in safety, approached Thre.: liivers on the 
seventeenth of July, and, running- their canoes ashore 
among the Inilrushes, hegan to grease their hair, paint 
their faces, and otherwise adorn themselves, that they 
might appear after a hefitting fashion at tlie fort. 
While they were thus engaged, the alarm ^^•as 
sounded. Some of their warriors had discovered a 
large hody of Iroquois, who for se\'(M'al days had been 
lurking in the forest, unknov.-n to the Frcncli gar- 
rison, watching their opportunity to strike a blow. 
The Ilurons snatched their arms, and, half-greased 
and painted, ran to meet them. The Iroquois re- 

' . 




t , ♦. 


ceived them with a volley. They fell flat to avoid 
the shot, then leajjed up with a furious yell, and sent 
back a shower of arrows and bullets. The Iroquois, 
who were outnund)ered, ^ave way and fled, exee})ting 
a few who for a time made fight with their knives. 
The Hurons pursued. Ahiny i)risoners were taken, 
and many dead left on the field. ^ The rout of the 
enemy was complete; and when their trade Avas 
ended, the Hurons returned home in trium[)h, deco- 
rated with the laurels and the scalps of victory. As 
it proved, it would have been well had they remained 
there to defend their families and firesides. 

The oft-mentioned town of Teanaustay(5, or St. 
Joseph, lay on the southeastern frontier of the Ilui-on 
country, near the foot of a range of forest-covered 
hills, and about fifteen miles from Sainte ^Marie. It 
had been the chief town of the nation, and its pojiu- 
lation, by the Indian standard, was still large ; for it 
had four hundred families, and at least two thousand 
inhabitants. It was well fortified with palisades, after 
the Huron manner, and was esteemed the chief bul- 
wark of the country. Here countless Iroquois had been 
burned and devoured. Its people had been truculent 
and intractable heathen, but many of them had surren- 
dered to the Faith, and for four years i)ast Father Daniel 
had preached among them with excellent results. 

On the morning f)f the fourth of July, when the 
forest around basked lazily in the early sun, you 

1 LaU'inaiit, Relation, 1048, 11. "^'Ik' Jesuit Hrcssani had fomo 
down with the Hurons, and was witli tlieni in tlu' tigiit. 

i , i\ 

i I 





might have mounted the rising ground on wliich the 
town stood, and passed unchallenged through the 
opening in the palisade. Within, you would have 
seen the crowded dwellings of bark, shaped like the 
arched coverings of huge baggage-wagons, and deco- 
rated with the totems or armorial devices of their 
owners daubed on the outside with paint. Here 
some squalid wolfish dog lay sleeping in liie sun, a 
group of Huron girls chatted together in the shade, 
old squaws pounded corn in large wf)oden mortars, 
idle youths gambled with cherry-stones on a wooden 
platter, and naked infants crawled in the dust. 
Scarcely a warrior was to be seen. Some were absent 
in quest of game or of Iroquois scalps, and some had 
gone with the trading-party to the French settle- 
ments. You followed the foul passage-ways among 
the houses, and at length came to the chuich. It 
was full to the door. Daniel had just finished the 
mass, and his flock still knelt at their devotions. It 
was but the day before that he had returned to them, 
warmed with new fervor, from his meditations in 
retreat at Sainte Marie. Suddenly an uproar of 
voices, shrill with terror, ])urst upon the languid 
silence of the town. "The Iroquois! the Iroquois!" 
A crowd of hostile warriors had issued from the 
forest, and were rushing across the clearing, towards 
the opening in the [lalisade. Daniel ran out of the 
church, and hurried to tlie point of danger. Some 
snatched wea2)ons; some rushed to and fro in the 
madness of a blind panic. The priest rallied the 




M' I : 

\> " 

defenders; promised lieaveii to those wlio died for 
their homes and tlieir faith ; then hastened from liouse 
to honse, railing on nn])elievers to repent and receive 
baptism, to snatcii them from tlie hell that yawned 
to engnlf them. They crowded around him, implor- 
ing to be saved; and, innnersing liis handkerchief in 
a bowl of water, he shook it ovei- them, and baptized 
them by aspersion. They i)ursned him, as he ran 
again to the church, where lie found a throng of 
women, children, and old men gathered as in f< 
sanctuary. Some cried for baptism, s(mie held out 
their children to receive it, some begged for abso- 
lution, and some wailed in terror and despair. 
"Brothers," he exclaimed again and again, as he 
shook the baptismal droi)s from his handkerchief, — 
"brothers, to-day we shall be in heaven." 

The fierce yell of the war-whoop now rose close at 
hand. The palisade was forced, and the enemy was 
in the town. The air quivered with the infernal din. 
"Fly!" screamed the })riest, driving his flock before 
him. "I will stay here. We shall meet again in 
heaven." Many of them escaped through an open- 
ing in the palisade opposite to that by which the 
Iroquois had entered; but Daniel would not follow, 
for there still might be souls to rescue from perdition. 
The hour had come for which he had long prepared 
himself. In a moment lie saw the Iroquois, and 
came forth from the church t(^ meet them. When 
they saw him in turn, radiant in the vestments of his 
ofHce, confronting them with a look kindled with the 




inspiration oi martyrdom, tlioy stopju-d and starod in 
amazement; then recoveriuLf themselves, hent their 
l)o\vs, and showered liim witli a volley of arrows, that 
tore tlironijrh his robes and liis llesh. A <nin-sliot 
followed; the hall piei'ced his heart, and lie fell 
dead, gaspinoj the nanu; of Jesns. They rnshe(l npon 
him with yells of triumph, stiippcd him naked, <,^ashed 
and hacked his lifeless l)ody, and, seoopiui,' his blood 
in their hands, batlu'd their faees in it to make them 
brave. The town was in a blaze; when the llames 
reached the church, they llunuf the priest into it, and 
both were consumed together.^ 

Teamiustayd was a heap of ashes, and the victoi's 
took up their march with a train of nearly seven hun- 
dred prisoners, many of whom they killed on tlu^ 
way. Many more had l)een slain in the town and the 
neighboring forest, where the pursuers hunted them 
down^ and where women, crouching for refuge among 
thickets, were betrayed by the cries and wailing of 
their infants. 

The triumph of the Iroquois did not end liere; 
for a neighboring fortified town, included within 
the circle of Daniel's mission, shared the fate of 
Teanaustayd. Never had the Huron nation received 
such a blow. 

^ Ha^ucneau, Relation des //(O'ohs, 1()40, 0-5; Brossaiii, /.V/'(//'oi 
Ahre(jei-, 217; Du Crciix, Illstoria ('<iiiii(/riisis, 521; 'I'iuiiicr, S,,i-itttis 
Jesu Mllltans, ^)'.]l ; Marie do Vlnvarnn^'um, f.ittr( itu.r rrsn/inrs di' 
Tours, Quebec, 1(>41>. 

Daniel was born at Dieppi>, and was f()rty-('iii:]it years old at tlie 
time of his death. He had liecn a Jesuit from the aue of twenty. 

1 1 





I / 

St. Loins on Fiui:. — Invasion. — St. Tcnack captiukd. — Tiitfc- 
ui;ri- AM> Lai.kmant. — Battli; at St. Loiis. — Sainti; Mauii-: 
tiikeate.>.':i). — Hknkwkd FKiiiTiNc. — Dkspkhatk ('onii.ict. — 
A "Wkjiit ok SrsrENSK. — I'anh' a.monc tiii; Victoks, — Mikn- 
iN(i OK St. IiiNACE. — Hktiikat ok Tin; luoiii .us. 

More than oiglit months luid ])assed since the 
catastrophe of St. Joseph. 'I'he \\inter was over, 
and that dreariest of seasons had conie, the chnrlisli 
forerunner of spring. Around Sainte Marie the 
forests were gray and bare, and, in the cornfiehls, 
the oozy, half-thawed soil, studded with the sodden 
stalks of the last autumn's harvest, showed itself in 
patches through the melting snow. 

At nine o'clock on the morning of the sixteenth of 
March, the priests saw a heavy smoke rising over the 
naked forest towards the southeast, ai)()ut three miles 
distant. They looked at each other in dismay. 
"The Iroquois! They are burning St. Louis I "' 
Flames mingled with the smoke; and, as they stood 
gazing, two Christian Hurons came, breathless and 
aghast, from the burning town. Their worst fear 




>. — Ritfe- 
i: Mauik 
iri.icr. — 
— Hi us- 

ICO llie 

s over, 


rie the 



tst'lf in 

entli of 
hver tlio 
L^e miles 
'Y stotxl 
ess and 
rst fear 

was realized. The Iro(|U()is were there; but wliero 
were the priests of the mission, Hrehcuf and 

Late in the autumn, a thousand rrn(pi()is, ehiclly 
Seneeas and Moiiawks, had taken the \var-i)ath I'or 
the Ilurons. They had been all winter in the forests, 
huntiuL^ for subsistence, and moviniij at their K'isui'o 
towards their prey. The destruetion of thr two 
towns of the mission of St. .b»seph had left a wide 
^'a[); and in the middle of Abiich they entered the 
heart of the Huron country, undiscovered. C'onuuon 
vi^dlance and common-sens(! would iiave aveite(l the 
calamities that followed; but the Ilurons were like 
a doomed people, stujudied, suidv in dejet'tion, fear- 
inc^ everything, yet takin<^^ no measures for defence. 
They could easily have met the invadeis witli double 
their force, but the besotted warriors lay idle in their 
towns, or hunted at leisure in distant forests; nor 
could the Jesuits, by counsel or exhortation,, rouse 
them to face the dano'er. 

Before daylight of the sixteenth, the invaders 
approached St. Ignacc, which, witli St. Louis and 
three other towns, formed the mission of the same 
name. They reconnoitred the place in the darkness. 
It was defended on three sides by a deep ravine, and 
further strengthened by palisades lifteen or sixteen 
feet high, [)lanted under the direction of the .Jesuits. 
On the fourth side it was ])rotected by ])alisades 
alone; and these were left, as usual, unguarch'd. 
This was not from a sense of security; for the greater 




. \ 

j)iirt of tlic jxipnliition Inul iiltiUidoMcMl tlic Idwn, 
tliiiikiii!,'' it tdo nnicli ('X|t()sc<| to tlic j'lU'iiiy, imd tlici-i! 
rcmaiiu'd only alxmt tour liiiiKlivd, <'liit'lly wniiicii, 
children, and old inni, wliosc iid'atuat('(l drri'iidns 
wt'i't^ absent hunting', or on futile seal|iln,L,'-j»aities 
a<(ainst llie Ii'o(|U()is. It was just before daw n, mIicu 
II yidl, as of a legion of devils, staitled the w rctclicd 
iidiabitants from their sleeii; and the Ii'i^piois, hurst- 
iii^^ in upon them, eut them down with loiives and 
hat(du!ts, killiuL"' many, and reservluL,^ the i-est for a 
worse fate. They liad entered by the ^^eal■;est side; 
on tiu! other sides there was no exit, and oidy three 
llui'ons escaped. The whole was the work of a few 
minutes. The Iro([Uois left a <^'uard to hold tin; 
town, and seeui-e the retreat of the main body in ease 
of a; then, smearing- tlieir faces witli l)lo()d, 
after their g-hastly cnstoni, they rushed, in the dim 
light of the early dawn, towards St. Lonis, about a 
league distant. 

The three fugitives had fled, half naked, throngli 
the fores,, for the same point, which they reached 
about sunrise, yelling the alarm. The number of 
inhabitants here was less, at this time, than sevi'ii 
hundred; and, of these, all who had sti'cngth to 
esca[)e, excepting alxmt eighty warrioi's, made in 
wild terror for a place of safety. Many of the old, 
sick, and d(!crepit were left i)erforce in the lodges. 
Tlit^ warriors, ignorant of the strength of the assail- 
ants, sang their war-songs, and resolved to hold the 
place to the last. It had not the natural strength 

• t(t\vn, 

tld tllCl't! 


II, \\]\r\\ 

k rctclicd 
-;, bursl- 
vcs and 
st for a 
'st side; 
\]y tlir('(5 
if u few 
lold tln^ 
y ill ciiso 
li blood, 
tlio dim 
id)out a 

inbcr of 
111 seven 

'linth to 

m;{(\v in 
tlio old, 
■■ lodo'cs. 
le iissail- 
liold the 

Bat lie of Fort St. l.ouis. 

n ' 

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of St. Igiiace, but, like it, was surrounded l)y 

Here were the two Jesuits, Brel)euf and Lalemant. 
Brdbeuf's converts entreated him to escape with 
tliem; but the Norman zealot, bold scion ot" a war- 
like stock, had no thought of flight. 1 1 is })ost was 
in the teeth of danger, to cheer on those who fought, 
and open heaven to those who fell. Ifis ct)lleague, 
slight of frame and frail of constitution, trembled 
despite himself; l)ut deep enthusiasm mastered the 
v/eakness of Nature, and he, too, refused to fly. 

Scarcely had tlie sun risen, and scarcely were the 
fugitives gone, when, like a troop of tigers, the 
Iroquois rushed to the assault. Yell echoed yell, 
and shot answered shot. The Ilurons, ])rought to 
bay, fought with the utmost desperation, and with 
arrows, stones, and the few guns they liad, killed 
thirty of their ass;iilants, and wounded many more. 
Twdce the Iroquois recoiled, and twice renewed the 
attack with unabated ferocity. They swarmed at 
the foot of the palisades, and hacked at them witli 
their hatchets, till they had cut them througli at 
several different points. For a time there was a 
deadly fight at these l)reaches. Here were the two 
priests, promising heaven to those who died for their 
faith, — one giving bajjtism, and the other al)solu- 
tion. At length the Iroquois broke in, and captured 
all the surviving defenders, the Jesuits among the 
rest. They set the town on fire; and the iielpless 
wretches who had remained, unable to fly, were con- 




If. / 
It , 

pi r! > 

(■ I 


i . , 


lidii '1 




sumed in their Imniiiij^^ dwellings. Next tlioy fell 
upon Iii'(;^])C'uf and LalouKint, stripped them, hound 
them fast, and h'd tliem witli the otlier prisoners hack 
to St. Ignaee, whei-e all turned out to wreak their 
fury on the two priests, l)eatin<^ tlu-m savagely with 
sticks and clu])S as they drove them into the town. 
At present, there was no time for further torture, for 
there was work in hand. 

The victors divided themselves into several hands, 
to hurn the neighhorino- villages and hunt their ily- 
ing inhahitants. In the flush of their triumph, they 
meditated a holder enterprise; and in the afternoon 
their chiefs sent small p)ai'ties to reconnoitre Sainte 
Marie, Avith a view to attacking it on the next day. 

Meanwhile the fugitives of St. Louis, joined hy 
other bands as terrified and as helpless as they, were 
struggling through the soft snow which clogged the 
forests towards Lake Huron, where the treacherous 
ice of spring was still unmelted. One fear expelled 
another. They ventured upon it, and pushed for- 
ward all that day and all the following night, shiver- 
ing and famished, to find refuge in tlie towns of the 
Tobacco Nation. Here, when they arrived, they 
spread a universal panic. 

Ragueneau, Bressani, and their companions waited 
in suspense at Sainte ]\Iarie. On the one hand, they 
trem1)led for Brebeuf and Lalemant; on the other, 
they looked hourly for an attack: and when at even- 
ing they saw the Iroquois scouts prowling along the 
edge of the bordering forest, their fears were con- 





ey fell 
rs hack 
k tlu'ir 
■ly Avith 
[3 town, 
ure, for 

heir lly- 
:)h, they 
5 Siiinto 
t day. 
lined by 
By, were 
rcred the 
led for- 

LS of the 

d, they 

s waited 
nd, they 
at even- 


long the 
ere cou- 

firnied. Tliey luid witli tlioni ahont forty French- 
men, well armed; but their palisades and wooden 
])uildinL;s were not iire-proof, and they had learned 
from fugitives tlie number and ferocity of the invaders. 
Tliey stood guard all night, praying to the Saints, 
and above all to their great j)atron Saint Joseph, 
whose festival was close at hand. 

In the morning they were somewhat relieved by 
the arrival of about three hundred Huron warriors, 
chietly converts from La Conception and Sainte 
jMadeleine, tolerably well armed, and full of light. 
They were expecting others to join them; and mean- 
while, dividing into several bands, they took post by 
the passes of the neighljoring forest, hoping to way- 
lay parties of the enemy. Their expectation was ful- 
filled; for at this time two hundred of the Iroquois 
w^ere making their way from St. Ignace, in advance 
of the main body, to begin the attack on Sainte 
Marie. They fell in with a band of the Ilurons, set 
upon them, killed many, drove the rest to headlong 
flight, and, as they plunged in terror through the 
snow, chased them within sight of Sainte Marie. 
The other Hurons, hearing the yells and firing, ran 
to the rescue, and attacked so fiercely that the Iro- 
quois in turn were routed, and ran for shelter to St. 
Louis, followed closely by the victors. The houses 
of the town had been burned, })ut the palisade around 
them was still standing, though breached and broken. 
The Iroquois rushed in; })ut the Ilurons were at their 
heels. Many of the fugitives were captured, the rest 




"! ' 

killed or put to iittor rout, and the triumphant 
lluroiis remained masters of the place. 

Tlie Iroquois who escaped lied to St. Tgnace. 
Here, or on tlie way tliither, tiiey found the main 
body of the invaders; and when they heard of the 
disaster, the whole swarm, beside themselves with 
rage, turned towards St. Louis to take their revenge. 
Now ensued one of the most furious Indian battles 
on record. The Ilurons within the palisade did not 
much exceed a hundred and fifty; for many had been 
killed or disabled, a!id many, perhaps, had straggled 
away. j\Iost of their enemies had guns, while they 
had but few. Their w^eapons were bows and arrows, 
war-clubs, hatchets, and knives; and of these they 
made good use, sallying repeatedly, fighting like 
devils, and driving back their assailants again and 
again. There are tinies when the Indian warrior 
forgets his cautious maxims, and throws himself into 
battle with a mad and reckless ferocity. The des- 
peration of one party and the fierce courage of both 
kept up the fight after the day had closed; and the 
scout from Sainte jNIarie, as he bent listening under 
the gloom of the pines, heard, far into the night, the 
liowl of battle rising from the darkened forest. The 
principal chief of the Iroquois was severely wounded, 
and nearly a hundred of their warriors were killed on 
the spot. When, at length, their numbers and per- 
sistent fury prevailed, their only prize was some 
twenty Huron warriors, spent with fatigue and faint 
with loss of blood. The rest lay dead around the 




.shiittenMl palisades wliicli tlicy liad so valiantly 
(left'iidcd. Katuity, iKjt eowurdice, was the ruin of 
tlu; Huron nation. 

The lamps burned all niL,d»t ut Sainte Marie, and 
its defendei's stood watching till dayliL;lit, musket in 
hand. The Jesuits prayed without eeasing, and Saint 
Joseph was besieged w n invoeations. "Tiiose of 
us who were priests," writes Kai^nu'ueau, "each made 
a vow to say a mass in his honor every month, for 
the space of a year; and all the I'est bound them- 
selves by vows to divers penances." The expected 
onslaught did not take place. Not an Irocjuois 
appeared. Their victory had been bought too dear, 
and they had no stomach for more fighting. All the 
next day, the eighteenth, a stillness like the dead 
lull of a tempest followed the; turmoil of yesterday, 
— as if, says the Father Superior, "the country 
were waiting, palsied with fright, for some new 

On the following day, — the journalist fails not to 
mention that it was the festival of Saint Jose])h, — 
Indians came in with tidings that a panic had seized 
the Iroquois camp; that the chiefs could not control 
it; and that the whole body of invaders was retreat- 
ing in disorder, possessed with a vague terror that 
the liurons were upon them in force. They had 
found time, however, for an act of atrocious cruelty. 
They planted stakes in the bark houses of St. Ignace, 
and bound to them those of their piisoners whom they 
meant to sacritice, — male and female, from old age 

VOL. II.- 





I{ ' 


■ ;5 


1(» iiifiiiicy, IiusIkukIs, inotlicrs, and cliildrcii, side liy 
side. Then, as tlicy r( trcati'd, they set (lie (<»\vii (wi 
lire, and l;uiL;iicd with savauj'c glee at tlic sliii(d\s of 
aniiiiisli tliat rosr I'loiii the Ma/iii''' ducUins'S.^ 

Tliey loaded tlic rest of llicii' prisoners with tlicii 
l»a<,''i4'a<:je and jjlunder, and drove lliem tiiron^h (he 
forest southward, Itrainin^- with tlieir liat<'liets any 
who t(ave out on tlie march. An ohl woman, wiio 
had es('a[ted out of the midst ol" tlie llames of St. 
If^nace, made lier way to St. Miehid, a hirge town 
not far from the desohite site of St. Josepli. Ileic 
sht! found ahout seven hundred Huron Avarriors, 
liastily mustei'*';!. She set tliem on tlie track of tiii^ 
retreating Iioquois, and they took up tlie chase, — 
Init evidently with no gieat eagei'uess to overtaken 
their dani^erous enemy, well armed as he was with 
Dutch guns, while they had little besides their hows 
and arrows. They found, as they advanced, tlu! dead 
bodies of prisoners tomahawked on the march, and 
others bound fast to trees and half burned by the 
fagots j)iled hastily around them. The Irofpiois 
l)uslied forward with such headlong sjieed that the 
pursuei's could not, or would not, overtake them; 
and, after two days, they gave over the attemjit. 

1 TIiL' site of St. I^Miiici' still bi-ars I'vidi'iict' of tliu 'jatastroijlic, in 
the aslK's and charcoal that indiciitc the ])osition of the houses, ami 
the fratiiiieiits of broken pottery and half-consumed Ixme, tof^'etlier 
with trinkets of stone, metal, or glass, whicli have survived tlii' 
la])se of two centuries and more. The place has been minutely 
examined by Dr. Tachu. 

!• !; J I 


)\vn (111 
ii'ks of 

h their 
l_oh the 

ets any 

111, Nvlio 

of St. 

je town 

'. lll'lV 

k of the 
'liiise, — 
viis with 
icir l)i>\vs 
tht' (lead 
reh, and 
hy th(^ 
that the 
e them; 

[istroplu-, ill 
liousos, mill 

lie, t()!J,i'tlnr 
irvivi'il till' 
11 niiinitily 


10 10. 


TiiK RriNs OK St. Tcnack. — Tm; Kiii.ich foini). — HiiftnKCF at 
Tin; St.\m:: his rNcoNgri;iiAiii,i; FoiniTiin:. — liViLMAM. — 
l{i;\i:<)Aiii; IIihonh. — Ii!tM>i nis Atikm itiks, — Dkatii (»f IJue- 
m;ir: iiis Ciiaka( iint. — I)i;vtii or Lai.k.mant. 

On tlu> iiioriiiiitj^ of the twoiitictli, the Jcsiiii,; at 
Saint(! Marie received full eoiilinnatioii of there]M)rte(l 
retri'at of the invaders; and oiie of them, with seven 
armed Frenehnieii, set out for the scene of havoc. 
They passed St. Louis, whei-e the liloody <j^ronnd was 
strewn thick with corpses, and, two or three; miles 


ler on, reached St. Io'iukh'. Here they saw a 

spectacle of horror; for amonj^ the ashes of tlie hnrnt 
town were scattered in profusion the half-consumed 
])()(Iies of those who had perislied in the tlames. Apart 
from the rest, they saw a sin'ht that banished all else 
from their thouLihts; for they found wliat they had 


.) seek' 

th(» scorched and manu'led relics of 

Hruheuf and Lalemant. ^ 

1 " lis y troiiiUTi'iit VII siu'ctiiclc d'horroiir, Ics rostcs do In cruamu 
nU'SiiK', oil plus tost lis nstt's do rMiiioiir do Dioii, (jiii soul triomplio 
dims la inort dos Martyrs." — Ka^iioiioaii, lldntiun dt s I/iirnus, 
KMll, l:i. 





t ' 

Tlicy liad IciirmMl tlirir fntc iilrcady from Ilindii 
I)ris(ni('rs, many dt' wlium liail madi! llicii" cscaiic in 
tlic! pani(! and conrnsion of tlu; Ir(i([U()is retreat. 
Tliey (leserilu'd wliat. tliey luul ween, aial the eoiidi- 
ll(tn ill wljicli till' bodies weru found eonlirmed tlieir 

On the aftenioon of the sixteenth, — tlie day wiien 
the two j)riesls were captured, -— Brelieuf was led 
apail, and hound to a stake. lie seemed more eon- 
(icrned foi' his captive converts tliaii for iiimself, and 
a(hhi'ssed tiiciu in a 


voice, exhortin'r them to 

suffer patiently, and |)roniisiiiL^- lieaven as tlieir rc\var(h 
'IMie Iro(piois, incensed, scoi-ched him from licad to 
foot, to sili'iice him; whereupon, in the tone of ii 
master, he threatened them with evd'histin^- llames 
for perseeutint^' the woi'shijipers of (iod. As he con- 
tinued to sj)i'ak, with voice and countenance ini- 
channi'(l, they cut away his h)wer li[) and tlii'; ', a 
red-hot iron down his throat. He still licld liis tall 
form erect iuid deliant, with no sign or sound of pain; 
and tliey tricil another means to overcome him. 
They led out Lalcmaiit, that IJreheuf might si!e him 
tortured. They had tied strijis of hark, smeared 
with pitch, ahout his naked body. When he saw 
the condition of his Superior', he could not liide his 
agitation, and calU'd out to him, with a hroken voice, 
in the words of Saint Paul, "We are made a spec- 

tacle to tl 

le wo 

rid, to au'ji'ls, and to men. 


he threw himself at Brehenf's feet; upon which tlu; 
Irocj^uois seized him, made him fast to a stake, and 

i I'i! 


1 ITuntii 

AVi\\)(' ill 

(! coiidi- 
ii'd tlicir 

ay wlu'ii 

was led 
lore ('(tii- 
sclt", and 

tlu'iii to 
r reward. 

lit'ad to 
)ii(' of a 
ig llanu'S 
S 111! coii- 
iinc'O uii- 

tlir: ': a 
I liis tall 
1 of pain; 
nie him. 

t KOO llilll 

I lie saw 
b liide liis 
vcn Yoiee, 
e a spec- 
."' Then 
whic'li tlu! 
jtake, and 

'The fesuit Martyrs. 


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l\ . 

i ' 'I 





set fire to the buvk tluit enveloped liim. As tlio 
flame rose, lie threw his arms upward, with a shriek 
of supplication to Heaven. Next they hiiiio' iirouiid 
Brdbeuf's neck a collar made of hatchets heated red- 
hot; hut the indomitahh^ priest stood like a rock. A 
Huron in the crowd, who had been a convert of the 
mission, hut was now an Irocpiois ])y adoption, called 
out, with the malice of a reneL;ade, to pour liot water 
on their heads, since they Jiad ponied so much cold 
water on those of others. Th(! kettle was ac. ordini^'ly 
slung, and the water hoiled and poured slowly on the 
heads of the two missionaries. ''Wo baptize you," 
they cried, "that you may be happy in li(>aven; for 
nobody can be saved without a good baptism."' 
Brebeuf would not flinch; and, in a rage, they cut 
strips of flesh from his limbs, and devoured them 
before his eyes. Other renegade Ilurons called (mt 
to him, "You told us that the more one suffei-s on 
earth, the happier he is in heaven. AVe \\ish to 
make you happy; we torment you because we love 
you; and you ought to thank us for it." After a 
succession of other revolting tortures, they scalped 
him; when, seeing him nearly dead, they laid open 
his breast, and came in a crowd to driidv the blood of 
so valiant an enemy, thinking to im])il)C with it some 
portion of his coin-age. A chief then tore out his 
heart, and devoured it. 

Thus died Jean de lirubeuf, tlie founder of the 
Huron mission, its truest hei'o, jind its greatest ma ityr. 
He came of a noble race, — the same, it is said, from 






t ) 1. 

r,i ■' 


which si)i'Jing the English Earls of Ainiulcl; hut 
never liad the mailed haroiis of his line confronted 
a ffite so appalling, with so prodigious a constancy. 
To the last he refused to flinch, and "his death was 
the astonishment of his nnirdercrs." ^ In him an 
enthusiastic devotion was grafted on an heroic nature. 
His bodily endowments were as rcniarkahh) as the 
temper oi liis mind. His manly pro})ortions, his 
strength, and his endurance, which incessant fasts 
and penances could not undermine, had always won 
for him the respect of the Indians, no less than a 
courage unconscious of fear, and yet redeemed from 
rashness by a cool and vigorous judgment; for, 
extravagant as were the chimeras which fed tlu; lires 
of liis zeal, they were consistent with the soberest 
good sense on matters of practical beai'ing. 

Lalemant, physically weak Ironi childhood, and 
slender almost to emaciation, was constitutionally 
unequal to a display of fortitude like that of his 
colleague. "When Pircbeuf died, he was led l)ack to 
the house whence he had been taken, and tortured 
there all night, until, in the morning, one of tli(! 
Iroquois, growing tired of the j)rotracted entertain- 
ment, killed him with a hatchet.- It was said that 

^ Charlevoix, i. 204. Alojx-'imbo uses a similar cxprossion. 

2 " We saw no part of liis body," says Ra,i,nu'iU'un, " from licad 
to foot, Avliicli was not burni'd, cwii to liis eyes, in tlie socki'ts of 
wliieli these wretehes had jdaccd live eoals." — Jo /at ion di s J/iirous, 
1040, 15. 

Lalemant was a Parisian, ami his family helon^rd to the class of 
giiis tie rube, or hereditary practitioners of the law. Jle was tliirty- 

■ r:i; 

: i 




at times he seemed beside liii.iself; then, rallying, 
with himds uplifted, he offered his sufferings to 
Heaven as a saeiiliee. His robust eoni[)anion had 
lived less than four hours under the torture, while 
he siu'vived it for nearly seventeen. Perhaps the 
Titanic effort of will with whieh IJrdbeuf re[)ressed 
all show of suffering conspired with the Iro([Uois 
knives and firebrands to exhaust liis vitality; perhaps 
his tormentors, enraged at his fortitude, forgot their 
subtlety, and struck too near the life. 

The bodies of tiie two missionaries were carried to 
Sainte Marie, and buried in the cemetery thci'e; but 
the skull of Brebeuf was preserved as a i-elic. His 
family sent from France a silver bust of their mar- 
tyred kinsman, in the base of which was a recess to 
contain the skull; and, to this day, the bust and the 
relic within are preserved with pious care by the 
nuns of the Ilotel-Dieu at Quebec.^ 

nine years of ape. His pliysical weakness is sjjoken of by several 
of tliose who knew liiiii. Marie ile riiieiirnntiDn says, "("etait 
riioinine le JjIus faihle et le plus dolicat (lu'mi eiit i)u voir." Both 
Bressani and Hapueneau are e(iually enii)liatie on this ])oiiit. 

1 l'liotoprai)iis of tiie hiist are before nu'. Various relies of tiic 
two missionaries were preservi'd ; anil some of tiiein may still he 
seen in Canadian moiiastie estahlisliments. The following extract 
from a letter of Marie de rincarnation to lier son, v, .-itien from 
Quebec in Octol)er of tliis year, l<i4'.>, is curious : — 

"Madame our foundries [^hldam.■ dc la I 'citric] sends you relics 
of our holy nuirtyrs ; l)Ut she does it secretly, since tlu' reverend 
Fathers would not pive us any, for fear that we should send them 
to France; but, as slu' is not bound by vows, and as the wry per- 
sons wlio went for the bodies have ;^i\in r( lies of them to her in 
secret, I hepped her to send you some of them, which she has done 
very pladly, from the respect she has for you." She adds, in thu 





I :, 

111 ■■■"i. 

sanu' letter, "Our Lonl liiivin^f revealed to liim [Brebeuf] the timo 
of luH niiirtyrdoiii three diivs Itefore it hajjjx'iied, he went, full (if 
joy, to liiid till' other Fatliers; who, seeiu^^ liim in i.xtruordinary 
Kjiirits, caused him, l)y iin iiis])iration of (Jod, to be bled; after 
which the surireoii dried his bhiod, tliroui;h a jireseutimeiit of wdiat 
was to t.ik jtlaee, lest he siiouhl be treati'd like Kather Daniel, who, 
eight months before, had been so reiluced to ashes that no remains 
of his ])o(ly could be found." 

Hrebcuf had once l»een ordered by the Father Superior to write 
down the visions, revelations, and inward exjii-rienees with which 
he was favored, --" at least," says HaK'iieiU'au, " those; which he 
could easil}' ri'nieinber, for their mnltitiKh' was too j^^reat for the 
whole to be recalled." "I finil nothinji," he adds, " more fre(|uent 
in this memoir than the ex|)^es^ion of his desire to die for .lesiis 
Christ: 'Seiitio me velKinenler imjxdii ad luoriciiduni pro Cliristo.' 
... In fine, wishin<i' to make himsidf a holocaust and a victim con- 
Kecrated to <leatli, an<l holily to anticipate the hapi)iness of martyr- 
tlom which awaited him, he lionud himself by a vow to Christ, 
which lie (conceived in these terms;" and Hamieneiiu jiives the vow 
in the original Latin. It binds Idni never to rt'fuse " the grace of 
martyuiom, if, at any day, Tliou shouldst, in Thy infinite pity, oU'er 
it to me. Thy unworthy servant;" . . . "and wlii^n I shall have 
received the stroke of death, 1 biii<l myself to accept it at 'i'liy hand, 
with all till' contentment and joy of ,iiy heart." 

Some of his innumerable visions have been already mentioned, 
(See i. 198.) Tanner, Societa.'^ }fil!t(iH!i, gives various others, 
— as, for example, that he once beheld , mc r.tain covered thick 
with saints, but above all with virgins, while the Queen of Virgins 
sat at the top in a blaze of iilory. In 1()."57, wlu'n the whole country 
was enraged against the Jisuit'!, and above all against Hrebeuf, as 
sorcerers who had caused the pest, Ragneneau tells us that "a 
troop of demons ap].eari'd before him divers times, — sometimes 
like men in a I'ury, sometimes like frightful monsters, bears, lions, 
or wild horses, trying to rush upon him. These spectres excited in 
hiui neither horn <• nor IVar. lie sa. 1 to them, ' Do to me whatever 
(J»<d permits 3'ou ; *'or without His will not one hair will fall from 
my head.' Aii.l at these words all the demons vanished in a 
moment." — Jichtlion fli's Ilnronn, 1U40, 20. Compare the long notice 
in Alegand)e, Murt> s I/lnstrcs, 044. 

In Kagueueau's notice n'' Hrebeuf, as in all other notices of 
deceased missionaries in the lielatiuns, the saintly qualities alone 



Ill' time 
full of 
; al'tcr 
of wliiit 
el, wlio, 

to write 
1 whii'li 
liieh he 

for the 
)r .lesiis 
till! con- 

) Christ, 

the vow 
f^raee of 
ity, olTer 
nil have 
hy hand, 




are hrouKhf forward, — ns ohcdienco, humility, etc.; hut wIuTevcr 
Brel)euf himself appears in the course of those volnmiiious ri'eords, 
he always hrin<;s with him an imjiression of powiM-. 

We are tohl that, punning' on liis own name, he used to aay that 
he was nn ox, fit only to hear hardens, 'i'his sort of iiuniility may 
pass for what it is worth; hut it must he remend)ereil tliat there i^ 
u kind of acting' in whieii the aet(.:' firmly helieves in tiu' ]inrl lie is 
playing,'. As for the ohedienee, it was as frenniiie as that >>( a well- 
diseipliiu'(l st Idler, and ineomparahjy more profouiul. In the ease 
of the C'anailian .Jesuits, posterity owes to this, their favorite virtui-, 
the ri'cord of numiTous visions, inward voices, and the like miraehs, 
which the ohject of these favors set ilowii on jiapcr, ;it the ((unmand 
of his Superior; while, otherwise, humility would have eom-ealeil 
them forever. The truth is, that, with sonu' of these missionaries, 
OIK' may throw oiT trash and nonsense hy the c , -load, and lind 
under it all a solid nucleus of saint and hero. 

)euf, as 
that "a 
cited in 
11 from 
d in a 
g notice 


)tices of 
es alone 



1GI!>, KmO. 

Disi'KiJsioN OK Tin; IIihons. — Smnti: Maimi: ahandonkd. — Isi.i; 
St. .losi.i'ii. — Hi.MuvAi, or Tin: Mi^^iov. — 'I'm; Ni;\v Foitr. — 
MisKKV or Tin; III uoxs. — Kamim:. — KriDKMic. — KMri.ov- 
MKNTS oi' Tin; .Ji;si ITS. 

All wiis over with tlio Ilnroiis. Tlio (loiitli-kncll 
of tlu'ir iiiition liiid struck. AVitliont a k'sider, witli- 
out oru^aniziitioii, without union, crazed witli frifrlit 
and paralyz(!d with misery, they yiel(k'd to their 
doom witliout a blow. Tlieir only thouo'lit was flioht. 
Within two weeks after tlie disasters of St. Ignace 
and S^. Louis, fifteen Huron toANiis wei-e ahnndoned, 
and the greater numl)er Inirncd, lest they should oive 
shelter to the Iroquois. The last year's harvest had 
been scanty; the fucfitives had no food, and they left 
behind them the fields in which was their only hope 
of obtaining it. In bands, large or small, some 
roamed northward and eastAvard, throngh the halt- 
thawed wilderness; some hid themselves on the rocks 
or islands of Lake Huron ; some sought an asylnni 
among the Tobacco Nation; a few joined the Neutrals 


f !'■'■'" W' 

1049.1 oAlNTK MAHIi: TO I'.H Ar.AXDONKD. -JIO 

i>. — Isi.i: 

KoKT. — 

I', willi- 

() tlit'ir 

:1(1 ^'ive 
est liiul 

cy left 
ly 1h)]h' 
le lialf- 
le i'ocl<s 

^ ciitrals 

on the north of I^ake Erie. The Iliirons, as a nation, 
ceased to exist.* 

Ilitiierto Saiiite Marie had hccii covcriMl lt\- larL^c 
fortified towns wliich lay hctwccn it and the iroipidis; 
but these were all d('str(»yi'd, — sonic Iiy tlic ciiciny 
and some by their own people, — iind llic .Icsuils were 
leftaloneto bear the brunt of the next attack. 'I'licrc^ 
was, moreover, no reason for their rciiiainiii'^'. Sainte 
Marie liad been built as a basis for the missions; but 
its occui)ation was o-om. : tlie lloek had llc(l from tin; 
sliepherds, and its existence had no longer an ohjcct. 
If the priests stayed to be bnlchci'cd, ihcy wdiild 
l)erish, not as martyrs, but as fools. The necessity 
was as chnir as it was bitter. All their toil must 
come to nought. Sainte; ^birie must he abandoned. 
They confess the pano- which the resolution cost 
them; but, puisnes the Father Superior, "since tin; 
birth of Christianity, the Faith has nowhcic been 
planted except in the midst of sul'feriii^-s and crosses. 
Thus this (h'solation consok'S us; and in the midst 
of persecution, in the extremity of the evils which 
assail us and the greater evils which threaten us, w(! 
are all tilled with joy: for our lieaits tell us that 
(rod has never had a more tender love for us than 
now. "2 

1 Ch.aumonot, who was nt Ossossano at tlic tiiiu' of the Irninidis 
invasion, fiivcs a viviil pictiiri.' of t\\v iniiiic ami laiinMitatinii wiiicli 
t'ollowi'd Iho lU'ws of tlu' (Ifstructioii of the Huron warrioi-s at St. 
Louis, and of tliu tlii;lit of tin.' iniialiitants to tiu' coinilry of tlu- 
Tobacco Nation. Vic, (12. 

2 Kagut'iioau, litUition t/ca Hnrous, Kill*, 20. 


rin: sanctiauv. 


I J 


Hi; ! 



Several of tlie |)i'i('st.s set out to follow imd console 
tli(i seattcrcd liaiids of fugitive lliiroiis. ()ii(' cm- 
harkcd in a canoe, and coastiMl (lie di'eary shores of 
liake Huron nortiiward, anionn' (lie wild laliyrintli of 
rocd<s and islets, wliillicr his scared lloek had llccl 
for refuse; anothei' betook himself Iti the forest with 
ii ])and of half-f.iniishe(l prosi'lytes, and shai'ed their 
niiseraltle rovin'L;s thronn-h the thickets and anioiiLj 
the nioinitains. 'i'hose who remained took counsel 
toL^ctlu'r at Saintt' Marii'. Whither shoidd (hey ijo, 
Jii'.d where! should be the new seat of the missiitn? 
They made choice of the (irand Maintonlin Island, 
--called liy them Isle Sainte Marie, and. by the 
Hurons, ELacnhihui. It lay near the noi'thei'ii shores 
of Lake Huron, and hy its ])osition would iL;ive a ready 
iiccess to nund)erless AI_t;'on(iniu tribes alom;- the 
borders of all tlu'sc; inland seas. Moi'eover, ll would 
bring the priests and their ilock nearer to the I-'rench 
settlements, by the route of tlu^ Ottawa, whenever 
the Iroquois should cease to infest that river. The 
fishing, too, was good; and some of the priests, who 
knew the island well, made a favorable re})ort of the 
soil. Thither, thend'ore, they had resolved to trans- 
])lant the mission, when twelve Huron chiefs arrivi'd, 
and asked for an interview with the Father Superior 
and his fellow-Jesuits. The conference lasted three 
hours. Th(! de[)uties declared that many of the 
scattered Hurons had determined to reuiute, and 
form 11 settlement on a neighboring island of the 
lake, called by the Jesuits Isle St. Joseph; that they 

' ,' i 


)lM' Clll- 

liiircM (if 
riiitli (if 
lad lied 
I'st willi 
I'd tlifir 

hey u',,, 

iiissioii ? 
l>y the 

I slioi'cs 
ii ready 

n*^ the 

t would 


•. 'I'lic 
ts, who 

t of tilt' 

o traus- 
d tlirc'O 
of tlic 
;e, and 
of the 
lat tlicy 




nrt'dcd till' aid of the l-'allicrs; that witlioul ilicin 
lln'\ wcic helpless, iiut with (heiu they rould Imlil 
their ^Toiiiid and repel the attacks of the Irocpiois. 
They ur^'cd their plea in laueime-c which Iiaq;tieiieaii 
descriltes as pathetic and ehxpient : and, to coiitiini 
their words, they pivt' hiiu ten lartj'e e;tllars of waiu- 
piiMi, sayin<^ that tlu'se were the voices of their wives 
and childrt'U. 'I'hey ^'aiiied their point. 'I'lie .lesuils 
abandoned their former j>lan, and ].)i'oiuised U) join 
the Iluroiis on Isle St. .losepli. 

'I'hey had Itiiilt a. hoat, oi- small vessel, and in this 
they emliarkcd such of their stores as it would hold. 
The n'l-eatcr jiart were placed on a larL;e raft made for 
the piirixise, like one of the rafts of tinrlier which 
every siunmer lloat down the St. Lawiciice and the 
Ottawa. Here was their stock of coi'u, in part 
tlu! j)roduce of their own lields, and in part hou^iit 
fi'om the Ilurons in foi'uicr yeai's of j)ieiit\-, pic- 
tures, vestments, sacred vessels and ima<>;es, wMpons, 
amnnmition, tools, ^(lods foi- liarter witli llie Indians, 
cattle, swine, and jxuUtry.^ Salute Marie was 
strii)})ed of evt'i'ythinn' that could In; moved. Then, 
lest it should liarhor the Iroquois, they set it on lire, 
and saw consumed in an lumr the results of nine oi- 
ten years of toil. It was near sunset, on the four- 
teenth of .June.- The houseless band di'scended to 

1 SoiiU' of tlifsc were Uillcd I'm' fouil jil'tiT niii'liiiiii- tlic i>Iiiiiil. 
Til Marcli followiim, tlicy liml ten t'nwi-i, ;i pjiir of swiiic, two liiills 
mill two cows, kept for lirct'dinn-, — /.'//// i/i /uii/uiu' hk mi (,'nirnd 

,lr 1,1 (' 


,1, .Ii 

>7. .Ins, nil, \:\ Ml 

KagiiuiU'iui, liilulimi ilcs II 




In tln' Itiliiiiiiii of 








the inoutli of the Wye, went on l)0{ircl tlieir raft, 
pushed it from tlie shore, and, witli sweeps and oars, 
urp^ed it on its wa}' all night. The lake was calm 
and tlu! weather fair; hut it erept so slowly over the 
water that several days elapsed l)efore they reached 
theiv destination, ahout twenty miles distant. 

Near the entriinee of IMatehedash Bay lie the three 
islands now known as Faith, IIo})e, and Charity. 
Of these. Charity or Christian Island, called Ahocndac. 
by the Ilurons and St. Joseph by the Jesuits, is hy 
far the largest. It is six or e^ght miles Avide; and 
when the irui'ons sought refuge hei'e, it was densely 
covered with the [jrimeval forest. The priests landed 
with their men, — some forty soldiers, laborers, and 

tlic ])rc'v'C'iliii<^- year lie jfives tlic fiftcentl, of ^lay as the date, — I'vi- 
(ic'iitly an error. 

" Nous sortisnies ile ci'S terres de Proniission qui ot^toieiit iiostre 
Tarnilis, et ou la niort nous eiist estu niille fois plus douee (jue ne 
sera la vie en (luehiiie lieu que nous puissions estre. ]\lais il fa;it 
suiure Dieu, et il taut aiuier ses eouduites, quehjue oi)pos6es qu'elles 
])aroiss(itt a nos desirs, a nos jdus saintes esperanees et aux ])lus 
teudres amours de nostre eoeur." — Lcftic ilf H<'(incneaii (in J'. J'ruriii- 
riiil (I I^iin's, in Rcliitio)' (hs Ifiiroiis, KiuC, 1. 

" Mais il falliit, K tons tant que nous estions, quitter cette anoienne 
deineure de s;unete Marie ; ( cs edifices, (jui (|Uoy quo pauures, parois- 
soieut des eliefs-d'ceuure de I'art aux yeux de nos pauures Sauuai,H's ; 
ces terres eultiuees, (jui nous ])rouiettoient vne riehe nioisson. 11 
nous fallut aliamlonner ee lieu, que ie i)uis ajjpeller nostre seconde 
ratri.' et nos deiiees iiinoeentes, i)uis qu'il auoit este le bereeau de 
fe Cliristiauisme, qu'il estoit le teini)le de Dieu et la nuiison des 
seruiti'urs de Tesus-Clirist ; et crainte que nos enneniis trop iuii)ies, 
ne ])rot'anassent ce lieu de saiuetete et n'en jjrissent leur auauta,u;e, 
nous y niisiues le feu nous niesnies, et nous visines brusler ii nos 
yeux, en nioins d'vno heure, nos trauaux de neuf et de dix ans." — 
l?agueneau, Rdatlon des Iliirons, IG50, 2, '•}. 



ir raft, 
,d oars, 
LS calm 
ver the 

le three 
s, is hy 
le; and 
3rs, aiul 

it(.', — c'vi- 

■nt nostra 
•(.' (J lie lU' 

ills il I'iKlt 

.■s qu'elk'S 

aux ])lus 

P. Proriih 

^ ancionne 
OS, parois- 
Hauuajic's ; 
jiissoii. U 
)erooau do 
liaison dos 
op iini)ios, 
slor a nos 
ix ans." — 




others, — and found abont three hundred Ilnron 
families hivonaeked in the woods. Here were wiiT- 
warns and sheds of bark, and smoky kettles slung 
over lires, each on its tri})od of [)()les; while around 
lay groups of famished wretches, with dark, haggard 
visages and uncombed hair, in every posture of 
despondency and woe. The}- had not been wholly 
idle; fir they had made some rough clearings, and 
planted a little corn. The arrival of the .Jesuits gave 
them new hope; and, weakened as they were with 
famine, they set themselves to the task of hewing 
and burning down the forest, making bark houses, 
and planting palisades. The priests, on their part, 
chose a favorable s})()t, and began to clear the grovuid 
and mai'k out the lin^js of a fort. Their men — tlie 
greater part serving without pay — labored with 
admirable spirit, and before winter had built a square, 
bastioned fort of solid masonr}', with a deep ditch, 
and walls alxmt twelve feet liip'h. Within wei'e a 
small chapel, lumses for lodging, and a well, which, 
with the ruins of the walls, may still be seen on the 
southeastern shore of the island, a hundred feet from 
the water.i Detached redoubts were also built near 
at hand, where French nuisketeers could aid in 

1 Tho iiioasiiroiiioiit botwoon tlio aii^dos of tlio two soiithcni l)as- 
tions is 12o foot, and that of tlio oiirtain wall oonnootin<f tiioso 
l)astioiis is 7S toet. Sonio oiirioiis rolios liavo l)oi'ii found in tiie 
fort, — ani()ii;^dtluTs, a sti'ol mill for niakin^'- w .fvrs forth.' Host. 
It was found in ISjS, in a roiiiarkahlo stato of jirosorvatioii, and is 
now in an Knylish nui.«.ouin, liavini^ l)oon bought on tho spot by an 
aniatouf. As at Sainto Mario on tho Wye, tho roniains arc in por- 
foct conformity with tho narratives and lottors of tiio priosts. 




liJ V 



defending the adjacent Huron village.^ Though the 
island was called St. Joseph, tlie fort, like that on the 
Wye, received the name of Sainte Marie. Jesuit 
devotion scattered these names broadcast over all the 
field of their labors. 

Tlie island, thanks to the vigilance of the French, 
escaped attack throughout the summer; but Iroquois 
scalpiiig-parties ranged tlie neighboring shores, kill- 
ing stragglers and keeping the llurons in perpetual 
alarm. ^Vs winter drew near, great numbers, who, 
trembling and by stealtli, had gathered a miserable 
subsistence among the northern forests and islands 
rejoined tlieir countrymen at St. Joseph, until six 
or eight thousand expatriated wretches were gathered 
here under the protection of the French fort. They 
were housed in a hundi'ed or more bark dwellings, 
each containing eight or ten families. ^ Here were 
widows Avithout children, and children without 
parents; for famine and the Iroquois had proved 
more deadly enemies than the pestilence which a f w 
years before had wasted their towns. ^ Of this muiti- 

1 ('(>i)il);ire ^lartin, Introduction to Brossani, Relation Alircije(',-l^. 

2 Ha,u;iU'noau, Ihlittiuii (fcs llurons, IGoO, 3, 4. lie reckons eifiht 
persons to a family. 

^ " le voudrois pouuoir representer a toutes les personnes affec- 
tionnees a nos llurons, I'etat ])itoyable auquel ils sont reduits; . . . 
eonmient seroit-il possible que ees iiuitateurs de lesus Christ ne 
fussent e'nieus a jiitie a la veuii des centaines et centaines de venues 
dont lion seiileiiU'iit les eiit'ans, iiiais iiuasi les parens ont estfe outra- 
gensi'inent oi: Inez, ou emnienez captifs, et puis inliuinaineineiit 
bruslez, enits, duciiirez et deuorez des ennemis." — LittrccU' Chan- 
iimiiiit a fjilriiKiiit, Sup^ri( itr a (^iiehic, Isle de St. Joscjih, 1 Jain, li'A'.K 

" \'iie mere s'est veue, n'ayaut que ses deux munielles, mais sans 



igh the 
on the 
all the 

es, kill- 
•s, who, 

mtil six 
. They 
n'e were 

L proved 
ch a f w 
lis muiti- 

\hi-c(je(', oH. 
cons cifiht 




mnes affcc- 
luits ; . • • 
Christ IK' 

s (k' venues 
t'stfe outra- 

f- cU' Cliiin- 

Juiu, invx 

. inais sans 


tude but few had strength L^-ough to labor, scarcely 
any had made provision for the winter, and numbers 
were already perishing from want, dragging them- 
selves from house to house, like living skeletons. 
The priests had spared no effort to meet the demands 
upon tlieir charity. They sent men during the autumn 
to buy smoked fisli from the Northern Algonquins, 
and employed Indians to gather acorns in the woods. 
Of this miseral)le food they succeeded in collecting 
five or six hundred bushels. To diminish its l)itter- 
ness, the Indians boiled it with ashes, or the priests 
served it out to them pounded, and mixed with 

As winter advanced, the Huron houses ])ecame a 
frightful spectacle. Their inmates were dying by 
scores daily. The priests and their men buried the 
Ijodies, and the Indians dug them from tlie earth or 
the snow and fed on them, sometimes in secret and 
sometimes openly; although, notwithstanding their 
superstitious feasts on the bodies of their enemies, 

sue et sans laict, qui toutefois estoit I'vniquo cliosp qu'i'llc cust pen 
presenter k trois on quatre enfans qui pleuroient y estans attacliez. 
Elle les voyoit mourir entre ses bras, los viis aprcs Ics autres, et 
n'auoit pas niesme les forees de les ])ousser dans le tombeau. Elle 
mouroit sous cette charge, et en niourant elle disoit : Ouy, Mon 
Dieu, vous cstes le maistre de nos vies ; nous mourrons puisque vous 
le voulez ; voila qui est luen que nous niourrions Clirestiens. I'estois 
damnfee, et mes enfans auec nioy, si nous ne fussions niorts misera- 
bles; ils ont receu le sainet Baptesme, et ie croy fernieinent que 
rnourans tous de compagnie, nous ressusciterons tons ensemble." — 
Ragueneau, Rdlntlim dr^ Ilunms, lOoO, 5. 

I Eight hundred sacks of tliis mixture were given to the llurons 
during the winter. — Bressani, Rvlatioti Ahreyer, 283. 

VOL. II. — 15 









their repugnance and horror were extreme at the 
thought of devouring those of relatives and friends. ^ 
An epidemic presently appejired, to aid the work of 
famine. Before spring, about half of their numher 
were dead. 

Meanwhile, though the cold was intense and the 
snow several feet deep, not an hour was free from 
the danger of the Iroquois; and, from sunset to day- 
break, under the cold moon or in the driving snow- 
storm, the French sentries walked their rounds along 
the ramparts. 

The priests rose before dawn, and spent the time 
till sunrise in their private devotions. Then the bell 
of their chapel rang, and the Indians came in crowcLs 
at the call ; for misery had softened their hearts, and 
nearly all on the island were now Christian. There 
was a mass, followed by a prayer and a few words of 

1 " Ce fut alors que nous f usmcs contraints cIo voir dos squelctos 
mourantos, qui sousti'noit'iit vne vio inisorablc', mau^c-ant iusqu'aux 
ordures et k>s rebuts de la nature. Le filand estoit a la jjluspart, ce 
que seroient en France les mets les plus exquis. Les cliarojines 
mesnie deterrees, lea restes des Kenards et des Chicns ne faisoient 
point liorreur, et se niangeoient, quoy qu'en eachete : car quoy que 
les Ilurons, auant q>U' la foy leur eust donne plus de luniiere qu'ils 
n'en auoient dans I'infidelite, ne creussent pas commettre aueun 
peclie de manger leurs ennemis, aussi pen qu'il y en a de les tuer, 
toutefois ie ])uis dire auec verite, qu'ils n'ont pas nioins d'horreur 
de manger de leurs compatriotes, qu'on pent auoir en France de 
manger de la chair huniaine. Mais la nccessite n'a plus de loy, et 
dus (Icnt'< t'aineliques ne discernent plus ce qu'elles nuuigent. Les 
meres se sont repeutis de leurs enfans, des freres de leurs freres, et 
des ent'ans ne reconnoissoient plus en vn cadaure mort, celuy lequel 
lors q\i'il viuoit, ils appelloient leur Pere." — Kagueneau, Hclation 
des Ilnrnns, 1G50, 4. Compare Brcssani, Relation Abre(jee, 283. 

1 ;, 

, I 




e lit the 
friends. 1 
woi'k of 

' number 

and the 
ree from 
it to day- 
ng snow- 
iids along 

the time 
n the hell 
in crowds 
9arts, and 
1. There 

words of 

les squclctes 
lit iusqu'aux 

)luspart, ce 
s chiiro{rni.'9 
ne faisoient 
ir quoy quo 
iniii-re qu'ils 
t'ttre auc'un 

do los tuor, 
IS d'horrt'ur 

France de 
us do loy, ot 
iifjont. Los 
irs freroF, ot 
coluy loquol 

lu, lifhitidu 



exhortation ; then the hearers dispersed to make room 
for others. Thus the little chapel was fdled ten or 
twelve times, until all had had their turn. Mean- 
while, other priests were hearing confessions and giv- 
ing advice and encouragement in private, according 
to the needs of eacli applicant. Tliis lasted till nine 
o'clock, when all the Indians returned to their vil- 
lage, and the priests presently followed, to give what 
assistance they could. Tlieir cassocks were worn 
out, a.:! tliey were dressed chiefly in skuis.^ They 
visited the Indian houses, and gave to those whose 
necessities were most urgent small scraps of hide, 
severally stamped with a particular mark, and enti- 
tling the recipients, on presenting them at tlie fort, to 
a few acorns, a small quantity of boiled maize, or a 
fragment of smoked fish, according to tlie stamp on 
the leather ticket f)f eacli. Two Incurs before sunset 
the bell of the clia})el again rang, and the religious 
exercises of the morning were repeated.^ 

Thus this miserable winter wore away, till the open- 
ing spring brought new fears and new necessities.^ 

1 Lcttre (le l\a<iHrneiin an Genernl dc la Coinpaijiiic fit: Jesus, Isle 
St. Joseph, l;J Mars, 1050. 

2 Ka^uonoau, RiUition dts Humus, 1(!50, (5, 7. 

8 Concorning tlio rotroat of tlio Iluruiis to Islo St. Jo.soph, the 
principal authorities are the Pulntlims of Kill) and Ki.'iO, wliioh are 
ample in detail, and written witli an excellent sinii»licity and mod- 
esty; the lictatinn Alire;/ei oH IJressani ; the reports of tlie Katiior 
Superior to the (ieiieral of tlie Jesuits at Ronu' ; the manuscript of 
1(')52, entitled Meumlrcs toiir/nnit In Mmi it les W'rfits dt s J 'errs, itr. • 
tlie unpuhlished letters of (iarnier; ;ind a letter of C'liaumonot, 
written on the spot, and preserved in tlie lu:lalwns. 




The Tohacco Missions. — St. Jkan attackkd. — Dkath of Gar- 
NiKU. — Tin; JouKNKV OF Chahankl: his l^KATii. — Uauueai; 


Late in the preceding autumn the Iroquois liad 
taken the war-path in force. At the end of Novem- 
ber, two escaped prisoners came to Isle St. Joseph 
with the news that a band of three hundred warriors 
was hovering in the Huron forests, doubtful whether 
to invade the island or to attack the towns of the 
Tobacco Nation in the valleys of the Blue Mountains. 
The Father Superior, Ragueneau, sent a runner 
thither in all haste, to warn the inhabitants of their 

There were at this time two missions in the 
Tobacco Nation, St. Jean and St. Matthias, ^ — the 
latter under tlie charge of the Jesuits Garreau and 
Grelon, and the former under that of Garnier and 
Chabanel. St. Jean, the principal seat of the mis- 

1 The Indian name of St. Joan was Etarlta ; and that of St. 
Mattliias, Ekarcnniondi. 




rii OF Gau- 


uois had 
[ Novem- 
b. Josepli 
L warriors 
I wlietlier 
QS of the 
of their 

in the 

LS,i — the 

•reau and 

nier and 

the mis- 

that of St. 

sion of the same name, was a town of five nv six hun- 
dred families. Its p()])uhiti(»n was, moreover, ^-really 
augmented by the 1)ands of fugitives Ilui-ons who liad 
taken refuGfe there. Wlien the wai-iiors were waru'jl 
by Raguencau's messenger of a [)rol)al)le attack from 
tlie Iroquois, they were far from being daunted, but, 
confiding in their nund)ers, jiwaiLed the enemy in one 
of those fits of vah»r whieli eiiaracterize the unstable 
courage of the savage At St. .Fean all was paint, 
featliers, and uproar, — sing'ing, dancing, howling, 
and stam[)ing. Quivers v»-ere lilled, knives wlietted, 
and tomahawks sharpened; but when, after two da^'S 
of eager expj^ctancy, the enemy did not appear, the 
warriors lost patience. Thinking, and pi-obably with 
reason, that the Iroquois were afraid of them, they 
resolved to sally forth, and tidce the offensi\-e. With 
yelps and whoops they defiled into the foi'cst, wheie 
the branches were gray and bare, and the gi-ound 
thickly covered with snow. They pushed on rapidly 
till the following day, but could not discover their 
wary enemy, who had made a wide circuit, and was 
approaching the town from another quarter. Bv ill 
luck, the Iroquois captured a Tobacco Indiun and his 
squaw, straggling in the forest not far fi-om St. Jean ; 
and the two prisoners, to pro])itiate them, told them 
the defenceless condition of the ])lace, where none 
remained but women, children, and old men. The 
delighted Iroquois no longer hesitated, Init silently 
and swiftly pushed on towards the town. 

It was two o'clock in the afternoon of the seventh 




t ■ 'Hf 


of Decoiiilior.^ C]iii])anel had left tlio |>^ace a day or 
two before, in obedience to a message fr( Ha<j^neneiiU, 
and (larnier was liere alone. He was niakinLf bis 
rounds anionjjj the houses, visiting iie si"k and 
instnu'ting liis converts, wli n the iMrrible di<i of 
the war-wlioo}) i-ose fioni Oorders of the '^'ieai'in^-, 
and, on the instant, tlie town was mad witli trrror. 
Chihlren and girls rushed to and fro, blind with 
fright; women suiitehed their infants, aiid fled they 
knew not whither, (iarniei' ran to his chapel, where 
a few of his converts had sought asylum. He gave 
them his benediction, exhoited them to hold fast to 
the Faith, and bade them fly A\hile there was yet 
time. For liimself, he hastened back to the houses, 
running from one to another, and giving absolution 
or baptism to all whom he found. An Iroquois met 
him, shot him with three balls through the body and 
thigh, tore off his cassock, and rushed on in pursuit 
of the fugitives. Gamier lay for a moment on the 
ground, as if stunned; then, recovering his senses, 
he was seen to rise into a kneeling jiosture. At a 
little distance fi'om him hiy a Huron, mortally 
Avounded, but still showing signs of life. With the 
heaven that awaited him glowing before his fading 
vision, the priest dragged himself towards the dying 
Indian, to give him absolution; but his strength 
failed, and he fell again to the .arth. He rose once 
more, and again crept forward, when a party of 
Iroquois rushed upon him, split his head with two 

1 Bressani, Rchitlon Ahreijee, 264. 




blows of a hatchet, strippod liini, and loft Ms hody 
on the ground.^ At tiiis time tlie whole .. wii was 
on fire. The invaders, fearing that the a" '\'nt war- 
riors might return and take their revenge, hastened 
to finish their work, scattered firehr.'i'ids everywhere, 
and threw children alive into the burning houses. 
They killed many of the fugitives, captured many 
more, and then made a hasty retreat through the 
forest with their prisoners, butchering such of them 
as lagged on the way. li. Tean lay a waste of smok- 
ing ruins thickly str 'wn tli blackened corpses of 
the slain. 

Towards evening, p 'lies of fugitives reached St. 
Matthias, with tidi 'ns of the catastr()[)he. Tlu; town 
was wild with alarki, .md all stood on the watch, in 
expectation of an attack; but when, in the moniing, 
scouts came in and reported the retreat of the Iroquois, 
Garreau and Grelon set out with a party of converts 
to visit the scene of havoc. For a long time they 
looked in vain for the body of Garnier; but at length 

^ The above particulars of Garnier's dcatli rest on tlic cviik'ucc 
of a Cliristian Huron woman, nanieil Martlu', wlio saw Iiiin sliot 
down, and also saw his attempt to reach the dyin^ Indian. She was 
herself struck down immeiliatidy after witli a war-club, l)ut reniaine(i 
alive, and oscaped in the confusion. She died tiiree months later, 
at Isle St. Joseph, from the effects of the injuries sht- liad received, 
after reaffirming the trutli of her story to Uajjueneau, who was with 
her, and wlio questioned her on the subjt'Ct. {Meninirrs tani'linut hi 
M<iit rl lex I't/Vifs (Ics Pens (Idrnlcr, etc., MS.) Uai,'Ucneau also 
speaks of her in Rrlation drs Jfurnns, ICoO, 9. The priests Grelon 
and Garreau found the body strii)ped naked, witii tliri'e ffunshot 
wounds in the abdomen and tiiigh, and two dei'p hatcliet wounds in 
the head. 



thoy found him lyiiiLT whcp.^ lie luid fallen, — so 
scmu'cIumI and dislis^urcd llial lie was rccoiriii/cd with 
dinicultv. Tin' tw«> l>ri»'sts wrapixd his hody in a 
j)arl of their own (dothinn"; the Indian convci'ts dui,' 
II jj^rave on the spot where his ehnreh had stood; and 
liere they huried him. Thus, at the iv^v of forty- 
foni\ died Charles (Tarnier, the favoriti^ ehild of 
wealthy and nol)li' parents, nursi'd in I'arisian lux my 
iind ease, then livinjjf and dyini]^, a more than willinL,^ 
exile, amid the hardships and liorrors of the Huron 
wihlerness. His life and liis (h'ath are Ins hest 
euloqy. Hr^^'heuf was the lion of the Huron mis- 
sion, and (iarnier was the Limb; but the lumb was as 
fearless as the lion J 

1 Giirnior's di'votlon to tlu- luissioii was absoliito Ih' took little 
or no intiTi'st in tin- lu'ws from l'"raiiL'i', wiiirli, at iiitiTvals of from 
OIK' to tlirt'i' yi'ars, louiul its way to tin- Huron towns. Ili.s roni- 
panion, Brrssani, says tiiat iu- woiili! walk thirty or forty miles in 
the hottest summer day, to haplize some dyini; Iniiian, wiien [\\v 
country was infested by the eiU'my. On similar errands he wouiii 
sonietimt's jtass the ni,i,dit alone in the forest in tlu' ileptii of winter. 
lie was an.xious to fall into tlu' hands of the Iro([uois, that he mi^dit 
preach the Faith to tiiem even out of the midst of the fire. In one 
of his un]iuhlislied letters hi' writes," I'raisi'd l)e our Lord, who ])um- 
ishes me for my sins hy (h'])rivinii- me of tiiis erown " (the erown of 
martyrdom). After the death of Mroi)euf and Lalemaut, he writes 
to his brother: — 

"Ile'las! Mon t'luT frere, si ma conseienci' ne me eonvainquait 
et ne me eonfondait de nu)n inlidelite an service de notre bon inaitre, 
je pourrais esj)e'rer quehiue favi'ur a])i)roehante de eelles ([u'ii a 
faiti'S aux bienheureux martyrs avee (pii j'avais le bien di' eonverser 
souvent, etant dans hs meines occasions et dangers qu'ils etaient, 
niais sa justice nie fait eraimlreque je ne demeure toujours indij^iie 
d'lme telle couronne." 

He contonted himself with the most wretched fare during the 




Wlion, on tlio following niorniii^;', llic warriors of 
St. Joiin ntturncd IVnm tlicir rasli and hoollcss sally, 
uiid Hiiw the ashes of tlicii' dcsolahMl lioiiics and tin* 
/^diastly rt'li<s of tlicir iimrdcrcd fainilics, llicy scntcd 
tlicnisL'lvcs amifl i\iv ruin, silent and iiidtioidess as 
statues of bronze, with heads howctl down and eyes 
lixed on the gioiiiid. 'I'hns they ivniaiii('(I tln'onLj'h 
lialf tlio (hiy. Tears and wailinL;- were for women; 



as the mournintr of warriors. 

Garuier's coUeaL^ue, Chahanel, had Ix'eii reealled 
from St. Jean hy an oi'(h'r troin tin' i-'ather Snperioi-, 
who tli(m<;ht it. needk'ss to expose the lil'e of inorc^ 
than oiu! ])riest iu a position of so nnich daii'^^'r. lie 
stopped on his way at St. Matthias, and on the moiii- 
ing of the seventh of Deeemlu'r, tlie day of the attack, 
left that town with seven or eiifht Christian Unions. 
The jom-ney was rou<,di anddilKieult. They pidcci-dcd 
through the ftn'cst about ei^'hteen iiiiics, and llicii 
encamped in the snow. Tlie Indians fell asleep; l»nt 
Cluibanel, from an apprehension of danu'ei'. or some 
other cause, remained awake. About iiiidiiicht he 
heard a strange sound in tlie distance, — a confusion 
of fierce voices, minghMl witli songs and outcries. It 

last years of famini', liviiifr in ^ood mciisurc on roots ;iiiil iicorns; 
" altliouffh," says l?aj;ni ncaii, " lu' IimiI Ik'cii tlic clicrislicd son of ;i 
rieli and nobk- hnusc, on wlioni all tlie atTt'ction of iiis fiithcr liail 
ci'ntrod, and who liad liecn nourislicil on food vi-ry (liffcrciit from 
tliat of swine." — Rtlittion ch-s I/nmits. i(i.')(), 12. 

For his cdiaractor, see Kairiieni'aii, Brt'ssani, Taimcr, and Ale- 
gambe, who devotes many j)atfes to tlie deserijition of his religious 
traits ; but the complexion of his mind is best reflected in his 
private letters. 





was tlio Iroquois on llicir rotroat with tlioir prisonoi-H, 
some of wlioin wvw (l('li;iiitly siii_i,nn^ tlii'ir war- souse's, 
ai'UT tlic Iinliaii ciistoni. Cliahaiicl waked liis coiii- 
|)aiiioiis, wlio instantly took fli<.;lit. lie tried to fol- 
low, but could not keej) jtaee with tlie ii'^lit-footed 
savages, who I'eturned to St. Mattiiias, and told wliat 
had orourred. Tliey said, however, that ('hahanid 
had left tiieni and taken an opposite direction, in 
order (o reach Isle St. Joseph. Ills brother priests 
were for some time i^niorant of what had befallen 
him. At length a Huron Indian, who had been con- 
verted, but afterward ajutstatized, gave out that he 
had met him in the forest, and aided him with Ms 
canoe to cross a river whicJi lay in his path. Some 
aui)posed that he had lost his way, and died of cold 
and huiig(U-; but others were of a different opinion. 
Their suspicion was confirmed some time afterwards 
by the renegade Ilunm, who confessed that he had 
killed Chabanel and thrown his body into the river, 
after robbing liim of his clothes, his hat, the blaidvct 
or mantle which was strapped to his shoulders, and 
the bag in which he carried his books and ])a[)ers. 
He declared that his motive was hatred of the Faith, 
which had caused the luin of the llurons.^ The 
priest had prepared himself for a wors(,' fate. Before 
leaving Sainte Marie on the Wye, to go to his post 
in the Tobacco Nation, he had written to his brother 
to regard him as a victim destined to the fires of the 

1 Memoircs touvJtant la ^Furt ct les Vertiis rlfs Peres, etc. MS. 





Ills COIll- 
(I to lul- 
)1(1 wliat 
:'ti()ii, ill 
r ])i'i('Hts 

ll'Oll t'Oll- 

tlmt hu 

with Ms 


of cold 

lie had 
10 river, 

(M's, and 


1 The 


his })ost 

of the 


Iroquois.^ lie uchh-d, that. thoii,i,di he was naturally 
timid, he was now wholly indilTereiit to daiiLTei-; and 
he expressed the iK'lief that only a sujierhuman [xiwer 
could liiivo wrniicflit such a clianL,^' in him.^ 

CiarroiUi and (Ji-elon, in their mission of St. Mat- 
thias, were exposed to otiier dangers than those of 
the Iroquois. A report was sj)read, not only that 
they were matjficians, hut <liat they had a secret 
undeistaudiuf? with the enemy. A nocturnal coun- 
cil was called, and their dea*': was decreed. In the 
mornin<j^, a furious (;rowd <j;'athci'cd licfore a lodn'e 
which they were about to enter, screechinL,^ and 
yelling after the manui'r of Indians when they c(»m- 
l)el a prisoner to run the o-autlet. The two [)riests, 

1 Ahm/,' (If la Vie dn /'. N<>el ('h<th,i,„l. MS. 

'^ " Jo siiis I'ort ai)j)r('licnsif di' iiion iiatiiri'l ; tmitcfois, iiiaiiitffi.'int 
(Hic it' vay an plus jiraml iIjui^'it ct (iii'il iiic .■ii'iiililc (jUc la iiiurt n'cst 
jias I'sloi^MK'i', ii' lie .><tiis plus ili' crjiiiitt'. Cctti' dispositinn \\c viciit 
pas do nioy." — liiltillan ihs ffunnis, M'lW, IS. 

Tlio t'ollowiii^r is tho vow niailo by Cliahanol, at a tiiuf ulicii liis 
(lisjfiist at tho ludiaii niodo of lit'o hosot liini with ItuiptatiKMs to 
nsk to 1)0 rocallod from tho mission. It is traii.slatod t'roni tlio l.atin 
orijfiiial : — 

" iMy Lord Josus Christ, who, in tho ailiuiraliio disposition of thy 
patornal providonoo, hast willoil that I, althou;;li most unworthy, 
should 1)0 a co-laboror with tho indy i\postl(s in thi-; \ imyard of 
tho Ilurons, — I, Nool ('hal»aii(d, impidlod hy tlio dosiro of fiilliilin^r 
tliy holy will in advanciuj;- tho oonvorsion of tho sava;ios of thi.s 
land to thy faith, do vow, in tho prosoiico of tho most h(,l,. sacra- 
ment of thy precious body and Idood, wliicii is (lod's tahcrnaclo 
anion;,' men, to roinain pi-rix'tually attaciiod to this mission of tlio 
Ilurons, uinU'rstandiny all tliinj,'s according- to the interpretation 
and disposal of tho Sui)oriors of tho Society of .losus. 'riuToforo I 
entreat thee to receive me as the •servant of this mission, 
and to ronili'r inc worthy of so sui'liuio ;i ministry. Amen. This 
tweiitioth day of Juno, Ki-IT." 

• "iini y ^Pffw^,l^^^,■^. ^.^.jy.^.^ — 

! "li 

-*■ ;. ■( 




giving no sign of feur, passed throiigli the crowd and 
entered tlie lodge iinhanned. Hatchets were bran- 
dislied over tliem, hut no one woidd he the first to 
strike. Tlieir converts were amazed at tlieir escape, 
and tl ley themselves ascrihed it to the interposition of 
a protecting Trovidence. The Huron missionaries 
were doubly in danger, — not more from tlie Iroquois 
than from the blind rage of those who should have 
been their friends.^ 

1 EapiU'iicaii, Relation des Ilnrom^, 1050, 20. 

One of tlu'Si' two niissioiiarii'S, Cj'irrcau, was afterwards killed 
by tilt' Iroquois, wiio .sliot liim tiirough thu spiue, in 1G50, near 
Montreal. De Qiien, Rtlatiun, 1050, 41. 


rowd and 
ere bran- 
e first to 
ir escape, 
ositioii of 
• Iroquois 
•iild have 

ards killed 
li/5G, near 



Famin'e and the Tomahawk. — a Ni;w Asvum. — Vova(Ji: or 
Tin; 1?i:ii;gki:.s to Qn:iii:c. — Mektin.; with Brkssam. — Des- 
perate Coirage ofthe iKoguois. — Inuoaijs and Battles.— 
Death of Blteux. 

As spring approached, tlie starving multitude on 
Isle St. Joseph grew reckless with hunger. Along 
the main shore, in spots where the sun lay warm, the 
spring fisheries had already begun, and tlie melting 
snow was uncovering the acorns in the woods. There 
was danger everyAvhere, for bands of Iroquois were 
again on the track of their prey.i The miseral)]e 
Ilurons, gnawed with inexorable famine, stood in 
tlie dilemma of a deadly peril and an assured dcatli. 
They chose the former; and, early in .Alaivh, iKxran 

1 " Mais Ic Printemps cstant venii, Ics Iroquois nous furcnt ciicoiv 
pluscrucds; et cc sout oux qui vraycnu'nl out ruiiii; toiiU's ikis 
fspcrancc'S, ot qui out fait vn lieu d'horrour, vnr tcrtv dr saiij.' ct do 
carnago, vn theatre de cruaiite et vn sepulchre de earcasnes dCvliar- 
noes par les langueurs d'vne loiiniie famine, d'vn pais de h.n,. dic- 
tion, d'vne terre de Sainteto et d'vn lieu qui n'auoit j.liis rien (h- 
harbare, dopuis que le san-r pour .son amour auoit rendu 
tout son pouple Chrostien." — l{ao-,K.,, /^r/ation ,1,, Ilnmn^ 
1050, 2;}. 




to leave their islaiitl {uul cross to the main-Lmd, to 
gather what sustenance they coukl. The ice was 
still thick, hnt the advancing season had softened it; 
and as a body of them were crossing, it broke under 
their feet. Some were drowned ; while others dragged 
themselves out, drcnclied and pierced with cold, to 
die miserably on the frozen lake, before they could 
reach a shelter. Other parties, more fortunate, 
gained the shore safely, and began their fishing, 
divided into companies of from eight or ten to a 
hundred persons. But the Iroquois were in wait for 
them. A large band of warriors had already made 
their way, through ice and snow, from their towns 
in central New York. They surprised the llui'on 
fishermen, surrounded them, and cut them in pieces 
without resistance, — tracking out the various parties 
of their victims, and hunting down fugitives with 
such persistency and skill, that, of all who had gone 
over to the main, the Jesuits knew of but one who 

1 "Le iour do rAnnonci:ition, vingt-cinquiesme do Mars, vno 
ariTieo (I'lroquois ayuus marolio proz do doiix ooiits lioues do pais, ii 
trauors los j>lacos ot los iio.uos, trauorsans los inontajrnos ot los t'or- 
osts i)loinos d'liorrour, surpriront au cominoncoiuont do la nuit lo 
oainp do iios Clirostioiis, ot on liroiit vno cruelle bouohorio. II si lu- 
bloit qno lo t'iol oonduisit toutos lours doinarohos ot qu'ils ouront vii 
Aiijio pour ixuido : oar ils diuisoront lours troupos auoo tant do bon- 
liour, (ju'ils trouuoront on nu)ins do doux iours, toutos los bandos do 
nos C'lu'c'stions qui ostoiont dlsperseos vu ot lii, osloignoos los vnos 
(los autros do six, sopt ot liuit lioues, oont porsonnos on vn liou, tu 
vn autro oinquanto ; ot uiosnio il y auoit quolquos fainillos solitaires, 
qui s'ostoiont osoarteos on dos lioux nioins connus ot bors do tout 
cboniin. Cboso ostrauixo ! ilo tout co niundo dissipe, vn soul lioniiuc 

'■ I 

). [1050. 

i-land, to 
ice was 
ftenecl it; 
)ke under 
s dragged 
. cold, to 
ley could 
r fishing, 
ten to a 
n wait for 
ady made 
leir towns 
lie Huron 
I in pieces 
)us parties 
:ives with 
had gone 
: one who 

Mars, viu' 
liis ik- piiis, a 

s (jt Ic'S for- 
(_• lii nuit ](• 
rii'. 11 si lu- 

s curi.'nt vn 
tiiiit dv 1)1)11- 

s 'nandes df 


vu lieu, i II 
OS solitairi'S, 
liors (If tout 
SL'ul lionHiic 




"My pen," writes Ragueneau, "lias no ink hlack 
enough to describe the fury of the Iroquois." Still 
the goadings of famine were relentless and irresistible. 
"It is said," adds the Father Superior, "tliat hunger 
will drive wolves from tlie forest. So, too, our 
starving Ilurons were driven out of a town whicli 
had become an abode of horror. It was the end of 
Lent. Alas, if these pooi' Christians could have had 
but acorns and water to keep their fast upon! On 
Easter Day we caused them to make a general con- 
fession. On the following morning they went away, 
leaving us all their little possessions; and most of 
them declared pu])licly that they made us their lieirs, 
knowing well that they were near their end. And, 
in fact, only a iow days passed before we heard of 
the disaster which we had foreseen. These poor 
people fell into ambuscades of our Iroquois enemies. 
Some were killed on tlie spot; some were dragged 
into captivity; women and children were burned. A 
few made their escape, and spread dismay and panic 
evervwhere. A week after, another band was over- 
taken by the same fate. Cxo where they would, they 
met will) slaughter f)n all sides. Famine pursued 
tlicm, or tliey encountered an enemy more cruel tlian 
cruelty itself; and, to crown their misery, they heard 
that two great armies of Irocpiois wei-e on the way to 
exterminate them. . . . l)es[)air was universal. ^ 

The Jesuits at St. Jose})h knew not wliat course 

s'c.*clia])pa, qui vint nous vn apjiortir Ks iiouue'llcs." — Raguoneau, 

R<l<il!ini (/,s HiircHs, If).".!), :j;), iJ 4. 

i \ii\"nv\WA\\, Ii< Uitiitn (Its lib 

KJ.jO. 21. 

(.1 ! 

i 'i 


to take. The doom of their flock seemed inevitahle. 
When dismay and despondency were at their heiglit, 
two of the principal Huron chiefs came to the fort, 
and asked an interview with Ragueneau and his com- 
panions. Tliey told them that the Indians had held 
a council the night before, and resolved to abandon 
the island. Some would disperse in the most, remote 
and inaccessible forests ; others Avould take refuge in 
a distant spot, a[)par-:'ntly the Grand IManitoulin 
Island ; otliers would try to reach the Andastes ; and 
others w'Mild seek safety in adoption and incorpora- 
tion with the Iroquois themselves. 

"Take courage, brother," continued one of the 
chiefs, addressing Ragueneau. "You can save us, 
if you will but resolve on a bold step. Choose a 
place where you can gather us together, and prevent 
this dis})ersion of our people. Turn your eyes towards 
Quebec, and transport thither what is left of this 
ruined country. Do not wait till war and famine 
have destroyed us to the last man. We are in your 
hands. Death has taken from you more than ten 
thousand of us. If you wait longer, not one will 
remain alive; and then you will be soriy that you did 
not save those whom you might have snatched from 
danger, and who showed you the means of doing so. 
If you do as we wish, we vrill form a church under 
the protection of the fort at Quebec. Our f; 'tli ^^;ll 
not be extinguished. The examples of the French 
and the Algonquins will encourage us in our duty, 
and their charity will relieve some of our misery. 

D. [1650. 

ir height, 
) the fort, 
1 his corn- 
had held 

osti remote 
; refuge in 
astes; and 

ine of tlie 

1 vsave us, 
Choose a 

nd prevent 

es towards 

ft of this 

nd famine 

ire in your 

? than ten 

it one will 

lat }0U did 

ched from 

doing so. 

ireh under 

h -th will 

lie French 

our duty, 

ur misery. 




At least, we shall sonu'times liiid a morsel of hread 
for our children, wluj so long have had nothing hut 
bitter roots and acorns to keep them alive." ^ 

The Jesuits were deeply moved. They consulted 
together again and again, and [)raycd in tui'u during 
f(n'ty hours without ceasing, that their minds might 
he enlightened. At length they resolved to gi'ant the 
petition of the two chiefs, and save the poor remnant 
of the Uurons by lefidnig them to an asylum where 
there was at least a hope of safety. Their resolution 
once taken, they pushed their i)reparations with all 
speed, lest the Iroquois might learn their purpose, and 
lie in wait to cut them off. Canoes were made ready, 
and on the tenth of June they began the voyage, with 
all their French followers and about three hundred 
Ilurons. The Huron mission was abandoned. 

"It was not without tears," writes the Father 
Superior, "that we left the country of oui" bores and 
our hearts, where our hretliiuu had gloriously shed 
their blood." ^ The lleet of canoes held its melan- 
choly way along the shores where twf> years before 
liad been the seat of le of the chief savasre com- 
munities of the conti nt, and where n(n\ all was a 
waste of death and isolation. Then tlu-y steered 
northwai-d, along th» eastern coast of the (leorgiaii 

^ Raguenoau, Itdatii' ■'•••i Hiirona, 1<).")0, 25. It appears fniin tlio 
MS. Jourmd dcs Sujirr'n s ilrs ./esiiil<s, that a jilan of l)rini,nii,^ the 
remnant of the Tlurons to Quebec \\;\s disoi.sseil ami approved ])y 
Lalemant and his associates, in a eoiincil Iield by t!iemat that place 
in April. 

'•* Compare Brcssani, Rtlation Abrei/er, 288. 
VOL. II. ■— 16 

242 THE IIUIIOX HUSSION AliAMJON'Kl). [1(1.-|0. 


/ I 

1.. -!. 


Bay, with its countless rocls-y islets; iuid overywhere 
they saw the traees of the li'oqiiois. When they 
reached Lake NipissinL>-, they found it deserted, — 
nothino- remaining of the Algoiupiins who dwelt on 
its shore, except the ashes of their hnrnt \vi,i,nvanis. 
A little farthei- on, thei-e was a fort hnilt of trees, 
whei'e the Iroqnois who made this desolation liad 
spent the winter; and a league oi- two helow, there 
was another similar fort. The river Ottawa was a 
solitude. Tlie Algonquins of Alluniette Island and 
the shores adjacent had all ])een killed or diivcii 
away, never again to return. "When I came u[) 
this great ri\(U', oidy thirteen yeai'S ago," writes 
liagueneau, "I fcuuid it hoidered with Algon(|uin 
tribes, who knew no God, and in their infidelity 
thought themselves gods on earth; for they had all 
that they desii'cd, — abund'jnce of fish and game, and 
a prosperous trade with alli(;d nations: besides, they 
were the terror of their enemies. Rut since they 
have embraced the Faith and adoi'cd the cross of 
Christ, He has given them a heavy share in this 
cross, and made them a prey to misery, torture, and 
a cruel death. In a word, they are a 2:)eopl(! swept 
from tlie face of the earth. Our only consolation is, 
that, as they died Christians, they have a part in the 
iidieritance of the true children of God, who scourgeth 
every one whom lie receiveth."^ 



) ; 

' ■ 1 

) , 

■ '* 

1 ltiifj;ui'neau, Uddtion rA >• Ilumm^, lOoO, 27. Tliose Aluonqiiins 
of the Ottiiuii, tli()U!j;li brokrii and disporst'd, witl- not destroyed, as 
liagiK'ncau ssupposes. 

). [1 (;:,(). 

hell tlu'y 
■verted, — 
dwelt on 

of trees, 
ition liiul 
iOW, there 
\va was a 
slaiid and 
or driven 

came ii[i 
)," writ'.'s 

in fidelity 
ey bad all 
game, and 

ides, tliey 
since they 
3 cross of 
re in this 
)rtiire, and 
)ple swept 
olation is, 

)art in the 

scourge di 

dt'stroyLMl, as 




As the voyagers descended the rivi'r, they had a 
serious alarm. Their scouts came in, and re[)orted 
that they had found fresh footprints of men in the 
forest. These proved, liowevei', to he the tracks, not 
of enemies, l)nt ol' friends. In the preceding autumn 
linssani liad gone down lo the French settlements 
with about twenty Iluroiis, and was now returning 
with them, and twice their number of armed Freiudi- 
nien, for the defence of the nussion. His scouts liad 
also l)een alarmeil by discovering the footprints of 
Ragueiieau's Indians; and for some time the two 
[)arties stood on their guard, eacli taking the other 
for an enemy. Wlien at length they discovered tlicir 
mistake, they met with embrace>» and rejoicing. 
Bressani and hi i' 'enchmen had come too late. All 
was over with tiic Ihirons and the Huron mission; 
and, as it was useless to go fartlier, they joined 
Ragueneau's party, aud retraced their course for the 

A day or two before, they had had a sharp taste of 
the mettle of the enemy. Ten Iroquois warriors had 
spent the winter in a little fort of felled trees on the 
l)orders of the Ottawa, hunting for subsistence, and 
waiting to waylay some p;issing canoe of Hurons, 
Algonquins, or Frenchmen. Bressaiii's party out- 
iiumbered them six to one; but they resolved that it 
should not [)ass without a toki.ii of their presence. 
Laie OP a dark night, the French and Iluroiis lay 
encamped in the forest, sleeping about \\iv\v iires. 
They had set gu.irds; hut these, it ins, were 




1 '^ ^ ;l 

I i . 

drowsy or ncjT^ligciit, — for tho ton Iroquois, waU^liinp^ 
tlu'ir time, apijroiiclicd with tlui stealth of lynxes, 
and glidi'd lik(! shadows into the midst of tlm camp, 
whore, hy tin; didl glow of the smonldoi'ing fires, 
they oould distinguish tho reeunihent iiguros of tlieir 
vietims. Suddenly they sereeehed the wai'-whoo]). 
and struck liko lightning with theii- hatchets among 
the sloo|)ers. Seven were killed hefore the I'cst could 
spring to their weapons. IJi'cssani leaped U]), and 
received on tlu; instant three arrow-wounds in the 
head. Tlu; Iroipiois were snnounded, and a des- 
perate tiglit ensued in the dark. Six of them were 
killed on tho spot, and two made prisoners; while 
the remaining two, ]>roaking through the crowd, 
bounded out of tho camp and cscai)od in the forest. 

The united parties soon after reached Montreal; l)ut 
tlie Ilurons refused to remain in a spot so exposed to 
the Iro(piois. Accordingly, they all descended the 
St. l.awrenco, ami at length, on the twenty-eighth 
of July, reached Quebec. Here the Ursulinos, the 
hospital nuns, and the iidiabitants taxed their re- 
sources to tho utmost to provide food and shelter for 
tlie exiled Ilurons. Their good-will exceeded their 
power; for food was scarce at Quebec, and the Jesuits 
themselves had to bear the chief burden of keeping 
the sufferers alive. ^ 

But if famine was an evil, tho Iroquois were a far 
greater one; for, while tho western nations of their 
confederacy were engrossed with tho destruction (.f 

i Coniparo Juchert'iiu, Ilistuire dc P IIotd-Dien, ~\\ bO. 

,, walcliing 
of lynxes, 

the Ciiiiip, 
>yi\v^ fires, 
vs of their 
lets among 
' rest coiiUl 
"(1 nj), and 
lids ill till' 
and a des- 

tliem were 
iiiers; ^vllilo 
the crowd, 

the forest, 
ontreal; hnt 
) exposed to 

^ended the 

•siiliiies, the 

d their iv- 
sheltcr for 

•eeded their 
the Jesuits 
of keeping 

is were a far 
oris of their 
;trnetion <f 

Ti), yo. 




the liurons, the Moliawhs kept u[) ineessant attaeks 
on the Algon(piiiis and tiio Frencli. A piirly of 
Christian Indians, cliieny from Silh'iy, phiiiiKMl ;i 
stroke of retaliation, and set ont for thc^ Mohawk 
eonntry, marching eaiitionsly ami si'iiding f(»rwai(l 
scouts to scour the forest. One of these, a Huron, 
suddenly fell in with a large Ii.xinois \var-i)arty, and, 
seeing that he could not ebefi]»e, formed on the instant 
a villanous plan to save himself. He ran towai'os the 
enemy, crying out that he had long been looking for 
them and was delighted to see them; that his nation, 
the Hurons, had come to an end; and that henceforth 
his country was the country of the Ii-o(piois, where so 
man}' of his kinsmen and friends had heen ado])te(l. 
He had come, ho declared, with no other thonght 
than that of johiing them, and turning Iroquois, as 
they had done. The Iroquois demanded if la^ ha<l 
come ahme. He answered, "No,*' and said that in 
order to accomplish his ])nr])ose he hail joined an 
Algonquin war-party, who v,-.i\' i.i t!:e woods iK^t fai' 
off. The Iroquois, in great delight, demanded to he 
shown where they w^ere. This Judas, iis the Ji'suits 
call him, at once complied; and the Algompiins were; 
surprised by a siuhlen onsci, and routed with severe 
loss. The treacherous llnroii was well treated bv 
the Iroquois, who ado])ted him into tlieii' natio i. 
Not long after, he came to ('anada, and with a view, 
as it was thought, to some further tivaehery, rejoined 
the French. A shari) ci'oss-nuestioniiKjf ])ut him to 

confusion, and lie presently confessed his gniU. Ho 


I| n 

I I i 


was aontcnccd to death; and (lio seiitcnro was exo- 
cuted by oiio of liis own countrynion, who split his 
head with a hatclict.* 

In tlio course f)f tlio sniiunei-, tlie Fri'iicli at Three 
Rivers ])eeanie aware tliat a hand of Jrocpmis wiis 
jn'owling in \\\v, nei^hljorliood, and sixty men went 
ontto meet them. Far from retreatinu^, tlie Jnxpiois, 
wiio were about twi iity-five in nniiibcr, ^ot out of 
tlieir canoes, and took post, waist-deep in mud and 
water, amonj^ tlie tall rushes at tlie margin of the 
river. Flere they fou^dit stubbornly, and ke]it all the 
Frenchmen at bay. At length, finding tliemselves 
hard pressed, lliey entered their canoes again, and 
paddled off. The French row(>d after them, and 
soon became separated in the chase; ^'hereupon the 
Irorpiois turned, and made desj)erate fight Avith the 
foremost, reti-eating again as soon as the othei'S camo 
up. This they repeated severtd times, jind then 
made their escape, after hilling a number of the best 
French soldiers. Their leader in this affair was a 
famous half-breed, known as the Flemish IJastard, 
who is styled by Kagueneau "an aboinination of sin, 
and a monster produced between a heretic Dutch 
father and a pagan mother." 

In the forests far north of Three Rivers dwelt 
the tribe called the Atticamcyucs^ or "Nation of the 
White Fish." P^rom their rcmot" position, and the 
difficult nature of the intervening countrv, thev 
thought themselves safe; Init a band of Iroquois, 

1 KagiU'iK'nu, RelntiiDi, l(j-")0, ;30. 


J ,'' 


:i>. [lo.-o, 

was oxr- 
) split Ills 

I ill Tlu'co 
•(jimis was 
men went 
' Iroquois, 
;(>l out of 

iiiud and 
L;'in of the 
('])t all tlu! 
igain, and 
:lieni, and 
enpon tlio 
-J with the 
:hoi'S canio 
and then 
if the hest 
.'air was a 

)n of sin, 
tic Dutch 

ers dwelt 
on of the 
1, and the 
itry, tliev 




nuirching on snow-shoes a distance of twenty days' 
journey northward from the St. Lawrence, fell upon 
one of their camps in the winter, and made a i^n-ncral 
hutehery of the inmates. The tribf, however, still 
held its ground for a time, and, heing all good C.ilh- 
olics, gave their missionary, Father liuteiix, an 
urgent invita^^ion to visit them in their own country, 
liuteux, who had long Iteen stationed at Thicc^ 
Rivers, was in ill health, and I'oi' yeais had rarely 
heeii fr(>e from some form of hodilysuffeiing. Nt'ver 
thel(;ss, he acceded to their reijuest, and, Infoic the 
o[)ening oT spring, made a remarkable journey on 
snow-shoes into the depths of tliis fi'o/eii wihU.'rness.^ 
In the year following, he repeated the uncU'i'taking. 
With him were a hirge l)arty of Atticamegues and 
several Frenchmen, (lame was exceedingly scarce, 
and they were forced by hunger to se})arate, — a 
Huron convert and a Frenchman named Fontarahic; 
remaining with the missionary. The snows had 
melted, and all the streams were rwo1]i:i. The three 
travellers, in a small hindi canoe, pushed their way 
up a turbulent river, where falls and ra[)i(ls wer(! so 
lunnerous that many times daily they were forced to 
carry their bark vess(d and their baggage through 
forests and thickets and over rocks and prec.'ipices. 
On the tenth of May they made two such portag(;s, 
and soon after, reaching a third fall, again lifted their 
canoe from the water. They toiled through the naked 

^ lounial (In Peri' Tdfi/urs Biilrii.r i/n ]'oi/(i''in. qn'il a fait pour la 
Mission (Ics Attikiumipus. St'o li'lutinn, lH'jl, 15. 









1.0 ^ 1^ 1^ 

1.1 l.-^l^ 

U 11.6 











WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 






forest, among the wet, black trees, over tangled 
roots, green, spongy mosses, mouldering leaves, and 
rotten, prostrate trunks, while the cataract foamed 
amidst the rocks hard by. The Indian led the way 
with the canoe on his head, while Buteux and the 
other Frenchman followed witli the baggage. Sud- 
denly they w(;re set upon by a troop of Iroquois, who 
had crouched behind thickets, rocks, and fallen trees, 
to waylay them. The Huron was captured before he 
had time to fly. Buteux and the Frenchman tried 
to escape, but were instantly shot down, the Jesuit 
receiving two balls in the breast. The Iroquois 
rushed upon them, mangled their bodies with toma- 
hawks and swords, stripped them, and then flung 
them into the torrent.^ 

^ Ragueneau, Relation, 1652, 2, 3. 




Fate of the VANQrism;i). — Tm; l{i:i-ir,i:i:s or St. l^vrnsTi; 
AND St. Michel. — Tui; Tuhacco Nation and its Wani>i;!;- 
iNGs. — The Modekn Wyandots. — The l>rri:R Bit. — 'I'm: 
IIcRox.s AT QuEnEC. — Notre-Dame de Lohetti:. 

Iroquois bullets and tomahawks liad killed the 
Hurons by hundreds, but famine and di.seas(» had 
killed incomparably more. Tlie miseries of the 
starving crowd on Isle St. Joseph had been shared 
in an equal degree Ijy smaller bands, who had win- 
tered in remote and secret retreats of the wilderness. 
Of those who survived that season of death, many 
were so weakened that they could not endure the 
hardships of a wandering life, which was new to 
them. The Hurons lived by agriculture: their fields 
and crops were destroyed, and they were so hunted 
from place to place that they could rarely till tlie soil. 
Game was very scarce; and, without agriculture, 
the country could support only a scanty and scattered 
population like that which maintained a struggling 
existence in the wilderness of the lower St. Lawrence. 
The mortality among the exiles was prodigious. 

ii k 

i: ' 




It is a matter of some interest to trace the fortunes 
of the sliattered fragments of a nation once prosper- 
ous, and, in its own eyes and those of its neiglihors, 
powerful and groat. None were left alive witliiu 
their ancient domain. Some had sought icfiigo 
among the Neutrals and the Eries, and sliared tlie 
disasters which soon overwhelmed ihose trihos; otliers 
succeeded in rcacliing the Andastes; while the inhah- 
itants of two towns, St. Michel and St. Jean IJaptiste, 
had recourse to an expedient whicli seems equally 
strange and desperate, hut which was in accordance 
with Indian practices. Tlicy contrived to open a 
communication witli the Seneca Nation of the Iro- 
quois, and i)romised to change their nationality and 
turn Scnecas as the price of their lives. Tlie victors 
accepted the proposal; and the inhahitants of these 
two towns, joined by a few other Ilurons, migrated 
in a body to the Seneca country. The}' were not dis- 
tributed among different villages, but were allowed 
to form a town by themselves, where they were after- 
wards joined by some prisoners of tlie Neutral Nation. 
They identified themselves with the Iroquois in all 
but religion, — liolding so fast to their faith, that, 
eighteen years after, a Jesuit missionary found tliat 
many of them were still good Catholics.^ 

The division of the Ilurons called the "Tobacco 

i / 

1 Compare Rrlation, 1051, 4; 1000, 14, 28; ami 1070, 09. Tlio 
Huron town amonjf the Senocas was calli'(l (laudoiKidrae. I'\'itlKT 
Fremin was Iuto in 1008, and gives an account of liis visit in the 
Relation of 1070. 


' Avitliiu 

ii'C'd the 
, ; others 
10 inhah- 
, equally 
) open a 
the I re- 
ality and 
le victors 
of these 
6 not dis- 
3 allowed 
rere after- 
il Nation, 
ois in all 
lith, that, 
ound that 

" Tobacco 

170, 09. The 
n-ae. FathiT 
is visit in the 


Nation," favored by their isolated position among 
mountains, had held their ground longer than the 
rest; but at length they, too, were com[)elled to fly, 
tosrether with such other Ilurons as had taken refuue 
with them. Tliey made tlieir way northward, and 
settled on the Island of Michilimackinae, where they 
were joined by the Ottawas, who, with other Algon- 
quins, had been driven by fear of the Irocpiois from 
the western shores of Lake Huron and the banks of 
the river Ottawa. At Michilimackinae the Ilurons 
and their allies were again attacked by the Iroquois, 
and, after remaining several years, they made aiu)ther 
remove, and took possession of the islands at <lic 
mouth of the Green liay of Lake Micliigan. Even 
here tlieir old enemy did not leave tlicm in [)eace; 
whereupon they fortified themselves on the main- 
land, and afterwards migrated southward and west- 
ward. This brought them in contact witli the 
Illinois, — an Algonquin people, at that time very 
numerous, but who, like many other tril)es at tliis 
epoch, were doomed to a ra[)id diminution fro^n wars 
with other savage nations. Continuing their migia- 
tion westward, the Ilurons and Ottawas reached the 
Mississippi, where they fell in witli tlie Sioux. Tliey 
soon quarrelled with those fierce cliildren of tlie 
prairie, who drove them from their country. They 
retreated to the southwestern extremity of Lake 
Superior, and settled on Point Saint Esprit, or Shag- 
wamigon Point, near tlie Islands of the Twelve 
Apostles. As the Sioux continued to harass them, 


THE LAST or Tilt, IIUROXS. riG.:0-lGG4. 

they left tliis place about the year 1071, and returned 
to Michilimaekinac, where they settled, not on the 
island, Imt on the neighhorhig Point St. Ignace, now 
Graham's Point, on tlie north side of the strait. The 
greater i)art of them afterwards removed thence to 
Detroit and Sandusky, where they lived under the 
name of Wyandots until within the present century, 
maintaining a marked influence over the surrounding 
Algonquins. They bore an active i)art, on the side 
of the French, in the war which ended in the reduc- 
tion of Canada; and they were the most formidable 
enemies of the English in the Indian war under 
Pontiac.^ The government of the United States at 
length removed them to reserves on the western fron- 
tier, w^here a remnant of them may still be found. 
Thus it ai)pears that the Wyandots, whose name is 
so conspicuous in the history of our border wars, are 
descendants of the ancient liurons, and chiefly of 
that portion of them called the "Tobacco Nation." ^ 

When Ragueneau and his party left Isle St. Joseph 
for Quebec, the greater number of the Ilurons chose 
to remain. They took possession of the stone fort 

1 See " History of tlie Conspiracy of Pontiac." 

2 The inifrrations (/" this band of tlie iltirona may be traced by 
dt'tacht'd ])assaffL'S and incidental remarks in the Jidations of l(i54, 
1()(50, 10(57, 1070, 1071, and 1072. Nicolas I'errot, in his chapter, 
Deffaitte ct. Fiiitte dcs Ifiirons cltdsses de Icnr Piijjs, and in the cliap- 
ter followinfj, t^ives a long and rather confused account of tlieir 
movements and adventures. See also La Poterie, Ilistoirc. de I'Anie- 
riiiitp Scjiteiitrioixih', ii. 51-50. According to tlio lidntion of 1(570, tiie 
Hurons, when living at Siiagwamigon Point, numbered about fifteen 
hundred souls. 





on the 
Lce, now 
t. The 
lence to 
idcr the 
the side 
e rediic- 
r under 
Itates at 
irn fron- 
; found, 
name is 
rars, are 
liefly of 
ion. ^ 
, Joseph 
lis chose 
one fort 

traced by 
ns of l()o4, 
s chapter, 
1 the chap- 
t of tlieir 
I de VAuie- 
i 1070, the 
out fifteen 

wliich the French liad ;d)andoncd, and wlierc, with 
rCtUionablo vigihmce, they coidd maintain themselves 
against attack. In the succeeding autumn a small 
Iroquois war-[)arty had the audacity to cross over to 
the island, and V)uild a fort of felled trees in the 
woods. The llurons attacked them ; hut the invaders 
made so fierce a defence that they ke[)t their assail- 
{ints at hay, and at length retreated with little or no 
loss. Soon after, a much larger hand of Onondaga 
Iroquois, approaching undiscovered, built a fort on 
the main-land, o[)posite the island, but concealed 
from sight in the forest. Here they waited to way- 
lay any party of llurons who might venture ashore. 
A Huron war-chief, named Ktienne Annaotaha, 
whose life is described as a succession of conflicts 
and adventures, and who is said to have l)een always 
in luck, landed with a few companions and fell into 
an ambuscade of the Iroquois. He prepared to defi'iid 
himself, when they called out to him that they came 
not as enemies, but as friends, and that they brought 
wampum-belts and presents to persuade the llurons 
to forget the past, go back with them to their coun- 
try, become their adopted countrynuMi, and live with 
them as one nation. Etienne suspected treachery, 
but concealed his distrust, and advanced towards the 
Iroquois with an air of the utmost confidence. They 
received him with open arms, .uid pressed him to 
accept their invitation; but he rei)lied that there 
were older and wiser men among Lhe Hurons, whose 
counsels all the people followed, and that they ought 




to lay the i)i'(»[)()sal ])eforc them. II(! proceeded to 
advise tliein to keep him as a hosta^^e, and send over 
his eompaiiions, witli some of tlieir eiiiefs, to open 
tlie ne«,mtiatiou. His ap[)arent fraidviiess completely 
deceived tlieiii; and tlicy insisted that he himself 
shonld go to the Huron village, while his companions 
remained as hostages. He set out accordingly with 
three of the principal Irorpiois. 

When lie reached the village, he gave the whoop 
of one who ]»rings good tidings, and proclaimed with 
a lond voice that the heaits of their enemies liad 
changed; that the Iroqnois would become their coun- 
trymen :ind brothers; and that they slionld exchange 
their miseries for a life of peace and j)lenty in a fer- 
tile and pros})erous land. The whole Hunm i)opn- 
lation, full of joyful excitement, crowded about him 
and the three envoys, who were con(bicted to the 
principal lodge and feasted on the best that the vil- 
lage could sup[)ly. Etienne seized the opportunity 
to tah(^ aside four or five of the principal chiefs, and 
secretly tell them his sus[)icions that the Iroquois 
were plotting to compass their destruction under 
cover of overtures of peace; and he proposed that 
they should meet treachery witli treachery. lie then 
explained his j)lan, which was highly approved by his 
auditors, Avho besrixed liim to cliai'ire himself with the 
execution of it. Etienne now caused criei*s to pro- 
claim through the village that e\ery one should get 
ready to emigrate in a few days to the countiy of 
their new friends. The squaws began their prepara- 





.'Ceded to 
si'iid over 
to open 
1)111 pi eti.'ly 
! hiniselt" 
igly with 

le wlioop 
iiied with 
Plies had 
leir coim- 
ill a fer- 
on popn- 
Ijoiit liiiii 
[I to tlie 
t the vil- 
liefs, and 

111 under 
:)sed that 

He tlien 
ed by liis 

with the 
s to pro- 
lould get 
)untry of 


tions at once, and all was hustle and alacrity; for tlu^ 
Ilnroiis themselves were no less deceived than were 
the Iro(|Uois envoys. 

During' one or two succeedinL; days, many nu'Ssa^L,'es 
and visits jiassed hctwccn the Iluroiis and the 
Irixpiois, whose coiilicU'iice was sucii that thirty- 
seven oi" their hcst warriors at length came over in a 
body to the Union village. Ktienne's time had 
come. lie and tlu; chiefs who were in the secret 
gave the word to the Huron warriors, who, at a 
signal, raised the war-whoop, rushed upon their visi- 
tors and cut tlu'in to pieces. One of them, who 
lingered for a time, owned before he died that 
Etienne's suspicions were just, and that they had 
d(,'signcd nothing less than the massacre or capture 
of all the Ilurons. Three of tlie Iroquois, imme- 
diately before the slaughter began, had received from 
Ktieiine a warning of their danger in time to make 
their escape. The year before, he had been ca^jtured, 
with Brdbeuf and Laleinant, at the town of St. Louis, 
and had owed his life to these three warriors, to 
whom he now paid back the debt of gratitude. 
They carried tidings of what had befallen to their 
countrymen on the main-land, who, agiiast at the 
catastrophe, fled homeward in a panic. ^ 

Here was a sweet morsel of vengeance. The 

1 Itaguenoau, Relation ifrs flurons, WA, '>, 0. Le Morcier, in the 
JlhitiiiH of lfir)4, prc'stTvt'S the spi-ocli of a Huron cliii-f, in wliirli he 
speaks of tills affair, and ailils some i)artieuiars not mentioned by 
liagueneau. He gives tliirty-fuur as tlie number killed. 

/ I 





i , 


i j 

250 TIIK LAST OF THE IIURONS. [1051-50. 

mlscrios of llu; Iliiroiis were liglitccl up witli a Lriuf 
gli.'iim of joy; Init it ItclKtoved tliciu to make ji 
tiiiu'ly rctrciit fr<»iii tlicir islund beforo tho Iroquois 
ciiiiio to exact a liloody rctriliUtiou. 'I'owards spring, 
wliile tho lake was slill fro/cii, many of them escaped 
on tiie ice, whih; another party afterwards foUowed 
in canoes. A few, wlio had neither strength to walk 
nor canoes to tiansport tliem, perforce remained 
behind, and were soon massacred by the Iroquois. 
Tiie fugitives directed tlieir course to the (irand 
Manitoulin Ishmd, where tiiey remained for a sliort 
time, and tiien, to tiie nund)er of about four hundred, 
descended tiie Ottawa, and rejoined tiieir country- 
men who liad gone to Quebec tlie year before. 

Tliese united i)arties, joined from time to time by 
a few other fugitives, formed a settlement on kind 
behjnging to the Jesuits, near the southwestern 
extremity of the Isle of Orleans, immediately below 
Quebec. Here the Jesuits Imilt a fort, like that on 
Isle St. Joseph, with a chapel, and a small house for 
the missionaries, wliih; the bark dwellings of the 
Ilui'ons were clustered around the protecting ram- 
parts.^ Tools and seeds were given them, and they 
were encouraged to cultivcvte the soil. Gradually 
they rallied from their dejection, and the mission 

1 Tilt' site of the fort was the estate now known as "La Terre tin 
Fort," near the landing of the steam ferry. Jn 1850, Mr. X. II. 
Jiowen, a resident near tiie s])ot, in making some excavations, found 
a solid stone wall five feet tliitk, which, there can be little douht, 
was that of the work in question. This wall was originally crowned 
with palisailes. See Bowen, llisturical Sketch of the Isle of Orleans, 25. 


til a hr'mi 
make a 
Is sprinj^, 
n escaped 
li to walk 
le Grand 
r a short 

3 time hy 
b on land 
i\y below 
[3 that on 
house for 
fs of the 
;ing ram- 
and they 
3 mission 

La Tcrre dii 
, Mr. X. II. 
itions, foiiiul 
little doubt, 
illy crowned 
/ Orleans, 2i). 




settlement was heLciniiing to wear an appearance of 
thrift, when, in lOoO, the Irocpiois made a descent 
upon them, and carried otf a large nuiuher of captives 
under the very cannon of (Quebec, — the French not 
daiiiig to lin' upon tlie invaders, lest they should 
take reven,i,^e upon the Jesuits who were at that time 
in their country. This calamity was, four years 
after, followed by another, when the best of the 
Huron warriors, inclu(lin<f their leader, th(^ crafty 
and valiant fkienne Aimaotaha, were slain, fighting 
side by side with the French, in the desp'irato con- 
flict of the Sault.i 

The attenuated cohmy, replenished by some strag- 
gling bands of the same nation, and still nundjering 
several hundred persons, was removed to Quebec 
after the inroad in IGol), aiid lodged in a square 
enclosure of palisades close to the foi'l.^ Here they 
remained about ten years, when, the danger of the 
times having diminished, they were again removed 
to a place called '' Notre-Dame do Foy," n(nv Ste. 
Foi, three or four miles west of Quebec. Six yei'.rs 
after, when the soil was impoverished and the wood 
in the neighborhood exhausted, they again changed 
their abode, and, under the auspices of the Jesuits, 
who owned the land, settled at Old Lorette, nine 
miles from Quebec. 

^ Relation, 1000 (anonymous), 14. 

2 In a plan of Quc1)cc of 1000, tlio "Fort dcs Tlurnns" is laid 
down on a spot adjoining the north side of the jjresent Place 

VOL. II. — 17 




riiiuinioiiDt was at this time tlioir nussioiiiiry. It 
may bo rcmcmlM'n'd that ho liad profosscd special 
devotion to Our Lady of Loretto, wlio in iiis boy- 
Ijood liad eiired him, as lu^ believed, of a distressing 
mahidy.^ He liad always cherished the idea of build- 
ing a chapel in honor of her in Canada, after the 
model of the Holy House of Loretto, — which, as all 
tho world knows, is the house wh(!rein Saint Joseph 
dwelt with his virgin spouse, and which angels bore 
through the air from the Holy Land to Italy, where 
it remains an object of pilgrimage to this day. 
Chaumonot opened his plan to his brother Jesuits, 
who were delighted with it, and tho chapel was 
begun at once, not without tho intervention of 
miracle to aid in raising tho necessary funds. It 
was built of brick, like its original, of which it was 
an exact facsimile; and it stood in the centre of a 
quadrangle, the four sides of which were formed by 
tho bark dwellings of tho Ilurons, ranged with 
perfect order in straight lines. Hither came many 
pilgi'ims from Quebec and more distant settlements, 
and here Our Lady granted to her sui)pliants, says 
(^haumonot, many miraculous favors, insomuch that 
" it W(nild require an entire book to describe them all. " ^ 

1 Soc i. 11)1. 

* " Li's grace's qu'on y ohticnt par rontrcmiso <le la Mere dc Dieu 
vont juscm'au miracle. Comnie il faudroit composer un livre entier 
pour ilecrire toutes cos favours extraordinaires, je n'en rapporterai 
que deux, ayant etc temoin oculaire de I'une et propre sujet de 
I'autre."— l'ie,9o. 

The removal from Notre-Dame de Foy took place at the end of 
1073, and tlie cliapel was finished in the following year. Compare 





i\rv. It 
liis boy- 
of ])iiilcl- 
fter tlio 
'li, aa all 
t Jf)sepli 
jt'ls boro 
y, where 
liis (lay. 

ipol was 
iition of 
mds. It 
h it was 
itre of a 
)rmeil ))y 
[0(1 with 
nc many 


its, says 
\ich that 

em all. "'^ 

Ltd (Ic Diou 
livre cntier 
"c sujet de 

Ibit till* Iluroiis wi'w not dcsthuMl to remain per- 
manently even here; Un\ iu-lnrc the (iid (»f the 
century, they removed to a piiict' four miles «l:staiit, 
now ealled New Lorctte, or Indian Lorette. It was 
u wild spot, eovered with (lie primitive forest, and 
Beamed by a dee[» and tortuous ravine, wliere the St. 
Charles foams, white as a snow-drift, over tla; lilaek 
ledges, and where; the sunlii,dit sti'UL;'L,des throUL,di 
matted boughs of tiie pine and lii', to bask for brief 
moments on the natssy rocks or llasji on the hurryint^ 
waters. On a jilateail beside the torrent, aiioliier 
ehapel was built to Our Lady, and another Huron 
town sjjrang up; ami here, to this day, tlu; tourist 
linds the remnant of a lost people, harmless weavers 
of baskets and sewers of moeeasins, — the Huron 
blood fast bleaching out of them, as, with every 
generation, they mingle and fade away iu the French 
population around.' 

Vie de ChnHmiinnt witli Dabion, I\('l<i/ii>n, KiTi-T-'^, 21 ; and Ibid., 
Ih'littlim, I(i7;5-7U, 2')lt. 

' All intiTi'stiiiix account of a visit to Imlian Lorctte in 17i.'l wiU 
hu found in the ./minitil Itisliirli/iir of ("liarlevoix. Kalin, in liis 
'J'rari'ls in Xarth .(//((/-/V'/, describes its coiidition in 17I!'. St'c also 
Le Hean, Arnttuns, i. lUU, wlio, however, can hardly he regarded na 
an authurity. 

the end of 


\i * 




I , 

m V 



Iroqcois Amuition. — Irs Victims. — Tin; Fatk of the Neu- 
trals. — Tin; Eati; ok tiii; Eiuics. — The Wak with the 
Anuastes. — SuruEMACY OF THE luoyLois. 

It was woll for tlio European colonies, above all 
for those of lMi<;ian(l, tliat the wisdom of the Iroquois 
was but tlie wisdom of savages. Their sagacity is 
past denying, — it showed itself in many ways ; but 
it was not equal to a comprehension of their own 
situation and tliat of their race. (]ould they have 
read their destiny and cu]l)ed their mad ambition, 
they might have leagued with tliemselves four great 
communities of kindred lineage, to resist the encroach- 
ments of civilization and oi)pose a barrier of fire to 
the spread of the young colonies of the East. But 
their organization and tlieir intelligence were merely 
the instruments of a blind frenzy, which impelled 
them to destroy those whom they might have made 
their allies in a connnon cause. 

Of the four kindred comnumities, two at least — 
the Hurons and the Neutrals — w^re probably 
superior in numbers to the Iroquois. Either one of 





WITH Tin; 

ibove all 
gacity is 
iiys; "but 
leir own 
hey have 
our great 
of fire to 
ast. Rut 
L'e merely 
ave made 

,t least — 


er one of 

these, with union and leadershii:*, could liave held its 
ground against them, and the two united could easily 
have crippled them beyond the po^\er of doing mis- 
chief. But these so-called nations were mere a'^-cre- 
gations of villages and families, with notiiing that 
deserved to be called a government. They were 
very liable to panics, because the part attacked by an 
enemy could never rely with confidence on prompt 
succor from the rest; and when once broken, they 
could not be rallied, because they had no centre 
around which to gather. The Iroquois, on the other 
hand, had an organization with which the ideas and 
habits of several generations were interwoven; and 
they had also sagacious leaders for peace and war. 
They discussed all questions of policy with the coolest 
deliberation, and knew how to turn to profit even 
imperfections in their plan of government which 
seemed to promise only weakness and discord. 
Thus, any nation, or any large town, of their con 
federacy could make a separate war or a separate 
peace with a foreign nation, or any part of it. Some 
member of the league — as, for example, the Cayugas 
— would make a covenant of friendship with the 
enemy, and, while the infatuated victims were thus 
lulled into a delusive security, the war-parties of the 
other nations, often joined by the Cayuga warriors, 
would overwlu'lin them Ity a sudden onset. Hut it 
was not by tlieir craft, noi- by their organization, — ^ 
which for military purposes was Avretchedly foclile, 
-—that this handful of savages gained a l)lotKly 



THE destroyi-:rs. 


I; I 

t •* 


supremacy. Tliey carried all before them because 
they were animated throughout, as one man, by the 
same audacious pride and insatiable rage for con- 
quest. Like otlier Indians, they waged war on a 
plan altogether democratic, — that is, each man 
fought or not, as he saw ilt; and hey owed their 
unity and vigor of action to tlie homicidal frenzy 
that urged tliem all alike. 

The Neutral Nation had taken no part, on either 
side, in the war of cxlcrmination against the Ilurons; 
and their towns were sanctuaries where either of the 
contendin[)f parties niioht take asylum. On the other 
hand, they made fierce war on tlieir western neigh- 
bors, and a few years before destroyed, with atrocious 
cruelties, a large fortified town of the Nation of Fire.^ 

1 " Last suniiniT," writes Laleniant in 10415, " two thousand war- 
riors of tilt' Nt'utral Nation attacliod a town of the Nation of Fire, 
well fortifit'il witli a palisade, and defended by nine hundred war- 
riors. They took it after a sit'^'e of ten days; killed many on the 
spot; and made eijrjit hundred prisoners, men, women, and children. 
After burninj.; seventy of the best warriors, ihey i)ut out the eyes 
of the old men, and eut away their lii)s, and then left them to draj^ 
out a miserable existence. Heboid the scourj^e that is depopulating 
all this country !" — AV/(///"/i drs Ilnrons, 1044, 1)8. 

The Assistaeroimiiiis, Atsistaelionnons, Maseoutins, or Nation of 
Fire (more correctly, ])i'rliaps. Nation of the Prairii'), were a very 
numerous Altjoniiuin pe()i>le of the West, speakin^^ the same lan- 
guage as the Sacs and Foxes. In the map of Sanson, they are 
placed in the southern ])art of ^lichigan; and according to the 
Rflation of 1()."j8, they had thirty towns. They were a stationary, 
and in some Tueasure an agricultural, i>eople. They fled before 
their enemies to the lU'igliboriiood of Fox River in Wisconsin, 
where they long remained. l''re<iuent nu-ntion of them will be 
found in the later /illations, and in contemporary documents. 
Thev are now extinct as a tribe. 


, by the 
'or coll- 
ar on a 
I'll man 
cd their 

I frenzy 

n either 
}r of the 
he other 

II neigh- 
of Fire.^ 

usantl war- 
on of Fire, 
[idretl war- 
any on tlic 
1(1 cliilih-LMi. 
lit the eyes 
em to (lra<^ 

r Nation of 
lere a very 
e same lan- 
1, they are 
ling to the 

fled before 

LMTi will he 




Their turn was now come, and their victims found 
fit avengers; for no sooner were the llurons broken 
up and dispersed, than the Iroquois, without waiting 
to take breath, turned their fury on tlie Neutrals. 
At tlie end of the autumn of lOoO, they assaulted 
and took one of their chief towns, said to have con- 
tained at the time more than sixteen lumdred men, 
besides women and chikh-en; and early in the follow- 
ing spring they took another town. 'J^he slaughter 
was prodigious, and the victors drove back troops of 
captives for butchery or adoption. Jt was the death- 
blow of the Neutrals. They abandoned their corn- 
fields and villages in the wildest terror, and dispersed 
themselves abroad in forests which could not yield 
sustenance to such a multitude. Tliey perished by 
thousands, and from that time forth the nation ceased 
to exist. ^ 

During tAvo or three succeeding years the Iroquois 
contented themselves with harassing tlie French and 
Algonquins; but in 1G53 they made treaties of peace, 

1 Kagueneau, Relatlun, 1051, 4. In the unpuhlishetl journal 
kept by the Superior of the Jesuits at, if is said, under date 
of April, 1651, that news had just come from Montreal that in the 
preceding autumn fifteen Inmdred Iroquois had taken a Neutral 
town; that the Neutrals had afterwards attaeked them, and killed 
two hundred of their warriors ; and that twelve hundred Iroquois 
had again invaded tlie Neutral country to take their revei:ge. Lafi- 
Xan, Mijeurs des Sauv,t;ies,i\. 17(5, gives, on the autlinrity o^f Father 
Julien Gamier, a singular and improbable account of tlie origin of 
the war. 

An old chief, named Kenjockety, who elaimed descent from an 
adopted prisoner of the Neutral Nation, was recently living among 
tlie Senecas of western New York. 




/ 1 


eacli of the five nations for itself, and the colonists 
and their red allies had an interval of rest. In the 
following May, an Onondafra orator, on a peace visit 
to Montreal, said, in a speech to the (Governor, "Our 
young men will no more light the French; hut they 
are too warlike to stay at liome, and this summer we 
shall invade the country of the Eries. The earth 
trend)les and quakes in that (quarter; hut here all 
remains calm."^ Early in the autumn, Father I^e 
jMoyne, who had taken advantage of the peace to 
go on a mission to the Onondagas, returned with the 
tidings that the Iroquois were all on fire with this 
new enterprise, and were ahout to march against the 
Eries with eighteen hundred warriors. ^ 

The occasion of this new war is said to have heen 
as follows. The Eries, who it will he rememhered 
dwelt on the south of the lake named after them, had 
made a treaty of peace with the Senecas, and in the 
preceding year had sent a deputation of thirty of 
their principal men to confirm it. While they were 
in the great Seneca town, it happened that one of 
that nation was killed in a casual quarrel with an 
Erie ; wherenpon his countrymen rose in a fury and 
murdered the thirty (hqinties. Then ensued a hrisk 
war of reprisals, in which not only llie Senecas, Imt 
the other Iroquois nations, took part. The Eries 
captured a famous Onondaga chief, and were ahout 

1 Le Merc'icT, Rihu'on, 1(!"j4, 0. 

2 IbitL, 10. ].o Moyni.', in his interesting journal of his mission, 
repeateflly alludes to the;r preparations. 




III the 
iico visit 
)r, "Our 
hut they 
nnicr we 
lie earth 
here all 
ither Le 
l)eace to 
with the 
vith this 
aiiist the 

xxe been 
lem, had 
d in the 
thirty of 
liey were 
t one of 
with an 
fury and 
d a brisk 
ecas, but 
lie Eries 
re about 

lis mission, 




to burn him, when he succeeded in ci^iivinciiirr tliem 
of the wisdom of a course of conciliation; and they 
resolved to give him to the sister of one of the 
murdered deputies, to take the place of her lost 
brother. The sister, by Indian law, li;id it in her 
choice to receive him with a fi-aternal embi'ace or to 
burn him; but, though she was absent at the time, 
no one doubted that she would choose the gentler 
alternative. Accordingly, he was clothed in gay 
attire, and all the town fell to feasting in honor of 
his adoption. In the midst of the festivity the sister 
returned. To the amazement of the p]rie chiefs, she 
rejected with indignation their proffer of a new 
brother, declared that she would be revenged for her 
loss, and insisted that the prisoner should forthwith 
be burned. The chiefs remonstrated in vain, jv]nv- 
senting the danger in which such a procedure would 
involve the nation: the female fury was inexorable; 
and the unfortunate prisoner, stripped of his festal 
robes, was bound to the stake, and put to death. ^ 
He warned his tormentors with his last breath that 
they were burning not only him, Init the whole Erie 
nation, since his countrymen would take a fiery 
vengeance for his fate. His words ])roved true ; for 
no sooner was his story spread abroad among the 
Iroquois, than the confederacy resounded v/ilh war- 
songs from end to end, and the warriors took the 
field under their two great war-chiefs. Notwith- 
standing Le Moyne's report, their number, accordinrr 

1 I)e Quen, Relation, 1G5C, 30. 

I '■ 






to tlio Troquois account, did not exceed twelve 

Tlicy embarked in canoes on tlic lake. At tlieir 
approach the Eries fell l)aek, witlidrawiii^^ into llie 
forests towards the west, till tliey wei-c i^atlici-ed into 
one ])ody, when, fortifyin*,^ tlieniselvcs witli palisadis 
and felled trees, they awaited tlie a})proa(h of tlic in- 
vaders. By the lowest estimate, the Erics numbered 
two thousand warriors, l)esides women and cliildren. 
But this is the report of the Iroquois, wlio were natu- 
rally disposed to exaggerate the force of their enemies. 

Tliey approaclied tlie Erie fort, and two of tlieir 
chiefs, dressed like Frenclnnen, advanced and called 
on those within to surrender. One of them had 
lately been baptized by l^e i\Ioyne; and he shouted 
to the Eries, that, if they did not yield in time, they 
were all dead men, for the Master of I/ifc was on the 
side of the Iroquois. Tlie Eries answered with yells 
of derision. "Who is this master of yoiu- lives?" 
they cried ; " our hatchets and our right arms are the 
masters of ours." The Iroquois rushed to the assault, 


V .1 . 

1 This was tlieir statement to Cliaumonot and Dablon, at Onon- 
daga, in N()venil)er of this year. Thoy a(l(U'(l, that tlie nuinher of 
the Eries was between three and four thousand. {Jonrunl drs l'I\ 
Cltniiitumot ft Ddlilnn, in Jlddtlon, lOoO, 18.) In the narrative of Do 
Quen {/hid., 30, 31), based, of course, on Irotiuois reports, the Iro- 
quois foree is also set down at twelvi' hundred, but that of the Kries 
is reduced to l)etween two ami three tliou.sand warriors. Even this 
may safely be taken as an exaggeration. 

Though the Eries had no firearms, they used poisoned arrows 
with great elTect, discharging thcni, it is said, with surprising 


d twelve 

At tlicir 
; into tlie 
k'I'cmI into 

ol" the lu- 
ll uml)e red 

vere nutu- 
r enemies. 
t) of tlu'ir 
ind called 
them had 
e sliouted 
time, they 
vas on the 
with yells 
ir lives?" 
ns are the 
le assault, 

Ion, at Onon- 
number of 
rinil (Ics I'/\ 
•rative of Do 
arts, the Iro- 
of tlic Krios 
1. Even this 

oned arrows 
h surprishii,' 




but were met with ii shower of poisoned arrows, 
which killed and wounded many of them, and diove 
tlie rest ])ack. They waited awhile, and then 
attacked again with unal)atcd mettle. 'J'liis time, 
they carried their Ijark canoes over tlieir heads like; 
huge shields, to protect them from the storm of 
arrows; then planting them u])right, and mounting 
them by the cross-])ars like laddei-s, scaled the barri- 
cade with sucli impetuous fury that tlu; Kries were 
thrown into a panic. Those escaped who could; 
but the butcliery was frightful, and from that day 
the Eries as a nation were no more. The victors 
paid dear for their conquest. Tlieir losses wvro so 
heavy that they were forced to remain for two 
months in the Erie country, to bury their dead and 
nurse tlieir wounded. ^ 

J De (Juen, Relation, ICoO, HI. The Iroquois, it seems, afterwards 
made other expeditions, to finish tlieir work. At least, they tohl 
Chaumonot and l)abh)n, in tlie autumn of this year, that they meant 
to do so in the followint^ spring'. 

It seems, that, before attaekinjr the great fort of the Kries, the 
Iroquois liad made a iiromise to worship the ni'W (iud of the l-'rencli 
if He wouhl give tlieiii the victory. This promise, and the success 
which followed, proved of great advantage to the mission. 

Various traditions are e.xtant among the modern remnant of the 
Iroquois concerning the war with the l>ies. They agree in little 
beyond the fact of the existence and di-st ruction of that jieople. 
Indeed, Indian traditions are very rarely of any value as historical 
evidonce. One of these stories, told me some years ago bv a very 
intelligent Iroquois of the Cayuga Nation, is a striking illustration 
of Iroquois ferocity. It represents that the night after the great 
battle the forest was lighted up with more than a thousand fires, at 
each of which an Erie was burning alive. It differs from the his- 
torical accounts in making the Eries the aggressors. 



[1 650-62 . 

' > 



i. I 

i. : 


One onemy of tlicir own ruco rrniainotl, — t]\v, 
Andiistos. Tliis nation apju-ai's to liave bcon inferior 
in numbers to eitlier tlie Ilurons, the Neutrals, or 
the Erics; hut they cost their assailants more trouble 
than all these united. The Mohawks seem at first to 
have home the In-unt of the Andasti; war; and, 
between the yeais 1050 and 1000, they were so 
ronjj^hly handled l)y these stubboi'ii adversaries that 
they were reduced from the height of audacious inso- 
lence to the depths of dejection.^ The remaining 
four nations of the Iroquois league now took U{) the 
quarrel, and fared scarcely lu'tter than tlie Mohawks. 
In the si)i'ing of 1002, eight hundred of their warriors 
set out for the Andaste country to strike a decisive 
blow; but when they reached the great town of their 
enemies, they saw that they had received both aid 
and counsel from the neio'hborino- Swedish colonists. 
The town was fortified by a double palisade, flanked 
by two bastions, on which, it is said, sevei-al small 
pieces of cannon were mounted. Clearly, it was not 
to be carried by assault, as the invaders had promised 
themselves. Their only hope was in treachery; and, 
accordingly, twenty-five of their warriors gained 
entrance, on pretence of settling the terms of a 
peace. Here, again, ensued a grievous disappoint- 
ment: for the Andastes seized them all, built higli 
scaffolds visil)le from without, and tortured them to 

^ Relation, 1600, (i (anonymous). 

Tilt' Moluiwks also sullVri'd ^ivat reverses about tliis time at the 
hands of their Algonquin neighbors, tlie Mohieans. 


cd, — tlio 
11 int'erior 
utrals, or 
re tr()nl)lo 
at first to 
viir; JUid, 
y- were so 
iiii'ies tliiit 
sions inso- 
K)k 11}) the 
ir warriors 
a decisive 
All of their 
1 l)oth aid 
h', flanked 
-eral small 
it was not 
1 promised 
lerv; and, 
irs Q'ained 
;rnis of a 
milt hig-h 
m1 them tt» 




in time at tlu- 

deatli in si(,dit of their conntrvnien, who thereupon 
decamped in niiserahle discomlitnrc.^ 

The Senecas, l)v far the most immerons of the five 
Iroquois nations, now found themselves attacked in 
turn, — and this, too, at a time when tliey were full 
of despondency at the ravai^es of the small-pox. 
The French reajted a jtrolit from their misfortunes; 
for the disheartened sa vanes made them overtures of 
peace, and he^t^ed that they would settle in their 
country, teach them to fortify their towns, suitply 
them with arms and ammunition, and hring "hlack- 
rohes " to show them the road to heaven.- 

The Andaste war hecame a war of inroads and 
skirmishes, under which tin; weaker jiarty gradually 
wasted away, though it sometimes won laurels at the 
expense of its adversary. Tims, in ^iu^2, a party of 
twenty Senecas and forty Cayugas went against the 
Andastes. They wert^ at a considerahle distance the 
one from the other, the Cavuoas heintj: in advance, 
when the Senecas were set upon by about sixty 
young Andastes. of the class known as "' Burn- 
Knives," or ''Soft-Metals," because as yet they had 
taken no scalps. Indeed, they are described as mere 
boys, fifteen or sixteen years old. They killed one 
of the Senecas, captured another, and put the rest to 
flight; after which, flushed with their victory, they 
attacked the Ca3-ugas with the utmost fury, and 
routed them completely, killing eight of them, and 
wounding twice that number, who, as is reported by 
1 Lalemant, Relation, 1(30:J, 10. 2 md^^ 1004, .'53. 





the Jesuit then in tho Ciiyugii towns, came homo 
lijilf (lead witli gashes of knives and hatcliets.' " Miiy 
God i)reseive tlio AiKhistcs," cxchiinis the Fatlier, 
"and prosper tlieir arms, that the Iroquois may 1k3 
liumhled, and we and our missions kift in peace I" 
"None but they," lie elsewhere adds, "can curh tlie 
pride of the Iroquois." The only strength of the 
Andastes, however, was in their courage ; for at tliis 
time th«'y were reduced to three hundred fighting 
men, and a])out the year Vu') they were finally over- 
borne by the Senecas.^ Yet they were not wholly 
destroyed; for a remnant of this valiant people con- 
tinued to subsist, under the name of Conestogas, for 
nearly a century, until, in 1768, they were butch(>red, 
as already mentioned, by the white ruffians known 
as the "Paxton l^oys."^ 

Tlie bloody triumphs of the Iroquois were com- 
plete. Tliey had "made a solitude, and called it 
peace." All the surrounding nations of their own 
lineage were conquered and broken up, while neigli- 
1)oring Algonquin tribes wei'e suffered to exist only 
on condition of paying a yearly tribute of wampum. 
Tlie confedci'acy remained a wedge thrust between 
the growing colonies of France and England. 

But what was the state of the conquerors? Their 



1 Dablon, Urhitlon, 1072, 24. 

2 Klat Prcscvt ih'.A Mlss^ioti^, in Relatione hiedifrs, ii. 44, Tielatiaii, 
1070, 2. 'I'liis is out' of the UddtimiK priiiti'd hy Mr. Leno.x. 

■''" History of tlio Conspiracy of Tontiiic," ii. chap. xxiv. Com- 
pare Shea, iu Historical Magazine, ii. 297. 

. ! \-- 




triiimplis liful cost thorn diMr. As early as the year 
1000, a writer, evidently well-informed, reports tluit 
their entire force had heen reduced to twenty-two 
hundred warriors, while of these not more than 
twelve hundred were of tlie true Inxjuois stock. 
The rest was a medley of adopted prisoiu'rs, — 
Ilurons, Neutrals, Hries, and Indians of various 
Algoiupiin ti'ilu's.i Still, their aj^gressive spirit was 
unsuhdued. Tliese inc()rrigil)le warriors pushed 
their nnu'derous raids to Hudson's Bay, Lake 
Superior, tlie Mississip[)i, and the Tennessee; they 
were the tyrants of all the intervening wilderness: 
and they remained, for more tlian half a century, a 
terror and a scourge to the alUicted colonists of New 

1 Relation, KKIO, H, 7 (anonyninus). Lc.Tcunc says, "Their victo- 
ries liave so (lepoimlateil tiieir towns that there are more forei^Miers 
in tlieni than natives. At < Miondatxa tliere are Indians of seven 
(lilTereiit nations permanently estahlislie'l ; and, anion^' tiie Senecas, 
of no less tiian eli'ven." (Ii'ddtion, l(5o7, .'M.) These were eitliir 
a(h)])ted prisoners, or Indians who liad voluntarily joined the Iro- 
quois to save themselves from tiieir hostility. 'I'hey took no part 
in couneils, hut were expeuteil to join war-parties, tiiough they were 
usually excused from ti^^htiii^ aj^Minst their former countrymen. 
The condition of female prisoners was little hetter tlian that of 
slaves, and those to whom they were assiyned often killed them on 
the slightest pique. 

4. Rehition, 


Failuhk of tiik Jesuits. — What tiikiu Sitckss would have 


With the full of the llurons, fell the best hope of 
the Ciuuidiaii mi.ssioii. They, aiul the stable and 



ities around th 

liad b 


)opiuous eoiunmniues around iiieni, nad heen me 
rude material from Mhieh the Jesuit would have 
formed his Christian empire in the wilderness; but 
one by one these kindred peoples were uprooted and 
swept away, while the neiohl)oring Al<^onquins, to 
whom they had been a bulwark, were involved with 
them in a conniion ruin. Tlie land of promise was 
turned to a solitude and a desolation. There was 
still work in hand, it is true, — vast regions to 
explore, and countless heathens to snatch from per- 
dition ; but these for the most part were remote and 
scattered hordes, from whose conversion it was vain 
to look for the same solid and decisive results. 

In a measure, the occupation of the Jesuits was 
gone. Some of them went home, "well resolved," 
writes the Father Su2)erior, " to return to the cond)at 





at tlio first sound of tlio trum[)('t ; " • while; of Llioso 
who reiniiiruHl, about twenty in numhcr, scvenil 
Hoon foil victims to fiiniini», luinlshij*, and tho 
Iroquois. A few years more, and Canada ceased to 
1)0 a mission; political and eonniiercial interests 
gradually became ascendant, and the story of Jesuit 
l)ro[)agandisin was interwoven with her civil and 
military annals. 

Here, then, closes this wild and bloody act of tho 
great drama of New France; and now let tho curtain 
fall, while wo ponder its meaning. 

Tho cause of tho failure of tho Jesuits is obvious. 
Tho guns and tomahawks of tho Irocjuois were tho 
ruin of their ho[)es. Could they have curbed or con- 
verted those ferocious bands, it is little less than 
certain that their dream would have become a reality. 
Savages tamed — not civilized, for that was scarcely 
})ossiblo — would have bi'cn distributed in connnuni- 
tics through tho valleys of tlu; (Jreat Lakes and the 
iMississip[)i, ruled by priests in tin; interest of 
Catholicity and of France. Their habits of agricul- 
ture would have been developed, and their instincts 
of mutual slaughter repressed. Tho swift decline of 
the Indian population would have been arrested; and 
it would have been made, through the fur-trade, a 
source of prosperity to New France. Unmolested by 
Indian enemies, and fed by a rich conunerce, she 
would have put forth a vigorous growth. True to 
her far-reaching and adventurous genius, she would 

1 Lettre de Laltmant au It. /'. Pmriiiridl {/ulatioii, IG.JU, 48). 

VOL. II. — 18 



i; ) 


have occupied the AVest with traders, settlers, and 
garrisons, and cut up the virgin wihlerness into fiefs, 
while as yet the colonies of Enghind were but a weak 
and broken line along the sliore of the Atlantic; and 
wlien at last the great conflict came, England and 
Liberty would liave been confronted, not by a 
depleted antagonist, still feeble from the exhaustion 
of a starved and persecuted infanc}^ but by an 
athletic champion of the principles of Richelieu and 
of Loyola. 

Liberty may thank the Iroquois, that, by their 
insensate fury, the plans of her adversary were 
brought to nought, and a peril and a woe averted 
from her future. They ruined the trade which was 
the life-blood of New France; they stopped the 
current of her arteries, and made all her early years 
a misery and a terror. Not that they changed her 
destinies. The contest on this continent between 
Tiiberty and Absolutism was never doubtful ; but the 
triumph of the one would have been dearly bought, 
and the downfall of the other incomplete. Popula- 
tions formed in the ideas and habits of a feudal 
monarchy, and controlled l)y a hierarchy profoundly 
hostile to freedom of thought, would have remained 
a hindrance and a stumbling-l)lock in the way of that 
majestic experiment of which America is the field. 

The Jesuits saw their hopes struck down ; and 
their faith, though not shaken, was sorely tried. The 
Providence of (uxl seemed in their eyes dark and 
inexplicable; but, from the standpoint of Liberty, 



tliat Providence is clear as the sun at noc n. INIoan- 
wliile let those who have prevailed yield due honor 
to the defeated. Their virtues shine amidst the 
rubbish of error, like diamonds and gold in the gravel 
of the torrent. 

But now new scenes succeed, and other actors 
enter ontlie stage, a hardy and valiant band, moulded 
to endure and dare, — the Discoverers of the Great 







AnENAKi Indians, the, i. 4, 7 ; 

missiou of Fatlier Druillctos 

amunjf, ii. 141 ; suffer from 

Mohawk innjads, ii. 144; jw-- 

titioii fur Knglisli assistani'O, 

ii. 144. 
Al)enaki Villages, the, ii. 141. 
Abcrcronibie, ii. 35. 
Abraiiani, riains of, see Plains of 

AbHolutism, contest with liberty, 

ii. 274. 
Acadia, ii. 78. 
Adair, i. 76. 

i\goiinoiisioiiiii, the, i. 37. 
Agreskoui (Areskoui), the Iroquois 

deity, i. 73. 
Ahatsistari, Enstache, tlie Huron 

chief, ii. 30, 34. 
Ahoeiidoe (Christian Islami), ii. 

Ahrendarrhonons, the, i. 44. 
Aiguillon, Duchesse il', interest 

in the Huron Mission, i. 244; 

founds a II6tel-l)ieu at Quebec, 

i. 274, 276. 
Aillel)onst, I)', see dmlonges, Louis 

d'AilhboHst fie. 
Ailleboust, Madame d', ii. 129; 

kindness to Marie, wife of ,)can 

Baptiste, ii. 130. See also JJuu- 

lognn, Barbe de. 
Albany, city of, ii. 28, 46. 

Alegambe, ii. 34; character of 
iirc'bcnf, ii. 214, 216; character 
of Garnier, ii. 233. 

AlgoiHiuin Indians, the, vast ex- 
tent of territory of, i. 4 ; broad 
signification of tlie name, i. 4; 
densest population in \ew Kng- 
land, i. 5 ; cmnity tow;ird> the 
Iroipiois, i. 6 ; luriliinl practices 
of, i. .31 ; belief in nianitous 
and Okies, i. 63-70; .Manabozho 
the king of all animal kings 
among, i. 60 ; belief in Ataho- 
can, i. 69 ; winter life, i. 1 1 1- 
113 ; the "feast of (he dead," 
i. 157 ; war with the Dutch, ii. 
53; effect of Iro(|noi.-< hostilities 
on, ii. (V2 : (Hice nearly destmv 
thii Mohawks, ii. 97; aneient 
su])eriority over the Irni|Uiiis, 
ii. 97 ; the grand ))eac(; council, 
ii. 106-115; war witii the .Mu- 
hawks, ii. 117; disajjpearance 
of, ii. 242 ; the Mohawks make 
incessant attacks on, ii. 245 ; 
involved in a comnion ruin, ii. 

AlgniKiuin .Mission, the, f-e .lenne 
learns the diiliculties of, i. 129; 
ii. 192. 

.\lgon(piins of Gaspi', the, i. 21 ; 
fciicli-worsliip nniong, i. 66; 
ideas of aiiotlier life, i. 79. 



■ I 

!• I 

Allpffhaniefl, the, ii. 164. 

Allci^hiiuy Hiver, tlie, i. .30. 

Alloiiez, denies Imlian belief in 
!i Sii|)roine Beincf, i. 74. 

Allumette Island, i. 9, 132, 133, 
U7, 21'3; ii. 87, 98, 242., Jean, i. fi. 

Auierica, a scene of wide-spread 
revolution, i. 3. 

Aniikonas (People of the Beaver), 
tlie, i. 62. 

Ancona, i. 191. 

Andacwandet, the mystical cure, 
ii. 17.'). 

Andagaron, Mohawk town of, ii. 

Andastaeronnons, the, i. 36. 

Anila.stague/,, tlie, i. 36. 

Andastes, the, i. .') ; location and 
characteristics of, i. 36 ; syno- 
nynies of, i. 36 ; plans for convert- 
ing, i. 130 ; war with the M(j- 
hawks, ii. 117; the Ilnrons ask 
aid in war from, ii. 162; mortal 
([uarrel with the Moiiawks, ii. 
163 ; promise to aid the Ilnrons, 
ii. 163; Huron fugitives try to 
roach, ii. 240, 2.')0; the Mohawks 
first to hear the brunt of war 
with, ii. 268; receive aid fmrn 
tiie Swedish colonists, ii. 268 ; 
attack the Senecas, ii. 269 ; their 
(.nly strcngtli in tlieir courage, 
ii. 270; linally overborne hy 
the Senecas, ii. 270. 

Andaste War, the Mohawks first 
to hear the brunt of, ii. 268 ; 
becomes a war of inroads and 
skirmisiies, ii. 209. 

Andastracronnons, the, i. 36. 

Andialarocte, ii. 35. 

Ann, Cape, ii. 14,'). 

Annaotaha, Ktienne, the Huron 
war-chief, ii. 253 ; strategy of, 
il 253-256 ; death of, ii. 257. 

Anne of Austria, Qneen, receives 
Father -Idgues, ii. 56. 

Annenrais, mercy shown by the 
Ilnrons to, ii. 165. 

Annieronnons (Mohawks), the, ii. 

Anonatea, i. 185. 

Antastoui, the, i. 36. 

A(|uanu.scioni (Iroquois), the, i. 

Areskoui, the Iroquois deity, i. 73, 
170; ii. 43. 

Armouchi(|uois Indians, the, in a 
state of chronic war with tribr.'4 
of New Brunswick and Mova 
Scot '"a, i. 6. 

Arunilel, Earls of, ii. 214. 

Asberue, Mohawk town of, ii. 

A.ssistaeronnons (Nation of Fire), 
the, ii. 262. 

Ataentsic, legend of, i. 70-72. 

Atahocan, beliei among the primi- 
tive Algon(|uins in, i. 69. 

Atarouchronons, the, i. 44. 

Atirhagenrenrct.s, the, i. 33. 

Atiron'a, Jean Baptiste, ciiief, ii. 
166, 167. 

Atotarho, chief of the Onondagas, 
i. 45, 46 ; peculiar dignity always 
attached to, i. 48. 

Atsistaehonnons, the, ii. 262. 

Atticamegues (Nation of Iho 
White Fish), i. 8 ; the grand 
peace couiunl, ii. 106-112; 138, 
246, 247. 

Attignaouentans, the. i. 44, 

Attignenonghac, the, i. 44. 

Attigouantans (Ilurons), the, i. 

Attionidarons, the, i. ,33. 

Attiwandarons (Neutral Nation), 
the villages of, i. 33 ; population 
of, i. 33; extent of their terri- 
tory, i. 33 ; origin of their 




name, i. .3.3 ; synonyine3 of, i. 
.3.3; customs of, i. .34. 

Attiweudaronk, tlio, i. 33. 

Augusta, English post at, ii. 142, 

Awandoay, hospitality to tho Jes- 
uit fathers, i. 145. 

Banagiro, Mohawk town of, ii. 

Bancroft, George, i. 36. 

Bapti.ste, Jean, Christian chief of 
Sillery, ii. 101 ; murder of, ii. 

B,'irual)ites, the, i. 194. 

B.arnes, ii. 47. 

Baron, M., rol)l)ed by the Indians, 
i. 143. 

Barrc, Charlotte, ii. 24., description of Iroquois 
council-house, i. 14; Indian fun- 
eral rites, i. 166. 

Baylies, ii. 147. 

Bear Nation, the, i. 44 ; ii. 166. 

Beaune, town of, i, 191. 

Beauport, settlement of, i. 90, 

Belmont, formation of the Society 
of Notre-Dame de ^Montreal, ii. 
8; Maisonneuve refuse, to re- 
main at Quebec, ii. 19; ii. 89. 

Bernard, ii. 101. 

Bernicres, M. de, sham marri.age 
of Madame de la Peltrio to, i. 
263, 266. 

Bersi.amite Indians, the, i. 7. 

Beverly, i. 16 ; Indian feasts, i. 

Biard, Father Pierre, sun-worship 
among the Indians, i. 69 ; in 
the abortive mission of Acadia, 
i. 92 ; imposed on by tho In- 
dians, i. 117 ; ii. 78. 

Blackfoot Indians, the, ii. 60. 

Blue Mountains, the, i. 32, 33 ; ii. 


Boihart, I)u Plessis, i. 139. 

none-j)its, i. 167. 

Bonnet, Pather, ii. 1.55. 

Borgia, St. Francis, i. 130. 

Boston, i. 7; Father Druilletes 
sent to, ii. 144; his arriwil at, 
ii. 145. 

Bouillon, Godfrey de, his .spirit 
lived again in Maisonneuve, ii. 

Boulogne, Barlie de, ii, 82; mar- 
riage to D'Aillcboust, ii. 83 ; 
her vow, ii. 83; embarks for 
Canada, ii. 83. See also, Aillc- 
liiiiist, Mddiiinc (/'. 

Boulogne, Pliilipjiine de, embarks 
for Canada, ii. 83. 

Bounbjn, Sieur, ii. 119, 155. 

Hourgeoys, MargiU'ritc, ii. 17; 
sketch of, ii. 17; realized the 
fair ideal of Christian woman- 
hood, ii. 23; tiie work of con- 
version at Villeinarie, ii. 86. 

Bowen, N. II., ii. 256. 

Bradford, (ioveriKjr William, re- 
ceives P'ather Druilletes, ii. 

Brazil, i. 120. 

Breant, Pierre, i. 251. 

Brel)euf, Jean de, the number of 
Huron towns, i. 11; the Huron 
dwellings, i. 12, 13; Huron for- 
tifications, i. 16; gambling 
among the Ilurons, i. 24; Huron 
fc'ists, i. 25 ; caiinili.alism among 
the Ilurons, i. 28 ; medical 
practices of the Ilurons, i. .31 ; 
Imlian harmony and sociality, 
i. 40 ; goveriinient of the Iln- 
rons. i. 44 ; rroqiiois tradition 
of the creation, i. 71, 72; the 
journey of the dead, i. 78; 
Indian feasts, i. 83 ; at tlie Resi' 



(lenccof Xotre-Diimc ilcs An^cs, 
i. 92; arrival ut Qiiohof, i. lOH ; 
his liil)i)rs among tho Ihiruiis, i. 
108; tho lluron.s at '^lUihcr, i. 
l')5; Huron mission falln to liiu 
lot of, i. I.'}r) ; .stiuiii'S llie lliinm 
tonffuo, i. 139; joiirnoy to tiio 
Iliirons, i. 140-I4:i; arrival 
among thu lluroiis, i. I4.'J ; re- 
ception by the Iliirons, i. 14r>; 
attompts to convert tiie Ilurons, 
i. ISO, 1')! ; cure of a madman, 
i. IT).'}; tlio Dream Feast, i. ir-fj; 
Indian idea of tluinder, i. 150; 
tho drouglit and tiio cross, i. 
157; Huron elof|nencc, i. 158; 
l)eculiar Indian funeral riles, i. 
159 ; tho " feast of the dead," 
i. KiO-lO^ ; funeral games amonu; | 
tlio Ilurons, i. Ui.'S-lOt) ; sacriliee 
of Huron prisoners, i. 109; cnn- 
vcrting tho Ilurons, i. 177-1 SO; 
distinctive traits of, i. 18S ; mir- 
acles, i. 197, 198; the "infernal 
wolf," i. !207 ; tho Je.-uits im- 
peached i)y the Ilurons, i. 210; 
writes a letter of farewell t(5 Le 
Jeune, i. 212; the farewell 
feast, i. 213; narrow escapes of 
the Jesuits, 1. 215, 210; letters 
to Vitelleschi, i. 225, 238; sets 
out for the Neutral Nation, i. 
234, 235 ; Indians ])lot to kill, 
i. 230 ; sees a vision of the great 
cross, i. 230 ; return tt) Sainte 
Marie, i. 238 ; considered a 
traitor by the Indians, ii. 174; 
ii. 187; at Sainte Marie, ii. 194; 
St. Louis attaci<(!d liy the Iro- 
quois, ii. 205 ; refuses to])e, 
ii. 205 ; relics of, fouuil at St. 
Igiiace, ii. 211 ; at tl'.e stake, ii. 
212; tortured, ii. 213; death of, , 
ii. 213 ; character of. ii. 213, 214 ; 
burial of, ii. 215; his skull pre- 

served as a relic, ii. 215; hh 
desire to die for Christ, ii. 216; 
visions of, ii. 210. 
Hressani, Josepii, tattooing among 
the Ilurons, i. 20; government 
of the Ilurons, i. 44 ; thieving 
among the Indians, i. 50 ; Indian 
funeral rites, i. 106 ; tho Jesuits 
impeached l)y the Ilurons, i. 
211; narrow escapes of tho 
Jesidts, i. 215, 275; Kather 
.logiies attacked l)y the Inxpiois, 
ii. 34; name of Lake (Jeorge, 
ii. 35 ; munlcr of (ioupil by tlio 
Iroipiois, ii. 42; tlio confederates 
in a Ihish of unparalleled au- 
dacity, ii. 58 ; ordered to go up 
to the HuriMis, ii. 09; cajitured 
by the Iro(|uois, ii. 70; tortures 
of, ii. 71-73; ransomed by the 
Dutch, ii. 73; arrives at Ko- 
chelle, ii. 74 ; returns to Canad.'i, 
ii. 74; second atteiii])t to reacii 
tlio I'.urons, ii. 74 ; Do Nome's 
sensitiveness regarding the vir- 
tue of oiiedience, ii. 75; dealii 
of Do None, ii. 78 ; at Sainte 
Marie, ii. 19.3; the Ilurons defeat 
the Inxjuois, ii. 198; death of 
Father Daniel, ii. 201 ; St. Louis 
burned by the Iroipiois, ii. 200; 
])liysical weakness of Lalemant, 
li. 215; misery of the Ilurons 
on Isle St. .loseph, ii. 225 ; the 
refugees on Isle St. Josepii, ii. 
227 ; Jrocpiois attack on St. 
Jean, ii. 230; char.acter of (iiir- 
iiier. ii. 233 ; the Huron mission 
aliamloned, ii. 241 ; meeting 
with Hagueneau and his fugi- 
tives, ii. 243. 
Brest, ii. 54. 

Brittany, coast of, ii. 54. 
Brule, Ktienne, visit to the Erios, 
i. 36; murdered l)y the Indians, 



i. 144; trailitionary rcvcngo of, 
i. 18.'}, 258. 

Bullion, Madame do, ^nvfs funds 
to build a hos])itaI iit V'illciniiric, 
ii. 84; letter from .MIId, Mauco, 
ii. 84. 

"IJuni-Kiiives," the, ii. 2(59. 

Buteux, Fatlier JatMincs, ii. 31, 
34; munkT of (ioupil hy the 
Iroquois, ii. 42; e.scape of 
Fatliur Jo^^iios from the Iro- 
quois, ii. 49, .")(); Iroquois atro- 
cities ii. 65, (1(1; ii. 125, 127 ; 
visit.>> ♦^lie V'ltiou of tlio Wliitc 
Fisii, ii. 2J' ; dcatli of, ii. 248. 

California, State of, i. 17; 
uorthcrii tribes of, i. 17. 

Callii'rc, Point, ii. 24. 

Calvinists, Dutch, ii. 53. 

Canada, i. 3, 4 ; two forces bat- 
tling for the nia,><tery of, ii, 57 ; 
ceases to be a lui.ssion, ii. 273. 

Can.'ida Missions, the tiienie of 
enthusiastic discu.ssion, ii G. 

Cauidcri-oit, ii. 35. 

CajMichins, the, i. 180, 251. 

Carafa, Father Vincent, ii. 189. 

Carantoiians, the, i. 36. 

Caniyon, i. 92, 190, 221,223, 226,1 
238; ii. 189, 195. 

Carme, Henri de St. Jo.seph, i. 

Carmelites, the, i. 189, 243. 

Carolinas, the, i. 4. 

Cartier, Jac<iues, i. 3 ; description 
of houses at Montreal, i. 13, 

Carver, Captain, i. 62. 

Carver, the Friendly Society of 
the Si>irit, i. 84. 

Casgrain, the Abbe, i. 263 ; com- 
ment on the sham marri.ige of 
Madame do la Feltrio, i. 2(55 ; 
account of Mario de St. Ber- 

nard, i. 266; biograj '.T of 
Mad.'ime de i'lncarnation, i. 
269, 270; the vision of .Madame 
de I'lncarnation, i. 273 ; ii. 14 ; 
.Ma(hime de la j'eltrie deserts 
her I'rsulines, ii. 22. 

Cass, lion. Lewis, i. 2S, 65. 

Ca.ssoii, I)(jlli(T de. population of 
the JIurons, i. 1 1 ; ii. 4 ; fcirm.'i- 
tinn of the Society of Notre- 
D.'ime de .Montreal, ii. 8; conse- 
criition of .Montreal, ii, K',; 
arrival of .Maisomienve at .Mon- 
treal, ii. 2.'i. 24 ; the birth of 
Montreal, ii. 25 ; tbe infancy of 
Montreal, ii. 80; Montreal dis- 
covered liy the IriHpiois, ii. 87; 
Ireacliery of tiie llnrons, ii. ,'^,'>t ; 
dogs at \'illeni,'irie, ii. 9(» ; battle 
with the Iroquiiis, ii. 91, 92; 
eN])loit of Mai.<onneuve, ii. 93. 

Catlin, the painter, i. 224. 

Cat, >i'ation of the, see Aation of 
Ifir Cat. 

Cat Nation, Lake of tlie, i. 235. 

Cayuga Indians, tiie, i. 38, 45; 
nunil)er of :\.irriors, ii. 1 17 ; ii. 
164; efforts for jicace, ii. 166; 
ii. 262; attack tlw^ Andastes, ii. 

Chabanel, Noel, di.vtiiictive traits 
of, i. 195; joins the Huron mis- 
sion, i. 195 ; ii. \s- ; at Sainte 
INIarie, ii. 193 ; :it St. .lean, ii. 
228; at St. .Matthias, ii, 233 ; 
murder of, ii. 2.'i4 ; vow of, ii. 

Cbaieurs, Hay of, ii. 137. 

Cliambly, K'apids of, li. 71. 

Champfieur, ii. 96, lo.'i; interview 
with Kiotsaton, ii. 104. 

Champlain, Lake, ii. 34, 61, 71, 
100, 119. 

Champlain, Samuel de, i. 5; des- 
crijition of the Arniouchiquoi.s, 




i. ; at Qn('l)C(', i. S ; tlio nuiii- 
licr <if lliirnii towns, i, 1 1 ; IIm' 
lliinni dwclliii;,',-*, i. 1:.', I.'J ; 
taltdiiiii^r !iiii()ii<f tlic IIiiroiiH, i. 
'20; tli(^ lliinm wonicii, i. '2-2, 
^'1; iiiciliciil ]iracli('cs of tiic 
lliiruiis, i. .'11 ; rule of (Icscfiit 
aiiioii^ llic llni'iiiis, i. 4^; ;,'itv- 
crriiiiciil (if the lliir'jiis, i. 44 ; 
Iiuliaii SDrccrf'i'H, i, H2 ; fnrt 
liiiilt. at (^ii('l)cc liy, i. H'J ; ar- 
rival in (.iuclicc, i. lOH; the 
Huron coniilry, i. \'\'2 ; tlif 
j'lnrouH at (iiiclicc, i. i;;3 ; tiw 
Huron inis.-ion, i. l.'i") ; (icath 
of, i. 2^\ ; jioinl.s ont Muntrcal 
as jiropcr site for settlement, ii.ti. 

riiarity Island, ii. 22'2. 

riiarles, Cliief, ii. Itl.'J, 104. 

Ciiarlestown, jieiiinsnla nf, ii. 14r). 

Cliarlevoi.x, corrniition of tiie 
Ilnrons, i. 21 ; ini'ilical ipractices 
of, i. .'H ; tlio 'I'lonnoiitates, i. 
3.'i ; the Iro<|iiois name, i. .'17 ; 
pi»verninent of the Ilnrons, i. 
44; Indian SU| rstition eoneern- 
inu; animal sjiirits, i. ()2 ; tlie 
"(ireat Sjiirit," i. 67; lej^end 
of .lonskeha, i. 72; Indian ideas 
of aiini her life, i. 71* ; Indian 
fnneral rites, i. lOd; eomnient 
on MadauK! ile la I'cdtrie's sliam 
marriage, i. 2i>^) ; aeenmit of 
Madame do I'Incarnation, i. 
2C)'J • arriviil of the jiuns in 
(^nehee. i. 275; Madame de la 
Teltrie deserts her ITrsnlines, ii. 
22; Father Joi^nes by 
the Iroiiiiois, ii. .'10 ; motive of 
Father Druilletes's mission 
amoiiif the Al)onakis, ii. 141 : 
Drnilletes' second end)assy to 
New Knijjland, ii ITjI ; eliarae- 
tor of Ureheuf, ii. 214 ; visit to 
Indian Lorette, ii. 2rj'.). 

[ Chatel.ain (Chnsllain). Pierre, sent 
to th(^ Huron mission, i. 173; 
i. 21M, 210. 

Chiitilion, i. r.tO. 

("haudii'ro, tins Fall of tlio, ii. 

riiaulmer, i. 245 ; ii. 82. 

("hanmonot, Joseph Maiie, early 
life of, i. 190-r.).'J; admitted to 
tiie Jesuit novitiate, 1. l'.».'{; ein- 
hariss for Canada, i. 194; ndr- 
acies, i. I'.tG; visions oeeurriiit; 
to Hre'ltenf, i. 198; narrow es- 
cape of, i. 21.'), 210 ; " saL,M- 
Tiiito," i. 2'Ji); letters to F.ather 
Philippe Nappi, i. 221, 2.'is ; 
inti'llji^n'iice of the Indians, i. 
220 ; sets out for ihe Neutral 
N.'ition, i. 2.'i», 2'ir) ; tiie Indians 
plot- to kill, i. 2."{t> ; narrow es- 
cape of, i. ii.'i7 ; return to Saiiitc 
.Marie, i. 238, 274 ; ii. 188 ; at 
Sainte .Marie, ii. 193; sees a 
vision of Father Daniel, ii. 19.'), 
190; destruction of the Ilnrons, 
ii. 219 ; tin? refn<;ees on Isle St. 
.Iose|)h, ii. 227; nnssionary at 
< 'Id Loretre, ii. 2.")^; plan for 
chaiiid to Our Lady of Loretto, 
ii. 2r)8 ; nmnlier of thc! Irorpiois, 
ii. 200; ii. 207. 

rhanvii,'ny, M. de, i. 203 ; deatli 
of, i. 20,'). 

Chauvif^ny, Mario Madeleine de, 
see T.n J^eltrii', MiKhnnc dr. 

Cherokee Indians, the, .system of 
clanship amon^, 1. 43. 

Choctaw Indians, the, system of 
clanshi]) amonj^, i. 43, 47. 

Chomedey, Paul de, see Maison- 
III itir, Sif'itr (le. 

Christian Island, ii. 222. 

Clark, tradition of Hiawatha, i 
73 ; Indian tales, i. 80, 

Colden, i. 9. 







CnliHourii, tho, at Itotuf, i. I'J7. 

Oondf', tho gri'iit, i. '244. 

(!oii('s.s('tii;iO('S, tlin, i. 'M. 

("oiicstiij^iis ( Ainliiwti'.-'), tlio, i. Mlt ; 
niiissiK timI l»y tln^ " ruxloii 
Hoys," ii. \V,'l, a70. 

Confcilonitcs, tlio, hcc five Con- 
/'itlirnlc. Niili'iHs, till'. 

CooDor, iJiimeH KciiiiiKno, ii. .'tO, 

CoiitaiTOii, villiii^f tif, i. '2'). 

Coiiilliinl, M., i. '.)(); ii. ir).'), inC. 

Couloiigos, Lmiis <rAilli'l)()Ust (1(\ 
arrives at Villi'inario, ii, HU ; lii.-* 
iriarriaffc, ii. >*2, H.'i ; piiiharks 
for Ciuiaila, ii. H,'5 ; ,><iii'i('t'il.'< 
Moiitiiiat^ny as governor of 
QuoliCL-, ii. IM). 

Couture, (Juillaunic. ii. 31 ; al- 
tarlicd ami caiitiiroii by tlic 
Iro(iui)is, ii. .'13-4;'), 47 ; Ii('l]),s to 
procure jKsacowitli tlie lro(|Uois, 
ii. 104; rcturuoil to the Freueli, 
ii. 107 ; returns to winter anion<i; 
tlio Iroi|Uoi.-<, ii. 117. 

Crook Iniliaiis, tiio, system of 
clanship of, i. 4.'t, 47. 

Crow Indians, tiie, ii. (iO. 

Ciisick, Huron fortilications, i. Itl; 
Iroipiois tradilinn concornini: tiie 
creation, i. 71 ; Iroi|nois deities, 
i. 7.3; IroijUijis legends, i. 80. 

Daiilon, tho .Jesuit, eelehrivtion 
of the Dream Feast, i. 1,')") ; re- 
moval of tlio Hurons from 
Notre-Dame do Foy, ii. •.i")9 ; 
number (d' tlie InKiuois, ii. 200; 
ii. 267 ; bopes for the success id' 
tlie Andastes, ii. 270. 

Dabcotali Indians, the, i. .'i ; bark 
villaiijesof, i. 11 ; system of clan- 
slnp of, i. 42; ac(|nisition of 
" medicines," i. Otj ; maii;ical soci- 
eties among, i. 84 ; traditionary 
tales, i. 85 ; belief in tlie oki, i. 

\M ; funeral rites among, i. ItlG. 
See al.Ho Sitmx /in/inns, /lii\ 

Dallion, I.a Hociie, p"ptilation of 
tlie .\tii\vanilarons, i, .'l.'l ; jeal- of the llurous regarding 
Frent b trade, i. ;j,j ; visit to tiio 
Neidrals. i. 23K, 

Daniel, Fatlier Antoine, at the 
Ki'sidenco of Nuliu-D.inie des 
.\nges, i. '.»2 ; arrival at (^indiec, 
i. lo8 ; tiie Ilurons at (^neliec, 
i. 1.3,"); Huron mission fails to 
tlie lilt of, i, l.'i,') ; journey to tiie 
Hurons, i. 140-142 ; an ival 
among the Ilurons, i. 14.0 ; eslab- 
lisiies semin.'iiT for Huron (Inl- 
dren, i. 17.'); trampiil boldness 
of, i. 21t) ; reliir.i to (^mdiec, i. 
2f.(); ii. lit.") ; at St. .losepli, ii. 
r.t8; attack on St. .)use]di by 
the Iro(|Uois, ii. 1 '.»',) ; death of, ii. 
201, 2ir,. 

Dauvcrsii're, .Ic'iome de Koyer de 
la, description of, ii, .3 ; entluisi- 
astic devotee; of mystical ten- 
dencies, ii. 4; tlie video from 
Heaven, ii. 4 ; commanded to 
er'.aldisli a Ilotcd Dieii at Mon- 
treal, ii. 4; jierplexities, ii. 4; 
beli<dils vision in tin; i iinrcb of 
N(jtre-i)ame, ii. (i ; iiieetiiig willi 
(Jlier, ii. 7 ; jiroposes to found 
tliree ndigiiMis commuiiiiies at 
Montreal, ii. 7 ; tiiie to the 
island of Montreal tiaiisferred 
to, ii. 10; ap]iointe(l seigneur 
of Montreal, ii. 11 ; jiowers of, 
ii. 1 1 ; plans of, ii. II; tries to 
form the commnniiy of lio-jjital 
ntiiis, ii. 11 ; revulsion of sjiirit, 
ii. 12: success in raising money, 
ii. 1.3; meeting witji Mile. 
Mance, ii. 15; a senseless en- 
thusiast, ii. 8") ; sick and bank- 
rupt, ii. l.")4. 





DavoHt, Futhor, at tlio lU'sidcnco 
of Ntttr<>-I)!iiiio (lo9 Allien, i. 
U2; arrival at (iialicc, i. lOH ; 
tlio Hiir<>ii> ai (^iiflifc, i. i;»r); 
Huron inisHion fallH to tlio lot 
«)f, i. l.'ir) ; journey to the 
Unrolls, i. 140-142; arrival 
lUiionj^ tlio llnroiiH, i. Uf); cs- 
talilislicH scininary for llnroii 
I'liijilri'ii, i. ITT), 

Di'lawaro Imliaiis, tlio, tradition 
coiiccrniiif; I lie crcalioii, i. 12. 

I)f (^iicn, sec (^iiiii, he 

Di'S Ciiiitclrtt, M.. ii. 155, 15G. 

Detroit, iiity of, ii. 252. 

Detroit Kiver, I lie, i, 5. 

Diamond, Cape, i. H», 103. 

Dieskan, ii. .'Jti. 

Diiiet, Katlier, i. 21^. 

Dioiiondadie.s (Tobacco Nation), 
tlie. i, .■J2. 

Doctor, Indian, i. 211, Rl. 

Donarl, .lae(|ii('s, killed hy the 
Indiaii.><, ii. 17U. 

Drake, ii. 147. 

Dream, the, i. 80; descriji- 
tion of, i. 154, 155. 

Driiillete.s, Fattier (iaiiriel, sct.s 
out on e.\ciir>ion among the 
Montagnais, ii. 138; ou the 
Keiinoliec, ii. 141 ; his mission 
among liie Aheiiakis, ii. 141 ; 
goes to (.^ui'iiec, ii. 14.'1 ; sent to 
Huston, ii. 14.'i; receives a warm 
welcoino from -lolin Wiii.slow, 
ii. 145; arrival at Boston, ii. 
145 ; receives a hearty welcome 
from I'-dward (iilihoiis, ii. 146; 
received hy (iovernor Dmlley, 
ii. 146; proceeds to Plymouth, 
ii. 147 ; received hy dovernor 
Bradi'(»r(l, ii. 147 ; entertained 
by John Eliot, ii. 147; exalted 
impression of Miissachnsetts, ii. 
148; return to Ciiieliec, ii. 150; 

again sent to Now KngLind, ii, 


Dn ( 'hestioaii, tile Iroipmis popu- 
lation, i. (ill. 

Du t'reiix, i. 8'J, l.');i; Indian 
funeral rites, i. itiil; Jlre.s.sani 
among the Inxiiiois, ii. 74 ; 
death of Father Daniel, ii. 201. 

Dudley, (joveriior 'riioiiias, re- 
ceives Father Driiilletes, ii. 146. 

Du I'eroii, Father Francois, i. 
202; narrow eseapo of, i. 215, 
216; journey to the niis-'ion-, i. 218-220; letter to his 
hrother, i. 221 ; converts at 
Ossossani', i. 22'1 ; fiillilnieiit of 
Maisoiineuve's vow, ii. 81. 

Du I'eroii, .Fo.sepli-Imliert, letter 
from his lirother, i. 221. 'Terrace, i. 8'J. 

Du Hoclier, ii. 61. 

Dutch, the, ii. 27, 37; at F<irt 
Orange, ii. 46, 47 ; relations 
with the Mohawks, ii. 47 ; at 
Manhattan, ii. 53; war with 
the AlgoiKiiiins, ii. 53; ransom 
Bres.sani from the Indians, ii. 73. 

Kakins, D. a., clan divisions of 

the Creeks, i. 47. 
Eastman, Mrs., legeii. of the 

Sioux (Dahcotah), i 86. 
Kkaentoton (Isle Sainte Marie), 

ii. 220. 
Ekarenniondi (St. Matthias), ii. 

Eliot, John, i. 6 ; entertains Father 

Druilletes, ii. 147 ; his mission 

at Xatiek, ii. 147. 
Endicott, John, ii. 148. 
England, the Iroquois confederacy 

a wedge between the colonies 

of France and, ii. 270. 
Eughien, Due d' (the Great 

Coude), i. 244. 




Mii^lisli civiliziitioii, effect on tlic 

lii'li.'iiiM *if, i. I'M. 
KrU', 1-iikc, i. T), ;t;», ;i5, 234, 2;»r) ; 

ii. •.»:', -ji'i, 

Kricliminiii, the, i. .'tr). 

Lriu ImliiiiiH, tlio, i. f) ; luciitinn 
uihI (•liuriittcristicM of, i. .'1 J ; 
loti^ u tei'i'iir Id tli(t Iriii|ii(jir<, i. 
y.) ; H}iuiiiviii('.H of, i. .'jr) ; tliu 
Jf'siiitM never liail a uiissinii 
UllllMl;,^ i. .".,■> ; vi.-^ited hy Mnili', i. 
'M ; plans fur cuiisfrtin;,', i. 
I.'ID; lliiniM fiii,Mti\es iimnm;, ii. 
ii')!) ; till! IriM|ii(iis make war 
ugiiiiiHt, ii. '2M ; iiiaki- ii treatv 

of peai'C with the Seliecas, ii. 
2(J4 ; cause of the InKjiioIs war, 
ii. lidfi ; traditions of the war 
with tiie Iro(|ii()is, ii. '2i'>' ; exist 
III) more as a mil ion, ii. 2(J7. 

Kri^as, the, i. ;i,'i. 

F.tarita (St. .lean), ii. 1.'28. 

Etehemins, tlio, i. 7. 

Ktionoiitate.s, tiie, i. .')2. 

FAii.r.os, tiie Al.he', i. ii47, 24S, 2.'>;t, 
'2h(') ; ii. 4, T), 7 ; inimenst' ini- 
])ortaiiee of tlie \\ritini;s of, ii. 
8; ii. \2, l.'i, 14, Ifi, 17, 18. 21, 
24, CO, 82, 84, 8,), 8(J, DO, 'J4, 
l.VJ. 187. 

Failh Islaml, ii. 222. 

Falmouth (I'ln^land), ii. :'>■'!. 

Faiicum|), IJamn (h-, ii. 4, 8; title 
to tiie island of Montreal trans- 
ferred to, ii. 10. 

Farihault, G. B., ii. 21. 

Feast of the Deiel, the, i. 34, 4.3 ; 
deseription of, i. Iti0-1()2. 

Feasts, Indian, i. 8.'J. 

Feriand, the Al>he', i. DO, 247, 
258; ii. 7, 1.5, 21, .'H, 148, I'A), 
l.W, 1 ;■)(>. 

Festtiis it mmii/ir tuiit, i. 20, 29. 

Fetieh-worsliip, Indian, i. GG. 

Fire, Nation of, see Xntinn <;/' Fire, 
ii. 202 . 

Five ('onfedennte Nafioii.i, tlio, i. 
4; the Tiiscaroras join, i. ft', 
trne naine.H of, i. 'AH ; invtholo^- 
ii al deities of, i. 72, 7;J ; in a 
thisli of iinparalh led andacity, 
ii. rjs ; not re|ireseiited at the 
f;reat pcaee eoiiiicil, ii. 110; rul- 
ini,' jiassioii of, ii. l.''»7. 

I''U'ini.-<h l!a.>tanl, the, ii. 240. 

Fluriilian trilies, the, fnneral rites 
anionj^, i. 100. 

Fontarahie, ii. 247; de;ith of, ii. 248. 

" Fort dos llurons," the, ii. 2.')7. 

Four Colonies, the, ( "omiuis.sionor8 
■>(, ii. \'}0. 

Fo.\ Itiver, ii. 202. 

Franee sends reinffircetneiits to tlio 
missions of the forests, i. 172; 
the Iroi|Uois confederacy a 
wt'dire lietweon the eolonicH of 
I'.ni,'iaiid and, ii. 270. 

Fianeiscans, the, i. 4.'{, 2.'J1, 

Fremiti, Father, ii. 2')(). 

French, tlie, traile with tlio 
linroiis, i. .'$.'), I.'U ; the Ii^Kpiois 
War, ii. ;")',» ; war with tho 
Moliawks, ii. I17,l.'4."); nap a 
profit, from the misfortniies of 
tiie .^cneciis, ii. 20'.). 

FiM indi eivili/atioii, effect on the 
Indians of, i. I. 'II. 

French Hiver, the, i. 02, 1.32, U.'J. 

" Fresii .Sea,'" tiie threat, i. 132, 

Friendly Society of the Spirit, the, 
i. .^4. 

Funeral rites, i. l.'i'.). 

Fur-tra(ler.s, the worst of colonists, 
ii. 14'.». 

(JAM-Ai'iN, erroneous location of 
tho Andasles, i. 30; cruelty 
among the Indians, ii. 67. 



:f I 

Gamache, Mar(|uis do, i. 2f.O. 

Gamiuiig.'irad, Seneca towu of, 
ii. 250. 

Oaiipffinaga, Mohawk town of, 
ii. :i'.). 

Ganowauga, Mohawk town of, 
ii. 39. 

Gamier, Father ChaHcs, i. 1.52; 
sont to the IIurDU mission, i. 
175 ; distinctive traits of, i. 188, 
18',); letters of, i. 189; family 
of, i. 190 ; tlio fort at Ossossant'^, 
i. 200; the -."tiier powers, i. 
20.'3 ; I?r('l)('uf's farewell letter 
to Le J(;une, i. 21.'") ; narrow 
escapes of tlie Jcsnits, i. 215, 
216; methods of conversion, i. 
224; new and ju'rilons mis.sion 
of the Tohacco Nation falls to, 
i. 2.'52 ; reception hy the Indians, 
i. 2,'{."} ; ii. 188; at Sainte Marie, 
ii. 194 ; the refngees on Isle 
St. Joseph, ii. 227 ; at St. Jean, 
ii. 228 ; mnrdered hy the Iro- 
quoi.s, i. 197 ; ii. 2.30; his hoily 
found and l)uried, ii. 2.')2 ; char- 
acter of, ii. 2.S2 ; his devotion to 
the mission, ii. 2.'}2. 

Gamier, Father Julien, i. 45 ; ii. 

Garreau, the Jesnit, at St. Mat- 
thias, ii. 187, 228; exposed to 
dangers, ii. 235 ; death of, ii. 

Gaspe, i. 121. 

(ienesee Kivor, the, i. 5, 35, 36. 

George, Lake, ii. 34, 35, 119, 

Getn-gian Bay, of Lake Ilnron, i. 
132, 143; ii. 184, 241. 

Gnibons, Edward, ii. 145; hearty 
welcome to Father Drnilletes, 
li. 146. 

Giffard, M., seignenr of Beaiiport, 
i. 90; 247; ii. 155. 

Gilbert, Father, emharks for the 

New World, i. 101. 
Glocester, Bay of, ii. 184. 
Godefroy, Jean Paul, sent to New 

England from (iuel)ec, ii. 150. 
Godefroy, Thomas, captured by 

the Irofjuois, ii. 59. 
Gory, Jean, ii. 20, 21. 
Gonpil, IJene, ii. 31 ; captureil i)y 

the Irocpiois, ii. 32-40; mnr- 
dered by the Inxjuois, ii. 41. 
Gt)yogouin3 (Cayugas), the, ii. 

Graham's Point, ii. 252. 
Grand C<Mincil of Venice, the, i. 

Grand ]\Ianitoulin Island, ii. 192, 

220, 240, 256. 
Gravier, Father, i. 76. 
Great Ilai'c, the, i. 66 ; account of, 

i. 67. 
Great Lakes, the, i. 37; ii. 192, 

"(ireat Spirit," the, i. 67; dilli- 

cnlty of early missionaries in 

expressing, i. 75. 
Green Bay of Lake Michigan, i. 

5, 258; ii. 251. 
Greenlialgh, Wentworth, corru])- 

tion of the ITujons, i. 21 ; the 

Troipiois popnlation, i. 60; nnm- 

her of Iroquois warriors, ii. 117. 
Gregory the Great, Pope, i. 250. 
Greion, the Jesuit, at St. Matthias, 

ii. 228 ; exposed to dangers, 

ii. 235. 
Guyandot, the, i. 9. 
Guyard, Marie, see Incarnation, 

Madame de V. 

IIache, I^ohert, ii. 155. 
Harvard College, i. 260. 
Ilasanoanda, i. 45. 
Hawenniio, Iroquois name for God, 
i. 73. 



Ilnzarfl, ii. 144, I'll, 102. 

llcad-riiTcpr, tlic, i. 7'.». 

Ilf'liiTt, .M., i. 24") ; ii. ITiG. 

Ih'licrt, Madanic, i. '.)(), 102, 103. 

Hefk('\v('lil(!r, i. Til. 

Ileiin- IV. ;)f Fiance, ii. IK). 

Ilcrtcl, Jaciiucs, i. 2.58. 

lliawatlia, tiie duity of the Five 
Nations, i. 73; tradition of, i. 

" liii'iwoyos, Lake of," ii. .36. 

Holland, iierotirs of, ii. 11. 

IIo])C Island, ii. 222. 

" Ilorioon," ii. .30. 

" lloritoni," ii. .30. 

" oricoui," ii. .30. 

Ilotcl-Dioii at Quel)ec, i. 11)2, 270; 
ii. 21.5. 

IIowp, Lord, ii. .35. 

IIikLsou's Bay, i. 4, 7 ; ii. 271. 

IIud,-<oii Kiver, the, i. 5, 30 ; ii. 71, 

IIn>nienotP, the, ii. 149. 

Hundred As.'^ociates, the, rei|uire- 
nuMit.s of tiie rhartor of, i. 247 ; 
nnalilo to carry out tlio con- 
ditions, i. 24S ; fur-trado of, i. 
249 ; the Jesuits rely chiefly on, 
i. 249; transfer tifie to the 
island of ^Fonfreal, li. 10; Mai- 
sonneuvi; Imm'ouios soldier-ijov- 
ernor of, ii. II; cnnseci'ate 
Montreal to the Holy Family, 
ii. It); transfer their inono])(.ly 
of the fur-ti'ade to the inhahit - 
ants of (,)uebec, ii. l.^l; ii. ISS. 

Huron riinrch, the, ii 171-1S,3. 

Huron Indians, the, towns of, i. 
5 ; synonyiues of, i. 9 ; ancient 
country of, i. 10; the Jesuits 
make an enuineraiion of the 
villages, dwellinijs, and familii s 
of, i. 10; construction of the 
towns of, i. 1 1 ; estimated pop- 
ulation of, i. 11 ; (k.,criptiou of 
VOL. II. — lU 

dwellinsrs of, i. 11-1.3; de.scrifv 
tion of fortitiiMJ towns of, i. 1.5; 
haliits of, i. 10 ; fudd df, i, lo ; 
arts of life anions^, i. 17; dres,s 
of, i. 19; female life amonj;;, i, 
20-23; inarriai^^e customs, i. 21 ; 
tratho of, i. 2.3; their festa! 
season, i. 24 ; piuililing anionu', 
i. 24 ; their fea>ts and dances, i. 
2:5 ; their ludiuious festivals, i. 
27 ; songs of, i. 1^7 ; cannihalism 
among, i. 2S ; cure of disease, 
i. 2"* ; sn]ierstitious belief con- 
cerning disease and death, i. 29, 
.30; medical practices of, i. 31; 
war with the Iroquoi.s, i. 34; 
trade with tlu' French, i. 35, 134 ; 
class distinctions amoncr, i. 40; 
rule of descent among, i. 42 ; 
cease to exist as a nation, i. 43; 
a confederacy of four distinct 
contiguotis nation."*, i. 43; gov- 
ernment of, i. 43, 222 ; death. 
]ienalties among, i. 5,5; noto- 
rious thieve.s, i. 55 ; primitive 
i/elief in immortality, i. 7"' ; the 
journey of the dead, i. 77 ; ideas 
of another life, i. 78; he'ief in 
dreams, i. 80; sorcerers, i. 81 ; 
feasts, i. 83 ; traditionary tales, 
i. 84, 85 ; pojjulous villages of, 
1. 1.32 ; at (^'K'hec, i. 1.3.3; act'ejit 
the mission, i. i;;o ; nreheuf's 
arrival among, i. 143 ; live in 
constant fear (if tlie Iroijuois, i. 
149 ; BnHieuf'.s attempts to con- 
vert, i. 150, 151 ; winter the 
season of festivity among, i. 152 ; 
rites of sepulture among, i. 1.59 ; 
the " feast of the dead," i. 100- 
102 ; funeral games of, i. i03- 
100; pretended kindness to pris- 
oners, i. lOS ; small-pox among, 
i. IT'i; sc-ircity of game among, 
i. 177; religious terror of, i. 



20") ; porsomtiDii nf tlH> .Tc 
i. 205-21: 



victoru'S ()\cr i\v 


22J-! ; 


inetliods o 

convci'siiiii jiractiscil aiuoii!^, i. 
2r)4 ; tradiiii;^, ii. 2'.> ; IJrcrtSiuii 
onl(M'oil to f^o ii|i 1(1, ii. (V.) ; 
treaclicrv of. ii. 8X ; tiic irrainl 


luiicil, ii. 1(!()-1 1 ") ; oiil- 

llll.'lllnT till 


ii. i; 

fir,>^t iiicctinu; of v.hitc incn will 
ii. li'jS ; I-'orimin .sniil 

cs on, 11. 

151); (U'fcilril ljy trcaclicrv, ii. 
1(')1 ; rfitaiialioii of, ii. H'i-2 ; h'vl 




s on tho fdo-c (jf ruin, 

a-K aiu m war 




Amia.sU'.s, ii. lt')2 ; tiio Andastos 
pn/iiiiso aid to, ii. KJ.'J ; fajjtnre 
of attafkini;; ( tnonda,:;as, ii. IC)5 ; 
mercy sliown to, ii. 1()5; ('a,i;cr 
lor i)eace, ii. Ititj ; end id' ne- 
gotiations wiih the ( )noiidai;'as, 
ii 170; become traclai)li', ii. 
171 ; resistance a^i;;aiiist liaptism, 
ii. 172, 17;{; murder and atone- 
ment, ii. 17()-18.'J; tradini;' i;t 
Tiiree Kivcis, ii. 197; attaidi 
and defeat the Iroquoirf, ii. 198; 
the Ir(i(|Uois on the war-path for, 
ii. 203 ; try tu defend St. Louis 
ai;;iinst tiie Iro(|nois, ii. 205; 
repnlsothc lro'|Uois from Saintc 
Marie, ii. 20ij, 207 ; valiant de- 
feiic(> of Si:. Louis, ii. 20S ; fatu- 
ity, not c<)wardice, tiie ruin of, 
ii. 208; death-knell of, ii. 218; 
cease to e.xi.'t as a nation, ii. 
219 ; form a .'- Jttlement on Isle 
St. Jose])li, ii. 221-224; misery 
of, ii. 225 ; tlie .Jesuits decide tu 
hrini^ to Quebec the remnant of, 
ii. 241 ; destroyed by famine ami 
disease, ii. 249 : scttl(> on tlie 
Island of MichiliinacUinac, ii. 
251 ; ([uarrol with the Sioux, ii. 
251 ; migi\.Liou8 of, ii. 252 ; re- 

moval from Xotre-Damc do Foy, 
ii. 259 ; Huron blood fast hleacli- 
in;;- out from, ii. 259 ; superior 
to tlie Ir(jiiuois in numbers, ii. 

lo |iarc 


2(iO ; tlie Neutrals take i 

a'Minst, 11. 


liest ho 

the Canadian mission fell \vith. 

IIuron-Iro(|uois Family, tlie, full- 
est developments of Indian ciiar- 
acter to lie found in, i. .'51 ; si/o 

>{ tiieir brains, i. .'}2. 




ike, 1. ;>, 

10, .'32,62, is;?. 

200, 2:il ; ii. 114, 19i 

.'00, 218. 



Unroll Mission, tlie, plans for, i. 
129 ; falls to the lot of Hr/beiif. 




Davost, i. l.'J5 


cci)ieil by tlie Indians, i. l.'JC) ; 
house built l\)r, i. 14tj ; descrip- 
tion of iiouse, i. 147 ; Indian 
Uiiests at, i. 147-149; France 
«ends reiiiforceiueiits to, i. 172; 
enthusiasm for, i. 1 7.'S ; sickness 
at, i. 175: tiie work of comcr- 
sioii, i. 177-180; the Imni])- 
backcd sorcerer, i. 180-184; ro- 
newed efforts of tlie .[t,suit 
Fathers, i. 184, 185; covert 
ba])lis;ns, i. 185. 186; daily life 
at, i. 19i) ; miracles, i. 19(), 197 ; 
fervtirs for, i. 24.'> ; in a state of 
destitution, ii. .'U) ; harvest of 
converts, ii. 171 ; abaudoued, ii. 
Hutchinson, ii. 144, 151. 

loNACK, Father, ii. 142. 
Ij^iiatius, St., i. 130; of, i. 

136 ; 155, 179, 196; ii. 155. 
Uionatiria, Huron town of, i N 4, 

14<J, 155, 160, 175. 184, 205, 226, 

Illinois Indi.'iii:-. the, i. 4 ; ii. :^51 
lUinui.s, State of, i. 4. 




Iinniac'ulatr' roiicojition, the, now 
mission of, i. -200 ; doctrine of, i. 
:iUO ; tile new mission Imnsc, i. 
2ul ; the first liapti^m, i. 202 ; 
tiie netlii r jiowers. i. iio.i ; pcr- 
scciition of liie fatliers in- l!ie 
ilunms, i. J()4-217 ; narrow es- 
e;ii;es, i. I'l"). 
Incarnation, .Marie lie 1', i. 2t;.'), 
2{')\ ; clio.-en Sn];eriorof tlie iirw 
convent at (,>uel)ec, i. 2i)7 ; sl^etcli 
of, i. :i(;7 ; iiorlrait of, i. :jti7 ; 
mystical niarriau,-e with Clirisr, 
i. 2()S ; ])Uijiis of, i. 2ij'.l ; lic- 
coines a jirey to (k'jection, i. 
270; nnrelcntinL;' in everv prac- 
tice of liuniiliai inn, i. 270 ; ini- 
lunreil witiiilie I'r.-nHnes, i,27I ; 
receives lier lirst " vocatinii " to 
(anaiia from hea\eii, i, 27"2 : em- 
harl<s for Canaiia, i. 274; ar- 
rival at <,)iichee, i. 1275 ; instrncts 
the Indian children, i. 27s ; ditji- 
ciilties of her jxisitioii, i. 27S ; 
reputation of saintship ;ii Inched 

to, 1. 2('.l ; death of, i. 

•0 ; vi- 

ion of, ii. 14 ; the lro:ptois W 
ii. (10 ; deaMi of l)e None' 
ii. 101 ; 
over ids 

suspu'ions o 

n. ,s 
inihii-ncc of ( 'nntui't 
captors, ii. 104 ; tla 
peace ci unci!, ii. 1 10 
ilic Mohawks to- 

ward Fai 

iicr .)ol;'I1( 

ii. 1:22 

murder of l'isi<arct, ii. 12S ; tlie 
adventures of ]\lai'ie, wife of 
Jean liajiiiste, ii. l.",2 ; (h ath of 
Fatlier I)aniel, ii. 201 ; ])liysica] 
weakness (jf l.ahniant, ii. 21"); 
relics of tl 

le maitvi's, ii. 2K 

ndiana, State- oL i. 4. 

Indian I.oret! 

e, II. 2.')',t ; visit to, ii. 

2'y.> ; condition of, ii. 2r)'.t. 
Indians, tlie, miital>le as tlie wind. 

1. 3; thor 
Jhiritan, i. 

lis 111 i i 

)f II 

scope of the .Icisuit labor, i. ; 
tile lici't sy of iicresie.s phuit(!d 
anion;;-, i. 0; confusion of tribal 
naims anion:;-, i. '.) ; social or'-an- 
izaiion, h.'i.s ; docile ac(puescenco 
to the early mis.^ionaries, i. .'i8 ; 
tin ir .self-control, i. ,'i9 ; their 
code of courtesy, i. .'?'.» ; charitv 
and hospitality of, i. ,'j',) ; their 
social (lis]iosii i(jn, i. 40 ; snhdi- 
vision of the irilies, i. 41 ; clan 
names ;ind emlilems, i. -' I ; their 
laws of descent and inheritance, 
i. 41-4.'i; anoniahms and con- 
tr.adictoi'y rclii;-ious In lief of, i. 
*)() ; pantheism of, i. til : siiper- 
>tilion concernini;- animal spirits, 
i. tj2 ; manitous ami ol.ics, i. (1,'{- 
<).">; the e-nardian maniioii, i. (■).") ; 
their "medicine," i. fit'. ; Mana- 
hozho, i. (;c, ; early tradhions 
conceriiiii,!;- tia; crealion. i. (11), 
7o-7.'{ ; the loss of ininiortalil V 
tinioiiL;-, i. O'.l : Mor.-hip id' the 
Sun, i. (ill ; ]iriniiti\c iiiea n( ;; 
Supreme ladiii;-, i. 74 ; ]iriin- 
i!i\e helief in immortality, i. 
7() : the joiiri:ey (jf the dead, 
i. 77 ; ideas (d' tiiioi her li;'e, i. 
7"-^ ; I," lief ill diTanis, i. ;■() ; soi - 

cerers, i. 81 : traditionarv tal 

1. S4, S; 

) ; .-nmmarv ot tlie n 


)f, i. S7 

ascriht nn-ste- 

rioiisand supi-rnatural jiowersto 

the iiisaiK.' 

1. 11:4 

contrast ui 

tlie effect of Siianish, I-hiulisl 



■.ich civili/atioii upon, i. 
I'll ; idea of the nature of thun- 
der, i. l,")!) : dislike of a heard, i. 
'224 ; the .Jesuits propose int(,'r- 
niarriai^e with, i. 22(', ; rclal 
with the Dutch, ii. 47 : spasmo- 
dic cotiraL!'!' of. ii. t'2 ; wcakenec! 
hv internal li-htimr, ii. l.')7 ; 


not \, iiliin tla- honor iiinoni;-, ii. IGli. 



Iroquois Counc'il-lionso, ('i|)- 
tioM anil |ilan of, i. 14. 

Injqiiois Imlians, the, oxtcnt <>f 
torritory of, i. 4 ; oiiiiiity njwanl 
the Al'^oiKiuins, i. G ; foar of, i. 
8; lioiisrs of, I. l.'J; forts of, i. 
1.5; (amiilialisni atnon<^, i. li'^ ; 
warwitli tlit; Ilurons, i. .'M ; wo- 
iiKMi oflcii Imriii'il liy, i. .'!4 ; tlio 
lii'ics lout:- a terror to, i. .'if) ; tlio 
Indian of Indians, i. .'3<j ; advan- 
t'.i^^cous location of, 1. ;it) ; ciiar- 
act eristics of, i. '57 ; tlieir tra- 
ditions, i. .'57 ; tlioir orf^ani/.ation 
and liisiitry, i. .'J7 ; nieaniiifj; nf 
tlio nanio, i. 37 ; class distinc- 
tiims anions, i. 40; consiiicunus 
in history, i. 44 ; origin of, i. 45 ; 
division into (ivo distinct nations, 
i. 4."); the Ifasiiie of, i. 4,"); di- 
vi.Mun intf) ( i'j,-lit clans, i. 40; 
rcniarka!il(^ analogies hptweon 
clan-;|ii|i of other trilies ami, i. 
4() ; (dan ilistinclions ainong, i. 
47; organization of, i. 47, 4^; 
councils and sacdienis, i. 4'.) , tin; 
"senate " described, i. 4'.t ; the 
groat council, i. "K), .")1 ; savage 
pnliticians, i. ."i.'J ; |iunislinient of 
crime, i. .')4-r)<) ; military organ- 
ization, i. .')<■>; lived in st;ito of 
chronic warfare, i. .")7 ; in.-t'iia- 
rahly wedded to institutions and 
traditions, i. r)S ; s])irit of tlio con- 
federacy, i. ;")'.» ; at the height of 
their ]iros]i('rity, i. t'lO ; tiieir 
iinmliers, i. (10; tradition con- j 
oerning- hoavon and the croation, ! 
i. 70; mytholiigical deities of,' 
i. 7:2-7.'5 ; iirimiiive idea of a 
Supreme lieing, i. 74 ; ])rimirivo 
belief in immoitali'.y, i- 7('i ; tlie 
journey of tiiedead. i. 77 ; ideas 
of another life, i. 7S ; helief in 
dreams, i. l-U ; sorcerers, i. 81 ; | 

feasts, j. 8.3 ; traditionary talf-s, 5. 
84,8,'); the Ilurons live in coii- 
.stant fear of, i. 14'J ; funeral 
g.anics among, i. lfj.3; Huron 
victories over, i. 228 ; retaliation 
on the colonists, ii. 9 ; sujiijlied 
with arms hy l)iit(di traders, ii. 
27; attacd-: and capfuro Father 
.Joguos' party, ii. .'52-4;") ; run- 
ning the gantlet, ii. .'57 ; Father 
Jogues' esca]M( from, ii. 49-.') 2 ; 
haitling for the luixstcry of 
Canada, ii. .^7 ; attack Fort 
liicludieu, ii. Gl ; effect of tiieir 
hostilities on the A]goni|uin 
trihes, ii. 62 ; canniijalism 
among, ii. (U ; " tlie scourge of 
tliis infant chnrcdi," ii. C9 ; cap- 
ture liressani, ii. 70 ; attacks on 
the French near Villemarie, ii. 
88; hattle with Maisoiinouxc, ii. 
91 ; not always fortunate in war, 
ii. 97 ; ancient su]ieriority of the 
.(Mgonqr.ins over, ii. 97 ; the 
gr.and ]ieac(!C()uncil, ii. 10()-11.'); 
le Fremdi 

airaiii at war will 

and tlie Algonqiiins, ii. 127; 
ferocity of, ii. 129: rovengo of 
jirisoners upon, ii. 133-1.'JG ; 
iiring Canada to oxtrcmity, ii. 
141; outiiumhereil hy the Ilu- 
rons, ii. 1")^ ; make use of treach- 
ery, ii. 1C)0: defeated liy the Ilu- 
rons, ii. 198; attack and destroy 
St. Joseph, ii. 199-201 ; burn 
St. Louis, ii. 202: on the war- 
])ath for the Ilurons, ii. 20.3; 
atta(dv St. Ignace, ii. 20.3; re- 
juilsed from Sainto ^larie tiy 
the Ilurons, ii. 200-207; hurn 
St. Tgnaco, ii. 20!) : attack the 
Tobacco missions, ii. 228 ; nttind^ 
the mission of St. Jean, ii. 229, 
2.30 ; Isle St. Joseph invest "d 
with, ii 2 !7 ; slaughter the fiigi- 




tives from Isle St. Josciili, ii. 
1>.'J8 ; (lariiia; of, ii. ^ I.". ; rcvi'iiui' 

f i: 



tieiine AiiiKi;)t:ili;i on, n. 


;\'.;ii''K V 

(icMivitit^, ii. 2t)0 ; two enimi 


iiities sii])eno 

r ill iiinnlH'rs U> 

ii. •2(iU ; strung' nr^iuii/.iUiDii ol, 
ii. 2(i\ ; their iiisiitiahie r.a!;c fi'r 
coiHinest, ii. 2i'i-_> ; liirii their 

inrv oil t!u' .\eu;r;il 

ii. li'Wi 

ori^Mii 1)1 tlie war 
treat ie.-* of j.eai'e 
war aiz' the 

ii. Jii.'i ; iiial 

■jiV'', : make 


causo <il the war, ii. ^>>.> 

ne-i, II. 


force, ii. •21)1) ; traililiou.s of tiie 
war with th" Kries. ii. litlT ; ex- 

])eiisivo vie 

torv over the 


11. 2tJ7 ; hloody trimuplis coiu- 
pk'te, ii. 270 ; their eonfeih raey 

a wed I 

•e iie't\v(>eii tlie eoluiiit s ol 


•e am 

I i;n-l: 

iihl, 11. 

t!io ruin of tiie .le.-iiits' hop,'.-*, 
ii. 273; doht oi Lil)ert\- to, ii. 



War, the, ii. .5',). 

Ja.mks, Mdwin, aeioiiii 
hush, i. (u : Indian idea^^ 

)f Xana- 
ot an- 


life, i. 7'.t. 

Janseuirit.-i, tlie, Olier's lion-or of. 

II. ;>. 

Jarvis, i. 70. 

Jean, St., i. 242. 

Jesuits, the, Indian trihos not 
within tlio scope of the labors 
of, i. T) ; enumeration of the 
Huron villa^T's, dwrllimi,s and 
families math; by, i. lO; teach 
the Ilurons to hiiihl jialisaih'd 
works, i. Ifi; never had a mis- 
Siioii amoiijj; tlu^ i'.ries, i. .'i.") ; 
close stmh'iiis of Indian \:i\\- 
guat^i^s and siijierstitioiis, i. 4.'? ; 
tlio virtue of oliedieiice. i. 97; 
i. 99, 100; adopt as their own 

tlio task of riiristiauizincj X 


ra'iee. i. 
liiron coun 

lOl ; heli(!ve tli 
trv to he the Stroiit 

hold of Satan, i. l.'U) ; schemes 
for the Huron mission, i. l.'iO, 
l.'il ; lliuiirt'd hy the Indians 
i. i;i7-l."i9 ; char.acter of, i. 1«S- 
19'.i : persecution hy the lluroiis, 
i. 20t--iil7 ; iiii].<'acliid liy the 
i. 209 ; dailv life of, i. 


220-222; ]»rivate letters of, i. 
221 ; learn to make wiiio, i.221 ; 

mi.~sionarv ixciirsMns, 

i. 22.'5: 

new cliap(d huik hy, i. 22.'! 
nirthods of conversion, i. 224 

conditions o 

f haiilisi 

II, 1. Ii:;.) 

pro])ose intmnarria^e with llie 


2() ; ha<-ksiiiirrs, i. 

niiinher of liaplisms, i. 220 ; 

ahandon orii^ina 

1 pi; 


missions, 1. 

ins f"r e.s 


resohc to ('staMis 
station, i. 2'10 ; csla 

li a ceil 


hlish Sainto 


e, 1. 

mi.-si'in o 


loll, 1. 2.):; 


)f the Xeulral .Nation, i. 2.'i4 


1(' /.cal (d', i. 2.'i.'- 


ail in all at (,>U( hee, i. 21.") ; ndy 
ci.ieilv on tln! liiindreil i\sso- 

cjinau.' o 
revise in 

::-!9 ; h 
Xew V 

lor th(! 
ranee, i. 2,")2 ; 


)pr till' nicdneva 

tvpe of Christ i.iiiity, i. 2.")7 ; 
smninarv for Huron ho\s at. 


(^Mudiec, 1. 2.)9 ; lirst ap]ii'ariiia e 
in a characti'i- distinctly jioliti- 
cal, ii. 14.'!; anlan'oni>m id' the 
rnritans a,:;aihst, ii. 144, 149 ; 
(dinri^i'd v,itli sh.arli;;;- in the 
fur t I'ade, ii. ISS ; pruiniM' to 
join the Hiirons on I.--le St. 
,Iiisi ph. ii. 221 ; decide to hrin;; 
the remnant id" the Ilurons to 
' jie'n'i', ii. 241 ; occiipat ]< n 
gone, ii. 271 ; cause of the fail- 



ro iif, ii. 27.T ; their failh nut' of tlie iniii«, ii. 19; Urcssniii 


shaken, ii. '274. 
Jesuits, (.'hurcli of llic, ii. \?>. 
.Jo;ruis, I'aiiuM' Isaiii', i. 7'J ; 


to tlio 

liiroii iMissio 

II, i. I' 

(lisliiicli\c traits «j1', i. 1'.)'); rcli;r- 

aiMDUti; tlio iivHjunis, ii. 74; har- 
iiiKiiy at \'illi'iiiari(', ii. 8:2 ; tnar- 
riai^^o of D'Ailirhoiist to Harl 
do Hoiiloi;iio, ii. 8.'! ; tiio liur 




iv(h at Qiioliec, ii. 244. 

i^iiis terror of the liiirons, i.li04; ' Jtilioii, St., i. 22^. 
traii(|iiil l)olilness of, i. 21(1 ; now i 


i)eriloiis ini>sioii (tf tiio , Kaiikwas, tlie, i. "i.l. 

oiiarco .N.'ilinii 


alls to, i. :2.'i2 ; ' Kalin, conilitioii of liuliaii Lorcttc, 

rece])tion hy tlio liidiaiis, i. li.'J.'i ; \ ii. 2.")'.). 

aiiioiiL,^ tlu! .\li;i)ii(|uiiis, ii. 2'J, Keiijoikety, Chief, ii 2f>.'S. 

.■](); eai'iy liistoi'v of, ii. "JO ; |ior- iveiiiieliee iTncr, tae, i. 7; Dru- 

trait <if, ii. .'il 

attacked jind illetes on, ii. 141. 

(•ajjliired l>y tlio Iroi|Uois, ii. Kentucky, St;u:e <if, i. 4 ; Indiai 

32-4.') ; s(m;(is warnin; 

to th 


jf seimlture in, i. 1 


]''rench, ii. 47 ; d(.'ci(h'S toesca])e, Khioiiontaterriioiions, the, i. .'}2. 

ii.4'.l-r)2; arrives at Manhattan, Kieft, Director-dciieral, ii. i)2, 12;"). 

ii. .'>;?; I'l'aclies l''ranc(>, ii. 54; Kiotsaton, chief of the Iro(|uois, 

anionic his in'ethren, ii. a') ; I ii. 104; inters ie\'. wiiii Chani])- 

received by Queen Anne of i Hour, ii. 104, K 




Anslria, ii. ad; sails aijain for; jieaco council, ii. 100-112 ; ii. 124. 

(Janada, ii. .jli 


I lie 

prand peact; council, ii. lOi'j; La R \i;i;r., De. tlie Ir<Minois |iojin- 

■n to Jiold tlie M 


ation, 1. (',(). 

to their faitli 

117; foiuids Lahaii", ii. 12.); death of Father 

t!ie of tlie .Mart 

V r,- 

.Jou'ues, ii. 12.). 

ll'^; ]■ 


t tliat death Lachine, ii. 8S 

uas near, ii. IIS; reaches the Lachine IJapids, the, ii. 1.'].?. 


:i. 1 1'.t ; reliiriis lo 


onceiilion, mission o 

t, ii. 171, 

Fort Liidiidieu, ii. 121; leiiirus 
to tlie .Mohawks, ii. 121 ; taken Laliiau, the Huron (hv(dlini(s, i. 
jirisoner, ii. 12.'}; nninierc !, ii. Li; corruption of the Huron.v i. 
124 ; character of, ii. 1 2,") ; ii. 188. ; 21 ; medical jiractices of the liu- 

Johii, St., i. 'JO. 

Joseph, St., i. l.")7, 179, IS.j; the 
clio.seii ]iatron of Mew France, 
i. r.M), 214; fete-day of, i. 2.")2, 
2(')2, 2()."), 274. 

Jouskeha, legend of, i. 71, 72. 

Jiichereaii, i. 27."); ii. 4; i'mia- 
tiuii uf tlie Society of Notre- 
Danie de Montreal, ii. 8 ; :\Iont- 
nia,u;ny's jealousy towards Mai- 
i^oiiuoiive, ii. 18; niortiticatiou j 

rolls, i. .SI ; tlie h'oiiuois name, 
i.;i7; govornnient of the llurons, 
i. 44 ; the Iroipiois and liic llu- 
rons, i. 4.') ; organization id' tl.o 
Iro [Hois, i. 48 ; the Iroiir.ois 
"senate," i. 4'.) ; the eudancy 
'jf the Inxiuois, i. al, "2; Indian 
ideas td' another life, i. 7'J ; In- 
dian tales, i. 8() ; Indian funeral 
rites, i. 1()>) ; origin of the Iro- 
quoisi-Neutral war, ii. 2G3. 



LaFK'che, ii. 3, 11. 

L:i l-'<)iit;iiiio, i. 248. 

J^airoL Kivcr, Uio, i. '.»1. 

Lakes, the Upper, i. 23, S.'i. 

Lalarulo, onlercil to the Moliawks, 
ii. 121; captunMl In- tiic M<j- 
liawUs, ii. 123; niiirdcred by 
tlio Mohawks, ii. 124. 

Laluiiiaiit, (iahricl, at St. I.i,'iiacp, 
ii. 194; St. Louis attacked by 
tiio Iroiiuois, ii. 20."); refiLses to 
csi'ai)e, ii. 20,") ; rdics of, found 
at St. Igiiace, ii. 211 ; a witness 
to tiie torture of Hrel)"uf, ii. 21 2 ; 
tortured, ii. 214; skrich of, ii. 
214 ; dcatli of, ii. 21.") ; l)urial of, 
ii. 215; ])hysii'al \vcaki;ess of, 
ii. 21."). 

Laleinaut, Fatiicr Jcro lo, i. '.», lO; 
Indian cures for disease, i. 31 ; 
tiie 'I'ioiinout.ites, i. 3.3; tlie 
Neutral ])o|)ul;Uion, i. 3.3 ; Iro- 
((Ui)is puiiislimeut of crinn', i. 
.')4 ; Indian superstition, i. (J3 ; 
tiio Huron country tiio stroni^- 
hold of Satan, i. 130; the Huron 
mission house, i. 141) ; Indian 
burial places, i. 107; tlio " infer- 
nal wolf," i. 207; narrow e.s- 
cajies of the .lesuiis, i. 21."), 21(); 
assailed by tiio Indians, i. 2!S; 
converis at Ossoss.ini', i. 223, 
224 ; t»acicsliders, i. 227, 22^, 22',t ; 
new and perih)us mission of tlie 
'I'obacco Nation, i. 2.32, 2.'U ; tlio 
Niagara River, i. 2.3.") ; tlie mis- 
sion to the Neutrals, i. 2.3 S ; ii. 
21); ]nurder of Cioupil by tlio 
Inxpiois, ii. 42; Fatlior Joijues 
anioiiEj til') Iro'[uois, ii. 43; l)e 
Noue'"s sensitiveness reo;ardii'i]^ 
tlm virtue of obedience, ii. 7.") ; 
death of I)c Nou(', ii. 7^; deatli 
of, ii. 78: dot^s at \'ille- 
nrri ', ii. 90; the conversion of 

riskaret, ii. 9S attends the 
graml peact- council, ii. 11.3; hit- 
ter from Father ,Io!j;ues, ii. 118; 
zeal of Father . Indues, ii. 1 I'.i ; 
Fatlier JoL;ue.s returns to Fort 
Kichclieii, ii. 121 ; murder of 
riskaret. ii. 12S; tlie fui^itive 
!?4Uaw, ii. 13() ; t!a^ unabated 
zeal of tlie Jesuit fatliers, ii. 
13(1; mission of Father ilrii- 
illeles among tlie Abeiiakis, 
ii. 141, 142, 155; execution of 
Chief Oiioiikwaya, ii. U'lO; Hu- 
ron iiells, ii. 172; resistance of 
the lliiroiis aL;;diist baptism, ii. 
17.3 ; conversion at the stake, ii. 
173, 174; liacksliih'is, ii. 175; 
tlie biiildiims of Sainte Marie, 
ii. ISO; the Hurons d(d"e;it tiie 
Iro(jnois, ii. 198; tlie Nation of 
Fire (h'^t roved by tlie Neutrals, 
ii. 2(i2 ; ^ucc(\<s <t\' the /, mlastes, 
ii. 2t')9 ; tlie occnpalion of the 
tlesiiits yone, ii. 273. 

Laiigevin, i. 90, 247. 

La I'ellrie, .Madame de, early life 
of, i. 2(',0 ; descrijilion of, i. 2t'jO ; 
marriaiie of, i. 2<il ; jmais jiur- 
poses of, i. 2t')2 ; lar sham mar- 
riage to M. de llernicres, i. 2(13; 
tlie *'oiii:uii-,^s (d' the new coii- 
vent at (Quebec, i. 2tltl ; emb;uks 
for Canada, i. 274; arri\al at 
Quebec, i. 275; aliaiidons her 
I'rsiiliiies for a time, i. 278; ii. 
21 ; virtues of, i. 279; deatii id", 
i. 2^0; ii. 14 ; joins Maisoinieuvo, 
ii. 21 ; arrival at Montreal, ii. 
24 ; tiie iniaiicy of Montreal, ii. 
79; fulfilment of .Alaisonneuve's 
vow, ii. 81 ; ii 155 ; relics of the 
martyrs, ii. 215. 

La Place, Father, ii. 15. 

La Potherie, cornintion of tho 
Hurons, i. 21 ; tho great couu. 



n • 

fil of tho lr()i|iiiilH, i. Til ; ancient 
8U]ici'i()rity <>l" tho Alj^oiKHiiiis 
over tlio Ir'ii|ii(iis, ii. it? ; cx- 
pluits of I'iskiin.t, ii. '.)«, 99; 
migrations of tlwi llurons, ii. 

La Tour, ii. 19, 21. 

Laiison, Jean dc, ii. 10. 

Lau.-ion (the vonnncr), f^rant of 
land to, i. 24H ; ii. 10. 

Laval University of (inchoc, i. 
1G7 ; Huron iicll at, ii. 172. 

Lawson, i. 21. 

Lo Menu. ii. 2r)9. 

J.e 15('r!^er, cffort.s to save Father 
.Indues, ii. 124. 

Lo Horgne, Cliief, thwart.s tlio 
Jesuits, i. i;}7-l.'!9 ; ii. 8(1 ; eon- 
versinii of, ii. 87 ; christening of, 
ii. S7. 

Le Ciiron, the ninnher of Huron 
towns, i. 1 1. 

Le Ch-re, i. 21, H'y, C>C> ; Indian 
id(>a.-'. of 'inolher life, i. 79; liio 
•lesniis all in all at Qnehec, 
i. 240 ; at ( >uel)('c, i. 
2.")0 ; arrival of tiie nuns in (,!ue 
bee, i. 27") ; Villeinarie do .Mont- 
real, ii. 10; Moiilreal turned 
over li) Maisoniicine, ii. 24 ; tiie 
iufaney of Montreal, ii. ."^O ; 
f^tienne Annaoialui's revenge 
on tlie Iroquois, ii. 2."),"). 

Le Jeuno, FiHher I'aul, the dress 
of the Hurons, i. 20; Indian 
su])erstition eoneerning animal 
spirits, i, 62 ; storie.^ of ]\Iessou, 
i. 67, t)8; Indian tratlitions con- 
cerning tlie creatioti, i. ()9 ; the 
loss of inuuortality aiuimg the 
Indians, i. 69; tlio A]goiii|nin 
belief in Ataliocan, i. 69 ; Indian 
sorcerers, i. 82 ; su])erior of the 
Residence of Quebec, i. 89 ; at 
the Kesidence of Notre-Danio 

. I 

des Anges, 1. 92 ; embarks for flie 
New World, i. Hll ; his voyage, 
i. 102; arri' es at (Quebec, i. 102 ; 
beginning of his missionary 
labors, 1. lo.'J; dolerniines to 
learn the AlgoiKiuiu language, 
i. 1(K{; his Indian teacher, i. 
10;") ; his school, i. 1U7 ; arrival 
of Chaniidiiin, i. 108 ; joins tho 
Indians in the winter hunt, i. 
109 ; initiation into Indian win- 
ter life, i. Ill; the first encamp- 
ment, i. 1 1'i ; the Imliaii hut, i. 
11.'); impnsed on by tiie Indians, 
i. 117; insulteil iiy tlie Mon- 
tamiais sorcerer, i. 117; his In- 
dian conipaiiinns, i. 119; observa- 
tions on the sorcerer, i. 119, 12i» ; 
his sickness among the Indians, 
i. 12! ; efforts to convert the 
sorcerer, i. 124; threatened by 
.starvation, i. 12."); return to 
(,»uebec, i. 128; miraculoes e.s- 
cajio from death, i. 128; learns 
the ditliriilties of tlie Algon- 
iiuiii mission, i. 129; tli(> Hurons 
at '.M'eliec, i. 1.'! 4 ; the Huron 
mission, i. 1.'?."); ])leasure in con- 
verting tlie Hiirniis, i. I.")2; Hre- 
beiif sends letter of farewcdl to, 
i. 212; (>nebcc without a gov- 
ernor, i. 241 ; the /e:il of Mont- 
magiiy, i. 242 ; delight at the 
interest shown in the Huron 
mission, i. 244; the Jesir,.s all 
in all at (^juebee, i. 246 ; plays 
at (,>uebec, i. 2:").3 ; Indian ]mpils, 
i. 2.'J4 ; methods of conversion, i. 
2")"); the seminary for Huron 
boys at (Quebec, i. 260; arrival 
of the inins in fjnebec, i. 27.") ; 
the Jesuits and the fur-trade, ii. 
188; cost of the Irocpiois victo- 
ries, ii. 271. 
Le Maitre, Simon, i. 248. 






Lo >rfr<'ic'r, Fninvnis .Tusojili, jinp- 
lilatiiiii of tlic Iliii-Diis, i. II; 
caniiiliiilisiii iunoiii^ llic IIuroiiM, 
i. 28; till' 'riniiiiKiitaUs, i. .'{.'{; 
tlif " Nation uf tlie Cat," i. 33; 
till' Iro(|uois |]o])iil;itioii, i. liO; 
lro(|iiois deities, i. "'5 ; Huron 
torture of jtrisoiiers, i. 170, 171 ; 
sent to tlie Huron mission, i. 
174; sickness at tiio Huron mis- 
sion, i. I7(j; scarcity of panio in 
tlie Huron coimtrv, i- 177; con- 
verting tlie Huntns, i. 178-18(); 
iiewcliapcl of the mission of tlie 
Immaculate ronee])lion, i. *J01 ; 
tiie netiier jiowcrs, i. li().'5 ; relig- 
ious terror of the Hurons, i. 20.'); 
the " infernal wolf," i. 207 ; the 
Jesuits imiieached hy the Hu- 
rons, i. 2()'.t-211 ; Ijri'heuf's fare- 
Avell letter to I.e .leune, i. 
21.'{ ; narrow escape of, i. 215, 
2i('); tiie .lesuits ])ro])ose inter- 
imirria<;"e with tin.' Indians, i. 

Lc Moyno, Fathor, i. 210, 218; ii. 
20-4, 205, 200. 

LeJiox. Mr., ii. 270. 

Levi Point, i. So. 

Lil)erty, deht due tlie Tro(iuois, ii. 
274; contest between Absolu- 
tism and, ii. 274. 

Lii'vros, I'ointe-aux-, i. '.(1. 

Lisle, l)e, i. 242.245. 

"Long House," the, i. 50. Sault, desperate conflict of 
the, ii. 257. 

Loretto, Holy House of, i. 191, 194 ; 
ii. 258. 

Loretto, Our Lady of, i. 192, 194 ; 
ii. 258. 

Loskiel, i. 70. 

Loyola, Ignatius de, i. 92 ; con- 
version of. i. 95 ; niHiuestioiiiiig 
faith of, i. 90 ; foundation of tiie 

Society of Jesus, i. 00 ; his book 
of "Spiritual Hxercises," i. 97 ; 
the hallowed bones of, i. 2.'l'J. 
Loyol;), si'ho(d of, not without 
effect, i. 187. 

M,\iNE, State t)f, i. 7. 

Maisonneuve, Sieiir tie, becomes 
soldier-governor of the Hundred 
Associates, ii. 11; sketch of, ii. 
11,12; embarks for .Montreal, ii. 
10; rece|)tioii at (Quebec, ii. 18; 
jealousy of .Montni'igny towanls, 
ii. 18 ; refuses to remain at 
(^iieliec, ii. 19; hospitality of 
M. I'uise.'iux towards, ii. 19; 
builds boats to ascend to Mont- 
real, ii. 20; (juarrel with .Mont- 
magny, ii. 20; joined by M;i- 
dame de la rdtrie, ii. 21 ; the 
spirit of (lodfrey de Hnuilloii 
lived again in, ii. 2."> ; arrival at 
Montreal, ii. 2.'{ ; the infiincy of 
Montreal, ii. 79 ; his vow, ii. 
81 ; its fullllinent, ii. 81 ; de- 
clared " First Siddier of the 
Crcjss," ii. 81 ; discretion shown 
liy, ii. 90; accused of coward- 
ice, ii. 90; battle with the Iro- 
(luois, ii. 91; exploit of, ii. 9.T ; 
sugt,^ests changes at (^ueljec, ii. 
152 ; ii. 154. 

Manalio/.lio, i. G2, 00; never an 
oipject of worship, i. 07 ; attri- 
butes of, i. 07 ; legends of, i. 07, 
OS ; bestows gift of immortality 
on I lie Lillians, i. 09 ; i. 75. 

Mance, .Iciu'ie, vow to (lod, ii. 
14 • sketch of, ii. 14 ; called l,y 
the l)i\ine wi'l to Cannila, ii. 
15; meeting with Danversii're, 
ii. 15; eniliarks for Monireal, 
ii. 10; arrives at Montreal, ii. 
24 ; iiifaucy of .Montreal, ii. 7 '; 
letter to Madame de Bullion, ii. 



84 ; at tlio now liospital nt Mmi 

rciil, ii, H,-), sc, ; ii, I.-, I. 
.Miiiiliiittaii (Nc.v V(.ik), ii. :>-2. 
M;iiiiiuiis, Indian lit'licf in, i. i\'i. 



11, ( 

live 11 

f. i. '.»r 

.MailjI(;li('U(l, ii. I IS. 

Mariiiicric, Friini;ois, i. 2.')8 ; ca])- 

tnrcd l)y fli(i Ini(|Unis, ii. .'J!i. 
M.'iiic, wife oi' .lean I>a]iti.<l(', .slury 

iif her .snffci'ini^s aniuML;' tin' 

lrn(|iinis, ii. I •_",)- 1 •'!(■>. 
Maisliall, Indian linrial-itlarcs, i. 


Mar-i.lct, N'i.'olas, i. 2;')^. 

.Marl lie, I lie linioti wdnian, ii. -*'il. 

Martin, .Mir.'iiiani, ii. 1. '>."), I.")t). 
iMarlin, I{cv. ImH.x, i. I'.U); ii. .'it. 

."..'■), 74, 2:i4. 
Mai', .M., aliandnncd a 

niiinir tlic 


i])is.-;in'j,s, I. 

I 12. 

Ma,>;('(iutins, tlic, dcadh' ^{vll'v with 

tJKi Xi'Utral Xaiinn 

• il ; ii. 

MassacIiMsctts, tlu^ ('(dony (if, ii. 

144 ; strcn-^tli of, ii. 14s. 
Ma.^saidmsclls Indians, the, i. a. 
IM.assaclnisclts, Slaic of, i. (). 
Ma^sawonndics (.Molniwks), tliL', 

ii. I (12. 
Mas.-:(', I'aicinoiid, at tlio IJcsidf^u'O 

of Xutrc-i )ani(> dcs Ani;cs, i. 

'J2 ; in liu^ aliortivf mission <d' 

Acailia, i. !)2 ; niid-cnanicd " lo 

J'orc' I 'I ill'," i. I);i ; arri\al in 

(incdior, i. IDS ; dratli <d', ii. 7s. 
Matcdicdash I>ay, i. 1(», 2'il ; ii, 

1S4, l'2l>. 
IManraiUt. account of tin' nii-si(»n 

of Father Drnillctes amonir the 

Ahonakis, ii. 142. 
Ma/.arin Library, the, ii. '.*. 
Mclvinncy, superstition 

(.'onc(>'iiin;ij animal spirits, i. (12, 
Medicine l>o\v .M.iuntains. ii. (iS. 

" Medicines," Indi.nn, i. HR. 

.Mediiis, <2ue( n .Marie de, i. 27.'>. 

.Me;;a|poleiisi,«, tile I )uti li (lerj^y- 
man, corruption of the Ilurons, 
i. 21 ; InKpiois d(dties, i. 7.'< ; ii. 
;\'J ; foroiMiy of tlio Midiawk.s 
towai'ils pri.><oners, ii. 4."); r(da- 
tions of the Mohawks and 
Diiti h, ii. 47 ; escape (d' Fallur 
.Joi^nes from llie Iro(|iiois, ii. .'i2. 

MeMuWe, 1 he, i. .'itl. 

.Merrier, Cai lierine, burned hy tho 
Indians, i. :',i. 

.Merrymeeiiiii; Hay, ii. It."). 

Messoii, i, (111 ; stories of, i, (17, GS. 
See al~o M(i)iiihiiiln). 

Mesii-oit, i. Kts, no, 111, llf), 



IMelai. the, soeietv of, i. H4. 


don, cn:nean oi, ii. 

,Mi'.\icaiis, the, tradilioiis of. i. 7.'5. 


esico, ( 


/eii races o 

f, i. .'{2. 

Mexico, Culf of, i. 2.'{, 1(17. 
.Miamis Indians, the, cannihalism 


amoii;;, I. 2' 

i, (1(1. See also Mm 



.Mi(diiL;an, I.ake, i. 5, ;) I ; ii. \\)-2. 
Michii;an, Stale (d', i, 4. 
Michilimackinac. i.-land of, the 

'i'ohacco Nation settles on, ii. 

Micmac Indians, the, i. 7. 
Minqnas, the, i. .'id. 
Miscou, Je.suit mission at, ii. I.'i7. 
'^''<sion of tiie Martyrs, tli", 

foumled liy Joi,qies, ii. 118. 
Mi ,-!( ■ Jesuit, tlie iidluenco of, 

ii. 1. •!',). 
Mississippi Kivor, tlio, i. 4, .5, 3;), 

42, 2,".S; ii. 192, 271, 27;5. 
Missoni'i, State of, Indian places 

(d' se|iHl;nre in, i. 1(1(1. 
Mvdiawk Indians, the, i. ;i, 4") ; ii. 

Mediciue-man, Indian, i. (!.'), l.')2. 28; towns of, ii. ;5',) ; IVrocity 



towanls prixnnor.'", I'i. 45 ; ro la- j tlio spiiiiiiary for irurun !mi\«* at 
tions witli tlu' Dutcli, ii. 47 ; I (Jut'lit-c, i. 'jri'J ; jcaloiisv towarls 

JIICI! llCilllv (Ic'Sll'iivcd hv tl 



ii. IS 



AlgoiKiuiiis. ii. H7 ; tlic ijroat I witli Maisnuncinc, ii. 'ji 
jieacc cimiicil, ii. Utd-llti; mnn- I Montreal, ii. -'.'<; war uiili lln> 

li'Mi[ii(iis, ii. .")'.• -fiL' ; (rinrl.-* to 
save lrtit|iinis ])risoiii'rs, ii '.»•'. ; 
holds a i,'rati(l cuiin'il at Siljrn , 
ii. nil' ; ^raml peace cciiik ii, 
ii. 10.') ; Mceepts t he prulTrreil 
peace, ii. 1 1 1 ; D'Aiiieltnast suc- 
ceeds iiiiii as f;o\eriior of (.Que- 
bec, ii. 152 ; ii. is7. 

her of wariioi's, ii. 117; wars 
with tlio Moiiet;aii.s, the Aiida.s- 
te.s, the Alj^ntKjiiins, and the 
Freiu'li, ii. 117; Father .lo;;ites 
cho.seii to hold thetii to their 
faith, ii. 117; Father .lories 
reaciio.s, ii. Ill); suspicious of 

Father .loijiies, ii. lii'J; prcdom- 

iuaiit dans of, ii. l\>-2; murder ! Mi>iitinartre. (Imrcli of, i. L»43. 

of Father .Io>;ii( s and I-alande, j Montninrenci, (iulf of, i. W. 

ii. 1*24; ag.'iin make war iipoii ' Montreal, i. .'? ; no human life at, 

tho Frendi and the Alison- | i. H ; ( artii.'r's liesrripii'UMd" tlio 

quins, ii. TJIl ; treacherously 

murder I'iskaret, it. li'S; mor- 
tal (piarrel with the .\ndasles, 

ii. ICi.'t ; ii. 1(14 ; caiituri' liie 

Huron emhassy, ii. l(il); on the 

war-path for the lliirons, ii. liO.'J ; 

make incessant attacks on tlie 

Al,ujon(pnns Jind tlic French, ii. 

124.') ; first to hear tiie lirunt id' 

the Andaste war, ii. 2(18; sufiir 

reverses from tiic Mohicans, ii. 

Mohawk IJiver, the, ii. .37, 123. 
Mnlie<;ans, the, war willi tln^ 

Mohawks, ii. 117. 
^loliicans, the, i. 5 ; Molinwks 

suffer reverse from, ii. 2()S. 
^lontaijjnais, the, i. 7, 103 ; F'ather 

]>e .leune amont;, i. 10'.(-I2.-); 

tiie 1,'rand ]>eace council, ii. iOt')- 

115; Father Druilletcs amon_^^ 

ii. 138. 
Montcalm, i. 91 ; ii. 30. 
MontmaLt'.iy, Charles Iluault de, 

arrival in (^uehec, i. 241 ; edify- 

\U'^ zeal di.splaycd hy, i. 242 ; 

jdants a May-pole, i. 2.')3 ; i. 254 ; 

recognizes tho imjxnHance of 

liuusis at, i. l.'i; I )au\ersi( rc! 
commanded to eslaldish a llnNd- 
DicMi at, ii. 4 ; < dicr cniiiuiandeil 
to fiirm a society id' pric-ls at, 
li. 5 ; ])nin!ed out hy ( 'lianipl;;in 
as prnjicr >iie fur ^ei lleinnii , ii, 
(') ; propii.-ii i(Pii to funnd i l.r- c 
relitj;ious comnuiniiie- at, ii. 7; 
exposcil tl) the fi'i'iiciiy of liio 
Iroquois, ii. 'J ; eNcilimt locii- 
tion foi- a nnssion, ii. '.* ; the key 
to a v.'i.'^t inland na\ii;ation, ii. 
i) ; consrcrati>d to the Holy 
Family, ii. If) ; arrival .'!' Mai- 
soniu'uve at, ii. 2'i ; liie iiirt !i of, 
ii. 25 ; in danj;cr fioni thr 1 m- 
( ii. 57 ; infancy oi', li. 7'.i ; 
threatened by flood, ii. si ; iiar- 
mony at, ii. S2 ; .Madame lii' 
Ihillioii ;ii\('s funds to liuiid 
a imspilal :'.t, ii. S4 : di.-covci-ed 
hy the li'o aois, ii. S7 ; ;id\a!i- 
tau'i'ous UM' of (lo';s, ii. S'.i ; 
liajqiy in its founder, ii. '.:4 ; 
ji'.ilousy between Quelicc ar.d, 
ii. ]5.'l. 
Monti'eal, .Assiici'Uioii of, ii. iC. 
23, 25, S4; 154. 



Moiitroiil, rfimpaiiy of, ii, 10. 

Moiitrciil, I>Iiiiiil nf, traii^fcrn'il 
liy LiiiiHon In Diviivci'sii'ic iind 
Faiiciuiip, ii. lU. 

Montreal, Syndic of, ii. 1!)."J. 

Moosfliiiiil i.ako, ii. I 12. 

Mori^an, Lewis II., i'(irrii]»tiiiii of 
tin- IIiiroiiH, i. 21 ; tin* "Xatiun 
of tilt! Cat," i. .'},5 ; Iri'i|U()i.s in- 
wtitnrioiis, i. M ; tln' Loatfuc of 
tlif Ir<>i|iii)is, i. 4r) ; tho Iroqiiois 
jiopiilatiiin, i. (JO ; MoIkiwU 
towns, ii. .'('.». 

Morin, Sister, ii. I(), 24, 8f). 

Mors,', Iniliaii ideas on aiiollicr 
life, i. T'l. 

Morton, tiio l)rain of tlio InHjiiois, 
i. .'(2. 

Mn.s('o<rees, tlio, i. Ifi. 

Musk-rat, a cou.siiicnous fi^iirn in 
Alyou(|uin t'osino;fony, i. <')',). 

Nanamisii, i. fit); iiccomit of, i. 

t'l 7. 
Najnii, Katlier l'liilii)])e, letters 

from Cliaiunonot, i. 221, 2.'JvS. 
Narrai:;ansett Indians, tlie, i. "). 
Natelie/, tlie, .system of clansliip 

amoiii?, i. 41). 
Naliflv, John Kliot'.s mission at, 

ii. 147. 
Nation dc I'lslo, l.a, i. !>. 
Nation du I'etiin {Tohacco), i. 

"Nation of tlio Bear." tlio, i. 44 ; 

principal n it'.on of tlio Huron 

Conf(Hloracy, i. ICO; i. 20S. 
"Nation of tlie Cat," the, .see 

Erir /udiKiis, tlic. 
Nation of l-'ire, tlie, destroyed l\v 

the Xi;ds, ii. 2r)2. 
"Nation nf tlie Porcupine," the, 

ii. 1.18. 
Nation of tlie I'rairio, ii. 2t')2. 
Neutral Nation, the, i. 5 ; ileadly 

s'rifo with the MaRcontiiiH, I. 
'U ; haliits of, i. .'(4 ; the jonr- 
ney of the dead, i. 77 ; full of 
pretended iiiadniun, i. 1^4; 
places of sepiiluire amoiiu', !. 

lt;7; Urelienf air ^', i. HIM, 

2.IJ: mission of, i. 2.'I4 ; location 
(d', i. .l'-i\ ; plot aiiiiinst ISre'lienf 
and ( haniiionot.i. 2.'li> ; Daiiion's 
visit to, i. 2'tx; cruelty to pris- 
oners, ii. (i7 ; mission aliaiidoned 
for tint time, ii. I'.U ; liiiron 
fiiLjitives join, ii. 21S, 2.')(); su- 
perior in mimher.s to the Iro- 
quois, ii 2('i() ; took no jmrt 
■'inaiiist the Iliinms, ii. 2<i2 ; 
destroy the Nation of j'ire, ii. 
2ir_' ; the Iroijiiois turn their 
fury on, ii. 2t).'{ ; rr'ceive their 
death-hlow, ii. 2('i.'J. Sec also 

AllilVllHllllKillS, iIk , 

N'ew Brunswick, 1. 4 ; the Ar- 
inon(dn(|iiois in st;ite of chroide 
war with trihes of, i. (l. 

New I".iii;!and, i. 4. 

New Fnince, the Jesuits ailopt as 
their own the task of Christian- 
izing;, i. 101 ; the (diiirch of 
Home ^ives life to the early 
missions of, i. 17.'{; St. Jos(>pii 
tii(f chosen patron of, i. !(•''>; 
aim of the founders, i. 2.")1 ; 
celestial climate of, i. 252 ; the 
Society of .Jesus aspire to 
the mastery of all, i. 2,"i7 ; ])op. 
Illation of, ii. 27; hopes of, ii. 

New Franco, Company of, sco 
I fund 11(1 As.ioriiiii s:. the. 

New Hampshire, northern, i. 6. 

New Haven, ii. !.')(). 

Now Holland, ii. .']("). 

New .lersey. State of, i. 4. 

New l.orett(>, ii. 2.')'.>. 

New York, State of, i. 4, 5, Sj 



r), :u 

M, 4.'); liicliiin plficoN of soinil ' 

tiiic, ill, i. liiti ; i. 2.'i4. 
Niajjiira, i. fi. 
Niai,'iir.i Falls, first iiicnfinn nf, 

i. 'J.l"). 
Nia;(ara Kivcr, tiic, i. .'{.'J, 107,a.'J4, 

McM.llct, .Iran, i. -J^s. 
Nil.issiiiL,' I.akr, i. a:i, i;t:i; ii. r.2, 

Nipissiiii^s, the, i. 0, 142 ; the j^rainl 
)ii art' t'liiuicil, ii. I l.'l ; Jesuit 
iniHsioM niiioiii;, ii. l'J2. 

N<)i,'(>iit-l.'l!(ii, ii. 14. 

Nuri'iiilif^a, city nf, i. ti. 

Niiiriilu'f'wock, .\lMiiukl .spttlciiicnl 
of, ii. 14 2, U.'i. 

Niirtli Aiiii'rii'a, aliorigine.H of, i. 

Notri'-Daiiic, ("liiircli of (at I'uri.s), 
ii. •',, IC. 

Notrc-Daiiic ilcs Aiiijcs, Hcsidcncc 
of, i. '.)2 ; (k'scriptioii of, i. 91, 
!)2 ; the (•ra<n(' of tiic "^rcat mis- 
sion of New France, i. '.(2. 247. 

" Notri'-Danie de I'nv," ii. 2.')". 

Notro-Daiiie ', Society 
of, formation of, ii. s. 

\o! re- D.I me de la Weconvraiice, 
clmrcli of, liescrilieil, i. 2r)4. 

Nolla\va,-<:<a<,'a Bay, i. U), ;\2, ir,2, 
2.'! 2. 

\oni'. Father Anno do, i. 90 ; at 
tlio Hcsilelico of Xotre-I);iiiie 
(los Anises, i. 02 ; cmliarks for 
tlio Now ^V^rld, i. 101 ; e\ne- 
rionco anioiii:; tli(^ Indians, i. lOCi ; 
tlio Huron missi.Ni, i. l.'iT : jnnr- 
lioy to Fort Uiciielieu, ii. 7.'); 
sonsitiveness roLxardinu the vir- 
tuo of ol)odioiico, ii. 7.') : Inst in 
tho snow, ii. 7i) ; so.nrch for, ii. 
77; (loath of, ii. 7S ; the first 
mnrt-yr of tlio Canadian mis.sioii, 
ii. 78. 

Nova Scotia, 1.4; tlio Arinonclii- 
(|iioi.s in slate of chronic wai' 
with trilios of, i. 0, 

Nuns, the llnspiial, i. 27.'') ; ii. 58, 
!.■>.•), 'Jl.'i, 214. 

0'rAi,t..\<iii\N, ii. 47, f).1, 

(•chatemiins (iliiron.s), tho, i, 9. 

Ohiw liiver, the, i. 4. 

Ohio, Stale of, Indian idaco,M of 
sopnltiire in, i. H'li'i ; ii. I(i4. 

OidL'oiiitis (Cayniias), the. ii 104. 

Ojihwa Indiaii.s, ihe, i. 4, Cij ; ii. 

<>ki(.-<, Indian heliel in, i, 03, 15G. 

Hid I-orette, ii. 2.')7. 

• dier,.Ieaii .Iaci|iiL',-i, characteristics 
of, ii. 4 ; voic(; from heaven, ii. 
.') ; inootinj; with Daiivorsiiro, 
ii. 7 ; jiropuses to found threo 
riliLjiuus coiiimunilies at .Mnnt- 
. lal, ii. 7 ; tries to inau;jurato 
tho Koininary of priests, ii. 11 ; 
<le|)ression of, ii. l.'i ; consecrates 
Ml lilt real to tho Holy Family, 
ii. 10; ii. I.'i4. 

niicid.a Indians, the, i. .'!S, 4.'i ; 
iiuinlier of warriors, ii. 117; 
^ town of, ii. l.'io ; ii. ltJ4 ; 
effiii'is for |it ace, ii. 100. 

( tn;,'iiiaalira Kiver (.Niagara), tho, 
i. .•{.■!, 2.".'). 

niineiiiisiti, i. I'i2. !«.'■), 204. 

()nniiii;ij:a Imlians, the, i. .'i!^, 4.*) ; 
numliiT of warriors, ii. 117; ii. 
104; inroads on tho ilnrons, ii. 
104; captured, ii. 10.'); mercy 
.shown to, ii. 10,") ; efforts for 
]ioaco, ii. 100; end of ne;;oti,'i- 
tioiis with tho Ilurms, ii. 170; 
ii. 2."):!. 

Oii()iidai;a, town of, ii. l.SO. 

Ononliar.'i, the, meanin!; of the 
word, i. irj'j. S(;o also Dream 
J-\(is/, thr. 



)ii(iiik\v;na, the Cjncida cliicf li. 

ino ; captured and killoil, ii. I 59. 
)ui)iitio, iiieauin^ ol' tlie nuru, ii. 

)]itari(), [,akc, '. 7, .'if), '2lio ; ii. 

•J7, 1 (•).■), 1()V. 
)iitil;)i','ic, Cliiof, i. 2m, 211. 
)raiiLC(', I'urt, Dutch traders at, 

ii. 1'7 ; tho IroijUni.s at, ii. 40; 

tlie sotth'nieiit at, I' 40; Dutch 

farnuTs at, !; '■". ; Hrc^^.-^aui scut 

to, ii. ?•'! ; Fatiior Jogiics at, ii. 

IH), lL>."). 

Orleans, Island of i. 110, 127 ; ii. 

18; ,je;;uit Miissiou on, ii. 250. 
Oscotaracli, i. 7',». 
O.s.seriienon, .Mohawk town of, ii. 

r,i), 40. 
Os.sossaiio, Huron town of, i. 150, 

15'.t, 102, ISO, IS.'!, 2(10, 214, 2I',», 

220, 22;J, 22(;, -.'51, 2.i2 ; ii. 171, 

2i;). See also liorhillc. 
Ottawa Inilians, tlio, i. 09 ; funeral 

games uniou'.^', i. 10'!; settle '.in 

the Island of .Mieliilimackiinu', 

ii. 251 ; 'juarrel with the Simi.x, 

ii. 251. 
Ottawa Kivcr, the, :. 8, 2.'i,('.2, 1.'32, 

l;i,'5, 21S ; ii. 'J, ;)S, 04, 70, 221, 

242, 251. 25C). 
( )iiaoua'.;( ■inaton(d<, the, i. 0. 
< iiU'iiilats ( iliirous), the, i. ;). 
( iiKMirolivniions, the, ii. I lit. 
( »uiouenronnoiis (('a\ ngas), the, ii. 

Owayneo, i. 74. 

I'.vi.: iM'.v, .John O.. account of I'd- 
ward (lil)lioiis, ii. 1 i5 ; I-".liot's 
mission at Natick, ii. U7. 

I'alnierston, Lord, i. 78. 

l*ani]ielnna, i. '.)5. 

I'apinachnis Indians, the, i. 7. 

I'apkootparoiit, tlie Indian I'liito, 
i. SO. 

I'aris, ii. 0, 7. 
Parker, Ely S., i. 45. 

Pascal, i. 187. 

1 assionists, the, convent of, i. l'.)7. 

Pji.xton IJoy.s, the, massacre of tho 
Conostogas, ii. 102, 270. 

Penac(Ktk Indians, the, i. 5, 7. 

Penn.sylvania. State of, i. 4 ; ii. IC4. 

Penoiisoot Kiver, tho, i. G, 7 ; 
ii. 142. 

People of the Beaver, the, i. 02. 

Peoria Indians, the, i, 70. 

Peijuot Indians, th(!, i. 5. 

Perrot, Nicolas, i. 55, 02; account 
of the (ireat Hare, i. 07-09; 
piimiiive Indian belief in a 
Sii|irenie Being-, i. 74 ; Indian 
ideas of another life, i. 79; 
funeral games among the ( )t 
^'lwas, i. '.(''■'•, ancient sujierior- 
ity of the .Mgonciuins over iho 
Iro(|Uois, ii. 97 ; '_'\])luits of 
Pi.-karet, ii. 98, 99; mur.ler of 
Piskan't, ii. 128; migrations of 
the Ih'rous, ii. 252. 

Peru, ii\Ili/.ed rai'es of, i. .'i2. 

Peruvians, i ,e, traditions of, i. 73. 

Petite Nation, La, i. 9, 1,'5.'5. 

Petun, iS'ation du, see Xatiun dn 

l'( tuneux, tho, i. .'52. 

Philips War, ii. 140. 

Phillips, J. S., the brain of the 
Iroquois, i. .'52. 

Pluenix Hotel, the, ii. 46. 

Pierre. Le Jeune's Indian teacher, 
i. 104, 105, 108, 109, 111, 110, 
122, 120, 127, 212. 

Pijart, Father Pierre, sent to tli« 
Huron mission, i. 174; wor!'. 
among the Ilurons, i. 185; cov- 
ert Iia])tisins, i. 180; finds tho 
new mission of the Immaculate 
Conceptit)n, i. 200 ; tranc|uil 
boldness of, i. 210. 



Pilot, the <lng, ii. S9, 91. 
I'iscutaqua liivor. tlic, i. 7. 
Piskaret, Simon, tht! cliauiiiioii of 
tho Ali^'oiHiuiiis, ii. 9S ; coii- 
vcrted, ii. 'J8 ; I'xjiloils of, ii. 
'JJ<, 'J'J, 100; delivers liis eap- 
tives to .Moiitiiiau:iiy, ii. lOii; 
iiiurilcr of, ii. 128. 
riaee d'Ariiie.^, i. 89 ; ii. -J'u. 
riaiiKS of Aliraliaiu, ll.e, i. 9; ; ii. 

rivinonth, ii. 147. 
I'.meet, the Jesuit, i. 19 4, lilC, 274. 
I'oiitiae, i. 'M ; ii. •J.')^. 
rorcupine. Nation of tlie, see 

Niitinit (if the I'uii'Hiiint. 
Poteric, i. 2.j4. 
Potier, i. 9. 
I'niirie, Nation of the, see Xatiun 

iif' the Pritirif. 
]'rie>t, the, as a ruler, i. 2r>l. 
rruviueial, Padre, i. 34. 
Pitants, the, ii. 192. 
Puci< Wudj liiinee, the, i. 04. 
j'niseaux, M. de, i. 247 ; uosi)ital- 
itv towards .Maisonneuve, ii. 19. 
Puritans, tiH\ Indians a thorn in 
tli(! ilesli of, i. ") ; opjiiisition to 
the Jesuits, ii. 144, 149 ; refuse 
t(j tin'ht without a reason, ii. 151. 

atinos|i]ier(' of, i. 2.')2 ; jilays 
and proeessions at, i. 2.")'i ; meth- 
ods of eon\(:rsiou at, i. 2.");") ; 
pri'])aration for haptisni, i. 2."ii'> ; 
orii;-in of its insiitniinns. i. 2.')9 ; 
seminary lor llunui ho\s at, i. 
2.")9 ; .Ma(hu:i(^ de l;i IV Inio 
f(junds a new coincnt ai, i. 2ti() ; 
tiie d'Ai,i;nilio:, fuunds 
a !Iot(d-l)ieii at, i. 274; iirrival 
of tlie nuns at, i. 27.") ; in lian- 
i;-cr (d utlcr ruin, ii. 9 ; in ihui- 
j^er from the Iroipiois, ii. '>~ ; 
lia])]>y in its fonmirr, ii. 94 ; 
iiotahlc I'lian^-es at, ii. l.')l : th(> 
Hundred Associates tran.-fer 
tht'ir mo!io]ioly of tlie fiir-lrade 
to tiie inlialiiianis of, ii. l."il ; 
jealousy lieiween Montreal and, 
ii. l,").'i; New "^'car's Day at, ii. 

ir)4 ; the Jesuits dceidi^ to lirini,- 
the reniiiant of the llurons to, 
ii. -Ml ; the fugitives arrive at, 

ii. 214 ; phiii of. ii. 2.")7. 
(^ue!jee, Supreme Coe.ri of, ii. 11. 
(,!ueher, Syndic of, ii. l.")'!. 
(^It'.en, De, ]iopu!aiion of the 
^ llun.ns, i. 11 ; ii. 12:!, 12.') ; 

ascends the Sauiienay. ii. i:i8; 

(hath of (iarrean. ii. 2.'if) ; cause 

of the lro(iuois-l".rie wiir. ii. 

2().') : the Irocjuois force, ii. 2()f) ; 

(itATOCiif.s (llurons), tlie, i. 9. 

(Uudiec, i. .1, 8,88; ev;;"uated hy i ii. 20 

the Knu'lish, i. 90; restored to I 

France,!. 101 ; Father LeJeiUK^ I U.\ciNi:, the .\l.h.% account of 

arrives at, i. 102; ('h;im]ilain 

arrives at, i. 108 ; the llurons 

Madame de . Inearnalion, i. 
Ka^uoncau, I'aul, the Indian doc- 
tor, i. 29 ; the Tionnontates, i. 
i. 241 ; tlie Jesuits all i i all at, j .'i;5 ; charaderistics of the I'.ries, 
i. 24,5; a luudel of deconiiii, i. ' i. •'!•"■»: Indian charity and ho.s- 

I i.iialitv. i. 4(1; Indian imidsh- 

at, i. l.'i-'5; without a e'ii\eriior, 
i. 241 ; arrival of .Moiitma^nv, 

240; new estahlishments uf re- 
lii^ion and charity at. i. 240 ; 
■vvear-^ an aspcH'l hnlf military, 
half monastic, i. 2,'iO; celestial 


meat tnr mnrder. i. .)•) ; w'lr.-inp 

anioim' the ( dtawas, i. (;9 ; sketch 
of (Jarnier, i. 190, 19.'); iiiiracles 

I ' 



of Brehpiif, i. 198, 199; Bre- 
beuf's farewell letter to ]iO 
Jeuiie, i, 2i.'J ; narrow escape if, 
i. 215, 21 G; first to montioii 
Niagara Falls, i. 2.35; account 
of Marie de St. Bernard, i. 2oC ; 
arrival of tiie nuns in Queliec, i. 
275; Rressani among the IIu- 
rons, ii. 74; exemjilary conduct 
of Lo Berger, ii. 124; treachery 
of fho Irocjuois, ii. Ifil ; retalia- 
tion of the Hurons, ii. 162 ; the 
Huron embassy to the Andastes, 
ii. 163, 164; honor among In- 
dians, ii. 169, 170; the Huron 
missions, ii. 171, 172; resistance 
of tlie Hurons against baptism, 
ii. 172; slanders, ii. 17G; mur 
der and atonement among the 
Huroiis, ii. 177-183; tlie de- 
fences of Sainte Marie, ii. ISf) ; 
prosperity of the mission of 
kSaiute Marie, ii. 189; hospital- 
ity of Sainte Marie, ii. l.M ; 
Father Sujierior at, ii. 193; 
Fatiier Daniel, ii. 195; dcatli 
of Father Danul, ii. 201 ; St. 
Louis l)nrned by the Tro(|U(ns, 
ii. 206; fears for Sainte Marie, 
ii. 209 ; relics of Br''l)cuf and 
Lalemant found at St. Ignace, 
ii. 211; murder of Hn'hcuf, ii. 
214; ])hysical weakness of Lale- 
mant, ii. 215 ; Brobeuf's desire to 
di(^ for C'lirist, ii. 216 ; the visions 
of Breheuf, ii. 21t') : Sainte Marie 
nuist be aI)an(ioncd, ii. 219, 221 ; 
the r(>fugees at Jsle St. dnsc])!], 
ii. 224, 227 ; misery of the Hu- 
rons, ii. 226; dcvofion of (Jar- 
nier to his mission, ii. 233 ; 
character of (iarnier, ii. 233 ; 
Isle St. Joseph invested with 
the Iroiiuois, ii. 237 ; tlie fugi- 
tives from Isle St. Joseph slaugh- 

tered by the Iroquois, ii. 238 ; 
the fury of the Iroqnoi.t, ii. 239 ; 
the Huron mission abandoned, 
ii. 241 ; disappearance of the 
Algontpiins, ii. 242 ; meeting 
with Bressani, ii. 243 ; the Flem 
i'h Bastard, ii. 246 ; death of 
Father Buteu.x, ii. 248; ii. 252; 
Ftienne Annaotaiia's revenge 
on the Iro(piois, ii. 255 ; the 
Iroijuois turn their ."'iry on the 
Neutrals, ii. 263. 

Uapin, Father, ii. 15. 

Uaymliault, Father Charles, ii. 

U<'collet Friars, tlie, i. 101, 251. 

Hod I'ipe-Stone (,)uarry, i. 167. 

" lielations," the Je.suit, i. 252; 
spread l)roa(U'ast tliroughout 
France, ii. 6. 

Kennes, Jesuit college of, ii. 54, 

Hen.sselacrswyck (Albany), ii. 33, 

Hepeiitigny, Le fiardeur de, i. 
242, 254; ii. 156. 

I\ei)cntigiiy, Mademoiselle de, ii. 
155, 156^ 

Khagenratka, the, i. 33. 

Kichrlieu, Cardinal de, ,«ends re- 
lief to Montmngny, ii. 59. 

liiciielieu. Fort, in danger from 
the Frofjnois, ii. 57 ; receives 
reinforcement from the Cardinal 
de Hichelicu, ii. 59 ; attacked 
i)y the Iroquois, ii. 61 ; journey 
of De Nou(' to, ii. 76; Father 
Jognes returns to, ii. 121 ; plun- 
dered and burned by tlie Indians, 
ii. 126. 

Biciielieu Bivcr, the, ii. 33, 44, 59, 
70, 96. 119. 

riguehronon. tlie. i. .35. 

'• River of the Neutrals," the, i. 



Rochello, larjjest town of the Hu- 
ron oonl'ediTacy, i. 146 ; fortitiod 
l)y the Indians, i. 1;jO; ii. 1"). 

Rock Island, tho good spirit of, i. 

Rocky Mountains, tlio, i. 42. 

Rome, i. 191. 

Rome, t'iinrch of, givos life to tho 
early mission, of New France, 
i. ]7'5; roused to ])nrge and 
brace liersolf anew, ii. 2."3. 

Ro.xhury, ii. 146, 147. 

Sa( o RivKu, the, i. 7. 

Sacs and Foxes, i. 74 ; ii. 262. 

Sadilecfe, successful Jesuit mi.ssion 
at, ii. 137. 

Sagard, the Huron dwellings, i. 
13; the Huron women, i. 22; 
Huron songs, i. 27 ; the Indian 
doctor, i.31 ; government of the 
Hnrons, i. 44; Indian super- 
stition, i. 63; Iroipiois tradition 
concerning the creation, i. 71, 
72 ; primitive Huron helief in 
immortality, i. 77 ; Indian ideas 
of another life, i. 7!). 

Saguenay River, tlie, i. 9 ; ii. 62, 

St. P>enedict, i. 198. 

St. Bernard, Mario de, i. 266 ; em- 
barks for Canada, i. 274 : ar- 
rival at Quebec, i. 27.'); (hspo- 
sition of, i. 277. 

St. Charles River, tlie, i. 88, 90, 
91, 102, 105, 128; ii.2r)9. 

St. Claire, Sister Anno de, i. 277, 

St. Esprit, ■\Ii.ssion of, ii. 192. 

Saint Esprit, Point, ii. 251. 

St. Germain des I'rcs, ancient 
church of, ii. 5. 

St. Ignace, Island of, ii. 77. 

St. Ignace, Foint, ii. 252. 

St. Ignace, town of, ii. 166, 169; 
VOL. II. — 20 

church at, ii, 171 ; attacked by 
the Inxpiois, ii. 203 ; burned by 
the Iro(|uois, ii. 209; site still 
bears evidence of the catas- 
trophe, ii. 210; relics of Hre- 
beuf and Ealeniant found at, ii. 

St. Jean, mission of, ii. 191, 228; 
(iarnier and Chabanel at, ii. 
228 ; atta<dxed by tlie Iroipiois, 
ii. 230; aI)so]ute devotion of 
Garnier to, ii. 232. 

St. Jean Baptiste, church at, ii. 

St. Jean Baptiste, town of, inhab- 
itants join the Seneras, ii. 250. 

St. John River, the, i. 112. 

St. Jo.seph, l.-.le, jiroposed Huron 
settlement of, ii. 220; the Jes- 
uits promise to join the llurons 
on, ii. 221 ; the >anctuary on, ii. 
222-224; curious relics found 
at, ii. 223 ; misery of the llu- 
rons on, ii. L'25; aljandoned, ii. 
23M-241 ; ii. 252. 

St. Jo.seph mission, the, removed 
to Teanaustaye, i. 228 ; ii. 196; 
Father Daniel at, ii. 198; at- 
tacked and destroyed by the 
Iroquois, ii. 199-201. 

St. Joseph, Si.ster, see St. Bernard, 
Mar if de. 

St. Joseph, town of, ii. 159; forti- 
fications of, ii. 161 ; church at, 
ii. 171. 

St. ,Iure, Father, ii. 15. 

St. Lawrence, Gulf of, i. 7. 

St. Lawrence River, the, i. 4. 7, 8, 
69, 85, 88, 103, 105, 127, 1.'53; ii. 
9, 24, 27, 58, 59, 62, 70, 75, 81, 
95, 100, 132, 135, 221, 244. 

St. I.ouis, Lake of, i. 235. 

St. Louis, Rajiids of, ii. 88. 

St. f-onis, to vn of, i. 215 ; liurned 
by the Iro juoia, ii. 202; liatllo 



at, ii. 205 ; valiantly defeuded 
by tho Huroiis, ii. 208. 

St. Mary's Cullego, at Montreal, i. 
2 If). 

St. Mattliias, iriissicjii of, ii. 191 ; 
Garreau and Gruiun at, ii. 228. 

St. Micliiifl, i. 2.'i7. 

St. Miciicl, town of, i. 215; ii. 19, 
20, 22; cliiurh at, ii. 171 ; ii. 
210; inliabitants join tlie Sen- 
eoa.s, ii. 250. 

St. I'anl, town of, i. 2:U. 

St. Peter, Lake of, ii. 29,^1, 70, 
128, l.'J5. 

St. Peter, largest Tobacco town, i. 

St. Peter's, tlie, i. II, ir.7. 

St. Pierre, niissi(Jii of, ii. 192. 

St. Koch, i. 90. 

" St. Sacrament, Lac," ii. r>i'>, 

St. Snlpice, Seminary of, ii. 4, 

St. Tlioma.s, Motiier, i. 2()4 ; com- 
ment on the sliiim marriage of 
Madame de la Pultrie, i. 2(J5. 

Sainte Elizabeth, mission of, ii. 

Sainte-Foi, comment on tlie siiam 
marriage of .MatUime dc la Pel- 
trie, i. 205 ; ii. 257. 

Sainte Maikdeine, mission of, ii. 
191 ; ii. 207. 

Sainte Marie, i. 231 ; Prcbeuf and 
Chanmonot relnrn to, i. 23s. 

S.iinte Marie, Fort, ii. 224. 

Sainte Mario, Isle, ii. 192; chosen 
as new seat of tlie .Jesuit mis- 
sion, ii. 220. 

Sainte Marie, mission of, tlie cem- 
etery at, ii. 175 ; tlie centre 
of the Huron missions, ii. 185; 
the fortilicaticjiis of, ii. 1S5; 
Indian visitiirs at, ii. ISt'i; liiiild- 
ings of, ii. ISO; inmates oi', ii. 

187; prosjierity of, ii. 189; tho 
scene of a iiountifiil hosjiitality, 
ii. 190; at once military, monas- 
tic, and, ii. 191 ; a 
gatiicriiig of the jiriests, ii. 193 ; 
defended by the llurons against 
tlie Iroquois, ii. 20(), 207 ; fears 
for, ii. 209 ; lirelienf and Lale- 
mant Imried at, ii. 215; must 
be abandoned, ii. 219, 221. 

Salem, ii. 148. 

Sandnslcy, city of, ii. 252. 

San Severino, i. 194. 

Sanson, map of, ii. 35, 263. 

Saratoga, Lai^e, ii. 44. 

Sanit Sainte Marie, mission of, ii. 
29, 192. 

S.ivage, Mr., ii. 144. 

Scandawati, ('iiief, .sent as envoy 
to the Senecas, ii. 167 ; forebod- 
ings of evil, ii. 1(17; suicide of, 
ii. KkS. 

Sclioolcraft, II. It., figured songs 
of tlie llurons, i. 19; notes on 
the Iroiiuois, i. 45 ; the Saginaw 
story of tho Weendigoes, i. 04; 
stories of the .Manabozho, i. 07 ; 
tradition of Hiawatha, i. 73; i. 
70; Indian ideas (jf another life, 
i. 79 ; Algon(iuin tales, i. 85 ; 
s]ieculation on Huron bones, i. 

Seignelay, Marquis de, i. 00. 

Sekopechi, chief of the Creeks, i. 

Seneca Indians, the, i. 35, 38, 57, 
107; ii. 28; number of war- 
rit)rs, ii. 117; great town of, ii. 
102; ii. 104; nd'nse to make 
])eace, ii. 107 ; on the war-]iatli 
for the llurons, ii. 203 ; inhab- 
itants of St. Micli(d ami St. Jean 
Papti.ste join, ii. 250 ; I'lries 
make a treaty of with. ii. 
201; attacked by the AndasteN 





ii. 209 '' finally ovorliear the ' Spanish Junta, the, i. 49 

Andastes, ii. 270. 
Severn liiver, tlio, i. 10. 
Sliagwamigon Point, ii. 2,')1, 2^rl. 
Shea, J. G., character and iiistory 

ol' tiio 'lionnontatcs, i. .'J.'5 ; luca- 

Spiift'iird, ii. .'i,">, 

Sijuier, Iliiruii fortiticalioiiH, i. 

Itj; places uf Indian sepulture, 

i. lt')7. 
Steinnietz, i. '2,-)7. 

tion of the Andastes, i. ."}(>; Suhiaco, rocks df, i. 19S. 
early life of ("hauninuot, i. 192; I Sun, tlie, Indian worship of, i. r,9 ; 
i. 258 ; piu'trait tjf Father .Jo<fue.s, i ii. 1 74. 

ii. .^l ; Fatlicr Jo<;-nes attacked j Su])erior, Lake, ii. 29, 192, 251, 
by the Iroquois, ii. .'U ; tiie set-] 271. 

tlenient at Fort (Jrant^e, ii. 46 ; Su.s(iuchanna Kiver, the, 1.5, .'iC; 

ii. 1(12. 

SuH(juehannoiks, the, i./Ui; ii. I(i2. 

Sweatiny-liatli, Indian, i. 2S, 

Swedisli colonists, ,tj,i\e aid to the 
An(hislfs, ii. 2(18., citv of, ii. 1,'il. 

name of Lake (ieorge, ii. 119; 

Druiiletes' visit to Jioston, ii. 

140 ; ii. 270. 
Sillery, settlement of. i. 240, 275; 

ii. 19, 58, 0;5, 78, 101, 102, 141, 

Sillery, Noel Brulart de, i. 275. 
Simcoe County, i. 10. 
Simcoe, Lake, i. lo. 
Sioux Indians, the, ]»unishment of 

Taoi \VA\v.\TiiA, the deity of the 

I'"i\i" Nations, i. 7.'>. 
Taciie', Dr., i. 11 ; sites of Huron 

adultery, i. 21 ; ii. 224 ; (iiiarrel j viihines, i. 14; Indian hurial- 
witli the Uurons ami, [ iilaces, i. 1(;7 ; St. Ii;nace 
ii. 251. i liui'ned l»y tile Iroquois, ii. 210. 

Smith, Capt. John, i. 5; laws of 
inheritance anioiif^ the Indians, 
i. 42. 

Snake Iiulians, the, ii. G8. 

Society of Jesus, the, foundation 
of, i. 96; preparation of tlie 

Tachi' .Museum, tlie, i. 107. 
Tadoussac, i. 7, 102, 108, 274 ; 

successful Jesuit mission at, ii. 

Tanner, John, i. 05 ; Indian iijeas 

of aiiollier life, i. 79; notice of 
novice for, i. 97 ; characteristics i IJic'heut', i, 199 ; Fatiier Jollies 
of, i. 99; its nii.<sion anionii' the ; attackeil by (he Iroquois, ii. .'i,'} ; 

Iinlians, i. 17.'?; aspires to tiie 

nniHtcry of all New France, i. 

" Soft-Metals," the, ii. 209. 
Sonnontoueronn<ins (Senecas), the, 

ii. 170. 
Sorcerers, Indian, i. 81, 178-183. 
Sorel, town of, ii. ;j3, 60. 
Souriijuois, Indians, the, i. 7. 
Soutli America, ahoriiijines <if, i, .'32. 
Spanish civilization, effect on the 

Indians of, i. 131. 

inuider of (;<jupil liy the Iro- 
()Uois, ii. 42; deatli of Fatlier 
Daniel, ii. 201 ; the visirjiis of 
I'reheuf, ii. 210; character of 
(iarnic r, ii. 233. 

T.aousiaron, legend of, i. 71. 

Tarenyowai^on, the Iroquois deity, 
i. 73. 

Tarratines, the, i. 7. 

Tattooing, i. 20. 

Tealitontaioga, Mohawk town of, 
ii. 39. 




Teanaustayo, town of, St. J()so])li 
miHsion removed to, i. 228 ; 
ahaiiiloiiod i. 2.'il ; ii. 151), l'J8; 
atluckiMl and destroyed hy tlio 
Irocpiois, ii. 199-201. 

Teiiaroiiliia\va<;oii, tlie Iroipioi.s 
doity, i. T.'i. 

Teniiessoo Kiver, the, ii. 271. 

Tennessee, Slate of, Indian places 
of sP])ultnr(! in, i. IfiG, 

Teonontoifcn, town of, ii. .'59. 

"Terre du Fort, La," ii. 250. 

Tessouat, tlie renowned chief, ii, 
86. See also Le lionpie, Chief. 

Thenondiogo, Mohawk town of, ii. 

Three Rivers, i. 8, 1.'59, 143, l.'iO, 
218, 258 ; ii. 27, 29, 30, 47, 57, 
59, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 95, 96, 97, 
103, 112, 113, 119, 124, 126, 135, 
137, 138, 153, 197, 246, 247. 

Three Kivors, Syndic of, ii. 153. 

Thunder Hay, i." 144, 219, 240. 

Ticonderoira, ii. 35. 

Tionnontatcs (Tohacco Nation), 
the, i. 32 ; synonynies of, i. 
32 ; trailic among, i. 33 ; tol)acco 
raised hy, i. 134. 

Toanche, Huron town of, i. 144. 

Tohacco Xatio:., the, i. 32, 130, 
231 ; new and perilous mission 
of, i. 232 , location of, i. 232 ; 
Jesuit missions among, ii. 191 ; 
fugitives from St. f.ouis in the 
towns t)f, ii. 206; Huron fugi- 
tives find an asylum among, ii. 
218; forced tr. (iy, ii. 251 ; settle 
on tlie Island of Michilimacki- 
nac, ii. 251. 

Tohotaenrat, the, i. 44. 

Toltec family, the, i. 43. 

Tonawanda Island, i. 167. 

Totem, the, i. 41. 

Totiri, ICtienne, ii. 172. 

Troycs, Sisters of the Congroga 

tion of, ii. 17. 
Tuiiiontatck, the, i. 32. 
Tnscarora Imlians, the, join the 

Five Nations, i. 5 ; admitted to 

tlie ijcague of the Iroquois, i. 

Twelve Apostles, Islands of tlie, 

ii. 251. 

Ursulixe Convent of Quehoc, i. 

264, 265, 276, 277; ii. 22, 15.5, 

I'rsulines, the, i. 243, 250. 
Ursuliues of Tours, the, i. 271. 

Van CtMU.KR (Corlaer), Arendt, 

ii. 47, 48. 
Vanderdonck, the Huron Iwell- 

ings, i. 12, 13 ; Irocjuois tradition 

of the creation, i. 71 ; Irofpiois 

deities, i. 73. 
Van Kenssflaor, ii. 46, 47. 
Vaugirard, ii. 11. 
Vermont, State of, i. 6. 
Viger, Jac(iues, map of, ii. 81, 

Villemarie, Parish Church of, ii. 

Villemarie de ^lontreal, ii. 16, 79- 

94. See ^Jnulrral. 
Vimont, Father, i. 253, 274, 278 ; 

ii. 16, 24, 25, 28, 48, 58, 60, 62, 

63, 64, 65, 68, 70, 80, 82, 87, 88, 

89, 92, 93, 101, 102, 103, 105, 

107, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 

121, 139, 187. 
Virginia, State of, i. 4; tribes of, 

i. 16. 
Visitation, Sisters of the, i. 243. 
Vitolleschi, Mutii, letters from 

Brebeuf, i. 144, 176, 225, 238. 







Wabevo, the, society of, i. 84. 
Wanipimong Indians, the, i. 5. 
Weendigoes, the, Saginaw story 

of, i. 64. 
Wenrio, Indian town of, i. 146, 

Wost-Wiiid, the, Indian legends 

cdiioeniing, i. 66, 70. 
White Fish, nation of the, ii. 106, 

l.'?S, 246, 247. 
Whiting, Colonel, i. 28. 
William Henry, Fort, ii. 36. 
WiiuHihago Indians, the, i. 5 ; ii. 


Winslow, Johii, ii. 143; gives a 

warm weloomo to Father Dru- 

illetes, ii. 145. 
Wisconsin, State of, i. 4. 
Wyandot Indians (Ilurons), the 

i. 9 ; history of, ii. 252. 
Wye, River,' the, i. 231; ii. 184. 

222, 234. 

Xaviek, St. Francis, i. 92, 107, 
130, 257; ii. 155. 

Ykndat, tlio, i. 9.